[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Negative symptoms (e.g., decreased spontaneity, social withdrawal, blunt affect) and disturbances of cognitive function (e.g., several types of memory, attention, processing speed, executive function, fluency) provide a major determinant of long-term outcome in patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, motivation deficits, a type of negative symptoms, have been attracting interest as (1) a moderator of cognitive performance in schizophrenia and related disorders, and (2) a modulating factor of cognitive enhancers/remediation. These considerations suggest the need to clarify neurobiological substrates regulating motivation. Genetic studies indicate a role for the monoamine systems in motivation and key cognitive domains. For example, polymorphism of genes encoding catecholamine-O-methyltransferase, an enzyme catabolizing dopamine (DA), affects performance on tests of working memory and executive function in a phenotype (schizophrenia vs. healthy controls)-dependent fashion. On the other hand, motivation to maximize rewards has been shown to be influenced by other genes encoding DA-related substrates, such as DARPP-32 and DA-D2 receptors. Serotonin (5-HT) receptors may also play a significant role in cognitive and motivational disabilities in psychoses and mood disorders. For example, mutant mice over-expressing D2 receptors in the striatum, an animal model of schizophrenia, exhibit both decreased willingness to work for reward and up-regulation of 5-HT2C receptors. Taken together, genetic predisposition related to 5-HT receptors may mediate the diversity of incentive motivation that is impaired in patients receiving biological and/or psychosocial treatments. Thus, research into genetic and neurobiological measures of motivation, in association with 5-HT receptors, is likely to facilitate intervention into patients seeking better social consequences.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Epidemiologic studies provide evidence of differential virulence of rhinovirus species (RV). We recently reported that RV-A and RV-C induced more severe illnesses than RV-B, which suggests that the biology of RV-B might be different from RV-A or RV-C.
To test the hypothesis that RV-B has lower replication and induces lesser cytokine responses than RV-A or RV-C.
We cloned full-length cDNA of RV-A16, A36, B52, B72, C2, C15, and C41 from clinical samples and grew clinical isolates of RV-A7 and RV-B6 in cultured cells. Sinus epithelial cells were differentiated at the air-liquid interface. We tested for differences in viral replication in epithelial cells after infection with purified viruses (108 RNA copies) and measured virus load by quantitative RT-PCR. We measured lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentration as a marker of cellular cytotoxicity, and cytokine and/or chemokine secretion by multiplex ELISA.
At 24 hours after infection, the virus load of RV-B (RV-B52, RV-B72, or RV-B6) in adherent cells was lower than that of RV-A or RV-C. The growth kinetics of infection indicated that RV-B types replicate more slowly. Furthermore, RV-B released less LDH than RV-A or RV-C, and induced lower levels of cytokines and chemokines such as CXCL10, even after correction for viral replication. RV-B replicates to lower levels also in primary bronchial epithelial cells.
Our results indicate that RV-B types have lower and slower replication, and lower cellular cytotoxicity and cytokine and/or chemokine production compared with RV-A or RV-C. These characteristics may contribute to reduced severity of illnesses that has been observed with RV-B infections.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 08/2014; · 12.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Social functioning has received widespread attention as one of the most important outcomes in psychiatric disorders and has been related to cognitive functioning and the underlying brain activity. Cognitive decline, however, appears not only in the psychiatric population but also in aged individuals. In our previous study, we demonstrated a significant relationship between social functioning and prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity in patients with depression. However, it has not been shown whether the above relationship could be extended to healthy populations. The purpose of the present study was to investigate a possible association between social functioning and prefrontal hemodynamic responses in healthy elderly adults by using a non-invasive and low-constraint functional neuroimaging technique, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Study subjects included 55 healthy, elderly volunteers. We measured hemodynamic responses over prefrontal cortical (PFC) areas during the verbal fluency task by using multi-channel NIRS and analyzed the relationship between task-associated hemodynamic responses and social functioning as measured by the Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale (SASS). A significant positive relationship was observed between the SASS total score and PFC activation. Our findings suggest that PFC activation is associated with social functioning in healthy elderly adults. Furthermore, hemodynamic responses assessed using non-invasive NIRS could be a useful biological marker of these characteristics.
