Matthew L Speltz

University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States

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Publications (99)231.58 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) is the most common complication of pregnancy. NVP has been associated with improved fetal outcomes, but its association with childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes has rarely been studied.Methods Subjects were children aged 5–12 years (n = 560) who were controls in a previously conducted case–control study of prenatal risk factors for craniofacial malformations. Information on NVP, including trimester, duration, and treatment, was collected through a maternal interview conducted within 3 years of delivery. Neurocognition was assessed using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III) and the Beery-Buktenica Test of Visual Motor Integration-Fifth Edition (VMI-5). Psychosocial outcomes, including internalising and externalising behaviour problems, were measured by maternal report, using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and teacher report, using the Teacher Report Form. Linear regression models were used to calculate adjusted mean (adjMD −3.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) −5.02, −1.06) differences (adjMD) and 95% confidence intervals [CI] on test scores for children exposed and unexposed to NVP in utero. Differences based on trimester, duration, and treatment were assessed.ResultsNVP was reported among 63% of women and was most common in early pregnancy. Children exposed to NVP performed worse on the VMI-5 [−3.04, 95% CI: −5.02, −1.06] but exhibited few other differences from unexposed children. Durations of NVP ≥4 months were associated with poorer scores on PPVT-III (adjMD −2.52), VMI-5 (adjMD −5.41), and CBCL [adjMD 3.38 (internalising) and adjMD 4.19 (externalising)].Conclusions Overall, there were few differences between children exposed and unexposed to NVP. NVP was associated with slightly worse visual motor performance, and prolonged NVP and NVP extending late into pregnancy were associated with poorer scores on several neurodevelopmental measures.
    Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 11/2014; · 2.16 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Pediatric Psychology 07/2014; · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective : To examine longitudinal differences in reported stress between parents of children with and without single-suture craniosynostosis and to compare the stress reports of mothers and fathers. Design : Multi-site, nonrandomized prospective study. Setting/Participants : Children with single-suture craniosynostosis (cases) were identified via referral of the treating surgeon or physician at the time of diagnosis, and those without single-suture craniosynostosis (controls) were recruited from pediatric practices, birthing centers, and announcements in print media. When children were aged 6, 18, and 36 months (on average), mothers and fathers of children with and without single-suture craniosynostosis completed the Parenting Stress Index. For cases, 247 mothers and 211 fathers completed the Parenting Stress Index at the first visit; corresponding numbers for controls were 254 and 220, respectively. Main Outcome Measures : The Parenting Stress Index Parent and Child Domains and subscales scores. Results : We found few differences between parents of infants with and without single-suture craniosynostosis, regardless of parent gender. Irrespective of case status, mothers consistently reported higher stress than fathers on the Parent Domain. Within the Parent Domain, mothers reported more stress than fathers on the Role Restriction and Spousal Support subscales. Conclusions : The parents of children with single-suture craniosynostosis reported levels of stress similar to those reported by parents of same-aged, unaffected children. Mothers reported greater stress than fathers, and these differences remained remarkably stable over time. This may reflect widely held perceptions of gender differences in parenting roles.
    The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies of academic achievement of children with oral clefts have mostly relied on small, clinic-based samples prone to ascertainment bias. In the first study in the United States to use a population-based sample with direct assessment, we evaluated the academic achievement of children with oral clefts relative to their classmates. Children born with isolated oral clefts in Iowa from 1983 to 2003 were identified from the Iowa Registry for Congenital and Inherited Disorders and matched to unaffected classmates by gender, school/school district, and month and year of birth. Academic achievement was assessed by using standardized tests of academic progress developed by the Iowa Testing Programs. Iowa Testing Programs data were linked to birth certificates for all children. Regression models controlled for household demographic and socioeconomic factors. The analytical sample included 588 children with clefts contributing 3735 child-grade observations and 1874 classmates contributing 13 159 child-grade observations. Children with oral clefts had lower scores than their classmates across all domains and school levels, with a 5-percentile difference in the overall composite score. Children with clefts were approximately one-half grade level behind their classmates and had higher rates of academic underachievement and use of special education services by 8 percentage points. Group differences were slightly lower but remained large and significant after adjusting for many background characteristics. Children with oral clefts underperformed across all academic areas and grade levels compared with their classmates. The results support a model of early testing and intervention among affected children to identify and reduce academic deficits.
