[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Higher plants continue to afford humankind with many new drugs, for a variety of disease types. In this review, recent phytochemical and biological progress is presented for part of a collaborative multi-institutional project directed towards the discovery of new antitumor agents. The specific focus is on bioactive natural products isolated and characterized structurally from tropical plants collected in Vietnam. The plant collection, identification, and processing steps are described, and the natural products isolated from these species are summarized with their biological activities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sixteen polyketides belonging to diverse structural classes, including monomeric/dimeric tetrahydroxanthones and resorcylic acid lactones, were isolated from an organic extract of a fungal culture Setophoma terrestris (MSX45109) by bioactivity-directed fractionation as part of a search for anticancer leads from filamentous fungi. Of these, six were new: penicillixanthone B (5), blennolide H (6), 11-deoxyblennolide D (7), blennolide I (9), blennolide J (10), and pyrenomycin (16). The known compounds were: secalonic acid A (1), secalonic acid E (2), secalonic acid G (3), penicillixanthone A (4), paecilin B (8), aigialomycin A (11), hypothemycin (12), dihydrohypothemycin (13), pyrenochaetic acid C (14), and nidulalin B (15). The structures were elucidated by a set of spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques: the absolute configurations of compounds 1–10 were determined by ECD spectroscopy combined with time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations, whereas a modified Mosher's ester method was used for compound 16. The cytotoxic activities of compounds 1–15 against the MDA-MB-435 (melanoma) and SW-620 (colon) cancer cell lines were evaluated. Compounds 1, 4, and 12 were the most potent, with IC50 values ranging from 0.16 to 2.14 μM. When tested against a panel of bacteria and fungi, compounds 3 and 5 showed promising activity against the Gram-positive bacterium Micrococcus luteus, with MIC values of 5 and 15 μg mL–1, respectively.
Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie 10/2014; · 3.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Semaphorins are a class of membrane-bound and secreted proteins. They have been found to regulate basic cell functions such as axonal growth cone guidance and recent studies have focused on their effect on tumor progression. Semaphorin 3B (Sema3B) particularly is a secreted protein that has been known to modulate proliferation and apoptosis, processes that are critical for tumor progression and development. In spite of its importance, there is yet no high-throughput screening assay available to detect or quantify the expression of Sema3B for natural product cancer drug discovery purposes. Therefore, the development of a new high-throughput bioassay for the discovery of Sema3B inducing agents from natural product sources is described herein. A wide variety of pure compounds and extracts from plants and microorganisms have been found suitable for screening using this Sema3B assay to detect and quantify the effect of Sema3B inducing agents and thereby identify new selective bioactive Sema3B lead compounds for cancer drug discovery and development. Also, this new bioassay procedure is based on a high-throughput platform using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that involves the optimization of sensitivity and selectivity levels as well as accuracy, reproducibility, robustness, and cost effectiveness.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As part of an ongoing project to explore filamentous fungi for anticancer and antibiotic leads, 11 compounds were isolated and identified from an organic extract of the fungus Scytalidium album (MSX51631) using bioactivity-directed fractionation against human cancer cell lines. Of these, eight compounds were a series of sorbicillinoid analogs (1-8), of which four were new (scalbucillin A (2), scalbucillin B (3), scalbucillin C (6) and scalbucillin D (8)), two were phthalides (9-10) and one was naphthalenone (11). Compounds (1-11) were tested in the MDA-MB-435 (melanoma) and SW-620 (colon) cancer cell lines. Compound 1 was the most potent with IC50 values of 1.5 and 0.5 μM, followed by compound 5 with IC50 values of 2.3 and 2.5 μM at 72 h. Compound 1 showed a 48-h IC50 value of 3.1 μM when tested against the lymphocytic leukemia cell line OSU-CLL, while the nearly identical compound 5 had almost no activity in this assay. Compounds 1 and 5 showed selective and equipotent activity against Aspergillus niger with minimum IC values of 0.05 and 0.04 μg ml(-1) (0.20 and 0.16 μM), respectively. The in vitro hemolytic activity against sheep erythrocytes of compounds 1 and 5 was investigated and were found to provoke 10% hemolysis at 52.5 and 45.0 μg ml(-1), respectively, indicative of a promising safety factor.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 24 September 2014; doi:10.1038/ja.2014.125.