Behavioural Brain Research 06/2014; · 3.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to test the construct validity and internal consistency of the Social Cognition Screening Questionnaire (SCSQ)(1) (Japanese version).
We first tested whether the subscale scores and the total score of the SCSQ could discriminate patients with schizophrenia from normal controls. Next, we tested the internal consistency. Finally, we investigated the relationship between the subscale scores and other measures of social cognition and social functioning that were presumed to correspond to the subscale's scores, including the Hinting task, the Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ), the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and the Social Functioning Scale (SFS).
The subscale scores and the total score appeared to show more robust between-group differences than other measures of social cognition, such as the AIHQ and the Hinting task. The total score distinguished the patients from normal controls with the area under the receiver-operator characteristics (ROC) curve being 0.84, which was fairly well. The Cronbach's alpha for the four subscales was 0.72, which was considered acceptable. In terms of criterion-related validity, theory of mind, metacognition and hostility bias subscale scores showed significant correlations with the Hinting task, BCIS and AIHQ, respectively. Moreover, the theory of mind subscale score showed a significant correlation with four domain scores of the SFS. The present results indicated good construct validity and internal consistency of the SCSQ.
Although this is an interim report with a small sample size, the SCSQ holds promise as an efficient measure for social cognition.
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 03/2014; · 2.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The regional neuronal changes taking place between before and after cognitive rehabilitation are still not characterized in schizophrenia patients. In addition, it is not known whether these regional changes are predictive or correlated with treatment response. We conducted a preliminary quasi-experimental study to investigate the effects of a Neuropsychological Educational Approach to Cognitive Remediation (NEAR), one of the cognitive remediation therapies, on neurocognitive functioning assessed by the Japanese version of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS-J), and on prefrontal and temporal hemodynamic responses during working memory (WM) task (2-back, letter version) using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We assessed 19 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder twice with an interval of 6 months. Moreover, taking into consideration the possible practice effect, we assessed 12 control patients twice with an interval of 6 months. The NEAR group, in comparison with the control group, showed significant improvement in two subcomponents of BACS-J, that is, motor speed and executive function along with the composite scores. The NEAR group also showed a significant increase in brain activation in the bilateral cortical regions associated with WM, and in comparison with the control group the between-group differences were restricted to the right frontopolar area. In addition, the amount of enhancement in some cognitive subcomponents was positively correlated with the magnitude of an increase in hemodynamic response during WM task predominantly in the right hemispheres. These findings suggest that neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia and their neural dysfunction may be improved by NEAR, and NIRS may be a useful tool to assess the changes of the neural activity underlying the improvement of neurocognitive functioning elicited by neurocognitive rehabilitation.
Schizophrenia Research 03/2014; · 4.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abnormal prefrontal function plays a central role in the cognition deficits of schizophrenic patients; however, the character of the relationship between discriminant analysis and prefrontal activation remains undetermined. Recently, evidence of low prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation in individuals with schizophrenia has also been found during verbal fluency tests (VFT) and other cognitive tests with several neuroimaging methods. The purpose of this study is to assess the hemodynamic changes of the PFC and discriminant analysis between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls during VFT task by utilizing functional optical topography. A total of 99 subjects including 53 schizophrenic patients and 46 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were studied. The results showed that the healthy group had larger activation in the right and left PFC than in the middle PFC. Besides, the schizophrenic group showed weaker task performance and lower activation in the whole PFC than the healthy group. The result of the discriminant analysis showed a significant difference with P value <0.001 in six channels (CH 23, 29, 31, 40, 42, 52) between the schizophrenic and healthy groups. Finally, 68.69% and 71.72% of subjects are correctly classified as being schizophrenic or healthy with all 52 channels and six significantly different channels, respectively. Our findings suggest that the left PFC can be a feature region for discriminant analysis of schizophrenic diagnosis.