    PEDIATRICS 04/2014; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among children with and without hemifacial microsomia (HFM) as assessed by parents and the children themselves during the elementary school years. One hundred thirty-six children with HFM (49 females, mean age = 6 years, 11.9 months, SD = 1.004) were compared with 568 matched controls (285 females, mean age = 6 years, 10.2 months, SD = 0.998) for parent and child responses on the PedsQL Version 4.0. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, parent-reported summary scores were worse for affected children than control group children for physical (effect sizes [ES] = 0.26, p = .004), social (ES = 0.34, p = .001), and school (ES = 0.32, p = .001) functioning. There were no significant mean differences in summary scores based on children's self-reported functioning. Case-control mean differences in HRQOL were more apparent based on parent report, but not child self-report. Summary score findings suggest that case parents have concerns about their child's HRQOL, particularly with respect to their child's physical, social, and school functioning. Additionally, our findings highlight the potential differences between child and parent perspectives and the importance of collecting data from multiple reporters.
    Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics: JDBP 11/2013; · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Discrepancies between observers are common in studies of child behavior problems that rely on behavior ratings. Although modest concordance between informants is well-documented, little is known about characteristics that predict discrepancies. In 477 children aged 5 to 12 years, maternal age and indicators of socioeconomic status (SES; maternal education, family income) were evaluated in relation to score discrepancies between the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher Report Form for Total, Externalizing and Internalizing Problems. Family income <$35,000 was independently associated with discrepancies in which mothers rated more clinically significant child behavior problems than teachers for Total, Externalizing and Internalizing Problems [odds ratio (OR) = 3.26, 95% confidence interval (CI ), 1.19-8.96, OR = 2.76, 95% CI 1.03-7.34 and OR = 3.07, 95% CI 1.30-7.26, respectively]. Maternal education was not associated with discrepancies, but younger mothers were less likely to rate child's behavior in the clinical range for Externalizing Problems than teachers (OR per year of age = 0.88, 95% CI 0.81-0.96). These results suggest that studies that utilize only maternal or teacher report of child behavior may have misclassification of outcomes that is dependent on SES and could produce biased results.
    Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 09/2013; 35(3):314-320. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    Mark T. Greenberg, Matthew L. Speltz, Michelle Deklyen
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    ABSTRACT: Single-suture craniosynostosis (SSC) results in head shape anomalies that likely affect social perceptions of appearance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate laypersons' ratings of attractiveness in children with and without SSC. Among cases, we also examined differences by suture fused and age at surgery. We collected photographs of 196 children with SSC and 186 children without SSC as infants (before surgery, for cases) and at ages 18 and 36 months. Photographs were rated by 8 raters, who were blinded to the population being studied. We used linear regression to compare appearance ratings for the 2 groups at each visit and to evaluate changes over time. Regression analyses were used to examine the association between age at surgery and appearance ratings. Children with SSC received lower appearance ratings than unaffected controls at each visit (all P < 0.001). Appearance ratings decreased over time, with a similar trajectory for children with and without SSC. Among cases, those with unicoronal and lambdoid synostosis had the lowest ratings and those with sagittal synostosis had the highest. Age at surgery was inversely associated with appearance ratings. Children with SSC received lower appearance ratings than unaffected controls, with minimal change after surgery. Better outcomes were associated with earlier surgery. These findings do not indicate that children with SSC failed to benefit from surgery, as without surgical intervention, asymmetrical head shape would likely have worsened over time. However, our data suggest that appearance does not fully "normalize."