The Journal of Antibiotics 09/2014; · 2.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fourteen new resorcylic acid lactones (1-14) were isolated from an organic extract of a culture of a freshwater aquatic fungus Halenospora sp. originating from a stream in North Carolina. The structures were elucidated using a set of spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. The absolute configuration of one representative member of the compounds (7) was assigned using X-ray crystallography of an analogue that incorporated a heavy atom, whereas for compounds 8-11, a modified Mosher's ester method was utilized. The relative configurations of compounds 12-14 were determined on the basis of NOE data. Compounds 12-14 were proposed as artifacts produced by intramolecular cycloetherification of the ε-hydroxy-α,β-unsaturated ketone moieties of the parent compounds during the purification processes. The isolated compounds, except for 8 and 12, were tested against the MDA-MB-435 (melanoma) and HT-29 (colon) cancer cell lines. Compound 5 was the most potent, with IC50 values of 2.9 and 7.5 μM, respectively. The compounds were evaluated as TAK1-TAB1 inhibitors but were found to be inactive.
Journal of Natural Products 08/2014; · 3.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two new cyclic lipopeptides, trichormamides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the cultured freshwater cyanobacterium Trichormus sp. UIC 10339. The strain was obtained from a sample collected in Raven Lake in Northern Wisconsin. The planar structures of trichormamides A (1) and B (2) were determined using a combination of spectroscopic analyses including HRESIMS and 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The absolute configurations of the amino acid residues were assigned by the advanced Marfey's method after acid hydrolysis. Trichormamide A (1) is a cyclic undecapeptide containing two d-amino acid residues (d-Tyr and d-Leu) and one β-amino acid residue (β-aminodecanoic acid). Trichormamide B (2) is a cyclic dodecapeptide characterized by the presence of four nonstandard α-amino acid residues (homoserine, N-methylisoleucine, and two 3-hydroxyleucines) and one β-amino acid residue (β-aminodecanoic acid). Trichormamide B (2) was cytotoxic against MDA-MB-435 and HT-29 cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 0.8 and 1.5 μM, respectively.
Journal of Natural Products 08/2014; · 3.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GH and/or IGF-I are thought to promote breast cancer based on reports showing circulating IGF-I levels correlate, in epidemiological studies, with breast cancer risk. Also, mouse models with developmental GH/IGF-I deficiency/resistance are less susceptible to genetic- or chemical-induced mammary tumorigenesis. However, given the metabolic properties of GH, medical strategies have been considered to raise GH to improve body composition and metabolic function in elderly and obese patients. Since hyperlipidemia, inflammation, insulin resistance and obesity increase breast cancer risk, elevating GH may serve to exacerbate cancer progression. To better understand the role GH/IGF-I plays in tumor formation, this study used unique mouse models to determine if reducing GH/IGF-I in adults protects against DMBA-induced mammary tumor development, and if moderate elevations in endogenous GH/IGF-I alter DMBA-induced tumorigenesis in mice fed a standard-chow diet or in mice with altered metabolic function due to high-fat feeding. We observed that adult-onset isolated GH deficient (AOiGHD) mice, which also have reduced IGF-I levels, were less susceptible to DMBA-treatment. Specifically, fewer AOiGHD mice developed mammary tumors compared to GH-replete controls. In contrast, chow-fed mice with elevated endogenous GH/IGF-I (HiGH mice) were not more susceptible to DMBA-treatment. However, high-fat-fed, HiGH mice showed reduced tumor latency and increased tumor incidence compared to diet-matched controls. These results further support a role of GH/IGF-I in regulating mammary tumorigenesis but suggest the ultimate consequences of GH/IGF-I on breast tumor development are dependent on the diet and/or metabolic status.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Two new (1 and 2) and three known (3–5) carbamidocyclophanes were isolated from a cultured freshwater cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. (UIC 10274) obtained from a sample collected at Des Plaines, Illinois. Their planar structures and stereoconfigurations were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D/2D NMR experiments, HRESIMS as well as CD spectroscopy. Carbamidocyclophane F (1) showed potent anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity in the microplate Alamar blue assay and low-oxygen-recovery assay with MIC values of 0.8 and 5.4 μM, respectively. Carbamidocyclophane F (1) also displayed antimicrobial activities against the gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis with MIC values of 0.1 and 0.2 μM, respectively. Carbamidocyclophane F (1) and Carbamidocyclophane G (2) both showed antiproliferative activity against MDA-MB-435 and HT-29 human cancer cell lines with IC50 values in the range from 0.5 to 0.7 μM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two new (1 and 2) and four known arylnaphthalene lignan lactones (3-6) were isolated from different plant parts of Phyllanthus poilanei collected in Vietnam, with two further known analogues (7 and 8) being prepared from phyllanthusmin C (4). The structures of the new compounds were determined by interpretation of their spectroscopic data and by chemical methods, and the structure of phyllanthusmin D (1) was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Several of these arylnaphthalene lignan lactones were cytotoxic toward HT-29 human colon cancer cells, with compounds 1 and 7-O-[(2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl)]diphyllin (7) found to be the most potent, exhibiting IC50 values of 170 and 110 nM, respectively. Compound 1 showed activity when tested in an in vivo hollow fiber assay using HT-29 cells implanted in immunodeficient NCr nu/nu mice. Mechanistic studies showed that this compound mediated its cytotoxic effects by inducing tumor cell apoptosis through activation of caspase-3, but it did not inhibit DNA topoisomerase IIα activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of epigenetic modifiers, such as histone deacetylase inhibitors and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors, has been explored increasingly as a technique to induce the production of additional microbial secondary metabolites. The application of such molecules to microbial cultures has been shown to upregulate otherwise suppressed genes, and in several cases has led to the production of new molecular structures. In this study, the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib was used to induce the production of an additional metabolite from a filamentous fungus (Pleosporales). The induced metabolite was previously isolated from a plant, but the configuration was not assigned until now; in addition, an analogue was isolated from a degraded sample, yielding a new compound. Proteasome inhibitors have not previously been used in this application and offer an additional tool for microbial genome mining.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Aim: Dichamanetin is a C-benzylated flavanone isolated as a major secondary metabolite from Piper sarmentosum, a plant used as a spice in Southeast Asia. This study aimed to investigate the path through which dichamanetin exerts its antiproliferative effect.