Journal of Biomedical Optics 01/2014; 19(1):11006. · 2.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allergic airway inflammation is generally considered to be a Th2-type immune response. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that Th17-type immune responses also play important roles in this process, particularly in the pathogenesis of neutrophilic airway inflammation, a hallmark of severe asthma. We scrutinized several Kampo extracts that reportedly exhibit anti-inflammatory activity by using in vitro differentiation system of human and mouse naïve T cells. We found that hange-shashin-to (HST) and oren-gedoku-to (OGT) possess inhibitory activity for Th17 responses in vitro. Indeed, wogonin and berberine, major components common to HST and OGT, exhibit Th17-inhibitory activities in both murine and human systems in vitro. We therefore evaluated whether wogonin suppresses OVA-induced neutrophilic airway inflammation in OVA TCR-transgenic DO11.10 mice. Consequently, oral administration of wogonin significantly improved OVA-induced neutrophilic airway inflammation. Wogonin suppressed the differentiation of naïve T cells to Th17 cells, while showing no effects on activated Th17 cells.
International journal of inflammation. 01/2014; 2014:571508.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perillyl alcohol (POH) is an isoprenoid which inhibits farnesyl transferase and geranylgeranyl transferase, key enzymes that induce conformational and functional changes in small G proteins to conduct signal production for cell proliferation. Thus, it has been tried for the treatment of cancers. However, although it affects the proliferation of immunocytes, its influence on immune responses has been examined in only a few studies. Notably, its effect on antigen-induced immune responses has not been studied. In this study, we examined whether POH suppresses Ag-induced immune responses with a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. POH treatment of sensitized mice suppressed proliferation and cytokine production in Ag-stimulated spleen cells or CD4(+) T cells. Further, sensitized mice received aerosolized OVA to induce allergic airway inflammation, and some mice received POH treatment. POH significantly suppressed indicators of allergic airway inflammation such as airway eosinophilia. Cytokine production in thoracic lymph nodes was also significantly suppressed. These results demonstrate that POH suppresses antigen-induced immune responses in the lung. Considering that it exists naturally, POH could be a novel preventive or therapeutic option for immunologic lung disorders such as asthma with minimal side effects.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2013; · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AimThis study investigated whether or not and how much milnacipran influences the indexes of I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-MIBG) scintigraphy, early heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) ratio, delayed H/M ratio, and wash-out rate. Methods
Six elderly depressed patients participated in the study. All six patients met the diagnostic criteria for a major depressive disorder. They were taking milnacipran for their depression. They needed differential diagnosis for Lewy body diseases due to their symptomatology. I-MIBG scintigraphy was performed twice for each subject, once under prescription of milnacipran and the other without prescription of milnacipran. ResultsBoth early and delayed phase H/M ratio were significantly lower when taking milnacipran (early phase H/M ratio, P < 0.01, Cohen's d 1.62; delayed phase H/M ratio, P < 0.005, Cohen's d 1.98) than when not taking the drug. Wash-out rate (%) was significantly higher when taking milnacipran (P < 0.05, Cohen's d 2.31) than when off the drug. Conclusion
Taking milnacipran substantially influences the indexes of I-MIBG scintigraphy, indicating that taking the drug possibly causes a false-positive result for Lewy body diseases diagnosis.
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 11/2013; · 2.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is desirable to establish evidence for the selection of antipsychotics from the viewpoint of recovery of social activity in individual patient with schizophrenia receiving medication. From this perspective, awareness of the importance of studies about drug effectiveness on treatment discontinuation rate, remission rate, and improvement in QOL has grown recently. In Western countries, numerous reports are available in effectiveness studies, which are related to olanzapine and risperidone primarily, whereas evidence for other second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) is poor. In Japan, no effectiveness study has been reported: thus, it is desirable to collect data that will serve as evidence for selection of the 3 SGAs approved after olanzapine.