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 07/2013; 24(4):1331-1335. · 0.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Infants and toddlers with deformational plagiocephaly (DP) have been shown to score lower on developmental measures than unaffected children. To determine whether these differences persist, we examined development in 36-month-old children with and without a history of DP.METHODS:Participants included 224 children with DP and 231 children without diagnosed DP, all of who had been followed in a longitudinal study since infancy. To confirm the presence or absence of DP, pediatricians blinded to children's case status rated 3-dimensional cranial images taken when children were 7 months old on average. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSID-III) was administered as a measure of child development.RESULTS:Children with DP scored lower on all scales of the BSID-III than children without DP. Differences were largest in cognition, language, and parent-reported adaptive behavior (adjusted differences = -2.9 to -4.4 standard score points) and smallest in motor development (adjusted difference = -2.7). Children in the control group who did not have previously diagnosed DP but who were later rated by pediatricians to have at least mild cranial deformation also scored lower on the BSID-III than unaffected controls.CONCLUSIONS:Preschool-aged children with a history of DP continue to receive lower developmental scores than unaffected controls. These findings do not imply that DP causes developmental problems, but DP may nonetheless serve as a marker of developmental risk. We encourage clinicians to screen children with DP for developmental concerns to facilitate early identification and intervention.
    PEDIATRICS 12/2012; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Craniosynostosis is the premature fusion of the bones of the calvaria resulting in abnormal skull shapes that can be associated with increased intracranial pressure. While craniosynostoses of multiple different types can be easily diagnosed, quantifying the severity of the abnormality is much more subjective and not a standard part of clinical practice. For this purpose we have developed a severity-based retrieval system that uses a logistic regression approach to quantify the severity of the abnormality of each of three types of craniosynostoses. We compare several different sparse feature selection techniques: L1 regularized logistic regression, fused lasso, and clustering lasso (cLasso). We evaluate our methodology in three ways: 1) for classification of normal vs. abnormal skulls, 2) for comparing pre-operative to post-operative skulls, and 3) for retrieving skulls in order of abnormality severity as compared with the ordering of a craniofacial expert.
    Proceedings of the Third MICCAI international conference on Medical Content-Based Retrieval for Clinical Decision Support; 10/2012
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to confirm initial reports of elevated behavior problems in children with single-suture craniosynostosis, using multiple informants, longitudinal analyses, and a control group. The authors hypothesized that children with single-suture craniosynostosis would have higher levels of maladjustment than comparison children, particularly at the older age and in selected areas of previously observed vulnerability: attention and social adjustment. The Child Behavior Checklist was completed by 436 mothers (219 with single-suture craniosynostosis) and 371 fathers (177 with single-suture craniosynostosis) when children were aged approximately 19 months, and by 361 mothers (175 with single-suture craniosynostosis) and 303 fathers (142 with single-suture craniosynostosis) when children were aged approximately 37 months. A minimum of one caregiver/teacher report was available for 169 of these children (74 with single-suture craniosynostosis) using the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form. Average Child Behavior Checklist/Caregiver-Teacher Report Form externalizing, internalizing, and total scores for all informants were consistently higher (worse) for children with single-suture craniosynostosis than for control group children, but most differences were small and statistically nonsignificant. No differences associated with suture site were found. At the oldest age point, both mothers and fathers (but not teachers) generated higher average scores for patients than for controls on scales measuring attention and social problems, with small to medium effect sizes (0.20 to 0.32). On average, toddlers/preschoolers with single-suture craniosynostosis show behavioral development that is largely indistinguishable from same-aged peers of similar socioeconomic background. The predictive significance of small group differences in attention and social adjustment will be assessed in a follow-up of this cohort at age 7.