The study of several signaling cellular components, namely, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) transcription factor, mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA binding, poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP1) inhibition and proteasome inhibition was performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assay, cell sorting, and western blot.
Dichamanetin significantly reduced the cell viability of various types of human cancer cells (HT-29 colon, DU145 prostate, and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer) in a concentration- and time-dependent manner and induced G1 arrest of the cell cycle. It was also demonstrated that the selective cytotoxic effect of dichamanetin in cancer cells is mediated by the induction of oxidative stress.
Our findings suggest that dichamanetin isolated from an edible herb has cancer chemotherapeutic potential.
Anticancer research 12/2013; 33(12):5349-55. · 1.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four new flavanones, designated as (+)-5″-deacetylpurpurin (1), (+)-5-methoxypurpurin (2), (2S)-2,3-dihydrotephroglabrin (3), and (2S)-2,3-dihydrotephroapollin C (4), together with two known flavanones (5 and 6), three known rotenoids (7-9), and one known chalcone (10) were isolated from a chloroform-soluble partition of a methanol extract from the combined flowers, fruits, leaves, and twigs of Indigofera spicata, collected in Vietnam. The compounds were obtained by bioactivity-guided isolation using the HT-29 human colon cancer, 697 human acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and Raji human Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines. The structures of 1-4 were established by extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, and the absolute configurations were determined by the measurement of specific rotations and CD spectra. The cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were tested against the HT-29, 697, Raji, and CCD-112CoN human normal colon cells. Also, the quinone reductase induction activities of the isolates were determined using the Hepa 1c1c7 murine hepatoma cell line. In addition, cis-(6aβ,12aβ)-hydroxyrotenone (7) was evaluated in an in vivo hollow fiber bioassay using HT-29, MCF-7 human breast cancer, and MDA-MB-435 human melanoma cells.
Journal of Natural Products 07/2013; · 3.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogen action in mammary gland development and breast cancer progression is tightly linked to the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis. While many of the effects of GH on mammary gland growth and development require IGF-I, the extent to which GH action in breast cancer depends on IGF-I is not known. We examined GH action in a panel of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cell lines and found that T47D cells express significant levels of GH receptor and that GH significantly enhances E2-stimulated proliferation in these cells. GH action in T47D cells was independent of changes in IGF-I and IGF-IR expression and IGF-IR signaling, suggesting that GH can exert direct effects on breast cancer cells. While E2-dependent proliferation required IGF-IR signaling, the combination of GH+E2 overcame inhibition of IGF-IR activity to restore proliferation. In contrast, GH required both JAK2 and EGFR signaling for subsequent ERK activation and potentiation of E2-dependent proliferation. Downstream of these pathways, we identified a number of immediate early response genes associated with proliferation that are rapidly and robustly up-regulated by GH. These findings demonstrate that GH can have important effects in breast cancer cells that are distinct from IGF-IR activity, suggesting that novel drugs or improved combination therapies targeting ER and the GH/IGF axis may be beneficial for breast cancer patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An organic extract of a filamentous fungus (MSX 58801), identified as a Volutella sp. (Hypocreales, Ascomycota), displayed moderate cytotoxic activity against NCI-H460 human large cell lung carcinoma. Bioactivity-directed fractionation led to the isolation of three γ-lactones having the furo[3,4-b]pyran-5-one bicyclic ring system [waol A (1), trans-dihydrowaol A (2), and cis-dihydrowaol A (3)]. The structures were elucidated using a set of spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques; the absolute configuration of 2 was established via a modified Mosher’s ester method. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for cytotoxicity against a human cancer cell panel.