The present study was a long-term effectiveness study under healthcare setting in Japan. It was designed as an open-label, multicenter, randomized, comparative study involving 104-week oral treatment with 1 of the 3 drugs (aripiprazole, blonanserin, and paliperidone) in patients with schizophrenia aged 20 years or over who required antipsychotic medication or switching of the current medication to others for reasons such as lack of efficacy and intolerability. The primary endpoint is treatment discontinuation rate for any causes. The secondary endpoints include remission rate, improvement of social activity, alleviation, aggravation or recurrence of psychiatric symptoms, and safety. The target number of subjects was set at 300.
Because this study is expected to yield evidence regarding the selection of antipsychotics for facilitating the recovery of social activity in patients with schizophrenia, it is considered highly valuable to perform this effectiveness study under ordinary healthcare setting in Japan.Trial registration: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry 000007942.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insight has been studied mostly from a clinical perspective. Recently, the focus of this research field shifted to cognitive insight or the ability to monitor and correct the erroneous convictions of individuals. In this study, we investigated the relationship between cognitive insight and prefrontal function during a cognitive task in 30 patients with clinically stable schizophrenia and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. We measured the changes in hemoglobin concentration in the prefrontal and temporal cortical regions during a verbal fluency task (VFT) by using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Cognitive insight was measured using the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS). Regional hemodynamic changes were significantly smaller in the schizophrenia group than in the control group in prefrontal and temporal regions, and significant positive relationship was observed between the score of the BCIS self-reflectiveness subscale and right ventrolateral prefrontal and right temporal functions during the VFT. These results suggest that the right ventrolateral prefrontal and temporal cortical regions are associated with cognitive insight in clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and that NIRS is an efficient medical tool for monitoring these characteristics.
Schizophrenia Research 08/2013; · 4.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bisphosphonates (BPs) have been widely used to treat osteoporosis. They act by inhibiting farnesyl diphosphate synthase in the mevalonate pathway. This resembles the action of statins, whose immune-modulating effect has recently been highlighted. In contrast, the effect of BPs on immune responses has not been elucidated well. In this study, we examined the effect of alendronate (ALN), a nitrogen-containing BP, on allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model. BALB/c mice were sensitized twice with OVA and challenged three times with nebulized OVA to induce eosinophilic airway inflammation. ALN was administered by an intragastric tube before each inhalation. ALN strongly suppressed airway eosinophilia and Th2, as well as Th17 cytokine production in the lung. ALN also attenuated eotaxin-2 production in the lung. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the major cell source of eotaxin-2 was peribronchial/perivascular macrophages, and flow cytometrical studies confirmed that ALN decreased eotaxin-2 expression in these macrophages. Furthermore, ALN attenuated eotaxin-2 production from mouse pleural macrophages and human monocyte/macrophage-like THP-1 cells in vitro. These results suggest that ALN suppressed Ag-induced airway responses in the mouse model. The suppression of eotaxin-2 production from macrophages appears to be one of ALN's immunomodulatory effects, whereas the mechanism by which ALN suppressed Th2 and Th17 responses could not be fully elucidated in this study. Although a clinical study should be conducted, ALN could be a novel therapeutic option for asthma.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2013; · 5.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether prefrontal function during a cognitive task reflects the social functioning of male Japanese workers, prefrontal function during a working memory task in 181 male workers was measured by multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Social functioning was assessed using the Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale (SASS). The results indicated that cortical oxygenation level increases in dorsolateral prefrontal region showed significant positive correlations with the interest and motivation factor scores on the SASS. These results suggest that dorsolateral prefrontal function is associated with the interest and motivation factor in social functioning in male workers and that NIRS could be an addition to the medical tools for monitoring these characteristics on mental health examination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between subjective well-being and prefrontal function during a cognitive task in schizophrenia. Twenty-four patients with clinically stable schizophrenia participated in the study. We measured the change in hemoglobin concentration in the prefrontal region during a verbal fluency task (VFT) by using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The subjective well-being of participants was assessed using the Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic drug treatment Short form (SWNS). A significant positive relationship was observed between the SWNS score and frontopolar, left ventrolateral, and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal function during the VFT. These results suggest that the frontopolar and left ventrolateral and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortical regions are associated with the subjective well-being of clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and that NIRS may be an efficient medical tool for monitoring these characteristics.
Schizophrenia Research 07/2013; · 4.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This preliminary study was performed to test the reliability and validity of the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), developed by the National Institute of Mental Health MATRICS initiative, as an assessment tool in a Japanese-language version (MCCB-J).
The subjects for the present study were 37 patients with schizophrenia. Each subject gave written informed consent to participate in the research. In order to examine the validity of the MCCB-J, the correlation between the MCCB-J and the Japanese-language version of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) was determined.
Cronbach's alpha for the MCCB-J was 0.72. The MCCB-J composite score was significantly correlated with all subtests of the MCCB-J. There was a significant correlation between the MCCB-J and the BACS composite score.
This preliminary study indicates that the MCCB-J has good psychometric properties and validity.
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 04/2013; 67(3):182-8. · 2.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of studies have demonstrated impairment of working memory (WM) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relationship between the underlying brain activity associated with impairment of WM function in MDD patients and their clinical characteristics is not yet clear. The objective of this study is to evaluate prefrontal hemodynamic response related to a WM task in patients with late-onset depression (LOD) and to assess the relationship between activation in the prefrontal cortex and clinical characteristics. Thirty-six patients with LOD and 35 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited for the present study. We measured hemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal and temporal regions during a WM (2-back, letter version) task using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). LOD patients were associated with reduced increase in prefrontal and temporal activation compared with healthy controls. Moreover, reduced activation in the prefrontal and temporal regions was significantly related to lower scores on the Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale (SASS) in the patient group. More specifically, the reduced hemodynamic response in the frontopolar region was associated with functional impairment related to interpersonal relationship factor scores on the SASS. These findings suggest that hemodynamic response in prefrontal and temporal regions during a WM task may act as a biological marker of social functioning in LOD patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to identify coping styles used by patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) in comparison with those used by healthy controls, and to explore their association with prefrontal hemodynamic response related to a cognitive task. Regional hemodynamic changes were monitored during a verbal fluency task (VFT) using a 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) apparatus in 26 MDD patients in depressive state and 30 matched healthy controls, and their correlation with coping styles assessed by Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) were examined. We found the Emotion-oriented coping style was significantly higher, whereas the Task-oriented coping and Avoidance-oriented coping style were lower in the MDD group compared with controls. Emotion-oriented coping style positively correlated with subjective assessment of depression severity. Regional hemodynamic changes were significantly smaller in the MDD group than in the control group in prefrontal and temporal regions, and positively correlated with Task-oriented coping (adaptive coping) in the bilateral ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the midline fronto-polar and bilateral orbitofrontal cortex regions. These findings suggest coping styles may be considered an important source of knowledge for patients who struggle with the illness and for mental health professionals who work with MDD patients, and that hemodynamic response in the ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, midline fronto-polar, and orbitofrontal cortex regions during a VFT may reflect the adaptive coping (Task-oriented coping) style in MDD patients in depressive state.
Journal of Psychiatric Research 08/2012; 46(11):1427-34. · 4.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the association of fish consumption with social functioning. One hundred forty male Japanese workers completed the social adaptation self-evaluation scale (SASS) and their customary fish consumption was assessed. The total, interest, and motivation factor scores on SASS showed significant positive correlations with fish consumption.