    Plastic and reconstructive surgery 09/2012; 130(3):635-47. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective:  To evaluate associations between neurodevelopment and exposure to surgery and anesthetic agents in children with single-suture craniosynostosis (SSC). Background:  Young children with SSC have unexplained neurodevelopmental delays. The possible contributions of factors related to cranial vault surgery - including anesthesia - have not been previously examined. Methods/materials:  Two anesthesiologists reviewed the surgical records of 89 infants (70 had complete data). Primary exposures were duration of surgery and anesthesia and total duration of inhaled anesthesia (at age 6 months on average). Outcomes were the cognitive and motor scores from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II and language scores from the Preschool Language Scale, 3rd edition, given at age 36 months. Linear regression using robust standard error estimates was performed, adjusting for age at surgery and suture site. Results:  Anesthesia duration ranged from 155 to 547 min. For every 30-min increase in anesthesia duration, the estimated average decrease in developmental test scores ranged from 1.1 to 2.9 (P ranged from <0.001 to 0.30). Similar, but weaker findings were observed with surgery duration and total duration of inhaled anesthesia. Inverse relations between exposure amounts and neurodevelopment were stronger in children with nonsagittal synostosis. Conclusions:  Average neurodevelopmental scores were lower among children experiencing longer surgeries and higher exposures to inhaled anesthesia. These associations may be due to anesthesia exposure, nonspecific effects of surgery, or unmeasured variables that correlate with surgery duration. Further study of potential causal mechanisms is warranted.
    Pediatric Anesthesia 04/2012; · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infants with deformational plagiocephaly (DP) have been shown to exhibit developmental delays relative to unaffected infants. Although the mechanisms accounting for these delays are unknown, one hypothesis focuses on underlying differences in brain development. In this study, we used MRI to examine brain volume and shape in infants with and without DP. Participants included 20 infants with DP (mean age = 7.9 months, SD = 1.2; n = 12 male) and 21 controls (mean age = 7.9 months, SD = 1.3; n = 11 male). Measures included volumes of the total brain and cerebellum; midsagittal areas of the corpus callosum and cerebellar vermis; and linear distance measures used to quantify the shape of selected brain structures. We also evaluated the association between shape measures and developmental scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III (BSID-III). Brain volume did not distinguish cases and controls (p = .214-.976). However, cases exhibited greater asymmetry and flattening of the posterior brain (p < .001-.002) and cerebellar vermis (p = .035), shortening of the corpus callosum (p = .012), and differences in the orientation of the corpus callosum (p = .005). Asymmetry and flattening of brain structures were associated with worse developmental outcomes on the BSID-III. Infants with DP show differences in brain shape, consistent with the skull deformity characteristic of this condition, and shape measures were associated with infant development. Longitudinal studies, beginning in the neonatal period, are needed to clarify whether developmental effects precede or follow brain deformation.
    Child s Nervous System 03/2012; 28(7):1083-90. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To evaluate the hypothesis that children with craniosynostosis and their parents have differences in psychosocial outcomes, as compared with an unaffected control group. Design: Two studies were conducted, both which followed children born with and without craniosynostosis. Study 1 ascertained affected children from clinics and Study 2 ascertained affected children from a population-based study of birth defects. Participants: Study 1 included 22 children with single-suture craniosynostosis and 18 controls, ages 4-5 years. Study 2 included 24 children with non-syndromic craniosynostosis and 124 unaffected controls, ages 5-9 years. Main Outcome Measures: Outcome measures included the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Social Competence Scale (SCS), Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQLTM), and Parenting Stress Index (PSI). Results: We observed lower scores on measures of health-related quality of life in cases versus controls, with adjusted effect sizes ranging from -0.72 to -0.44 (p<0.05) on summary measures. Small but statistically non-significant increases in behavioral problems were observed in cases versus controls, with no apparent differences in social competence or parenting stress. Conclusions: Results provide preliminary evidence suggesting that children with non-syndromic craniosynostosis may have elevated risk for psychosocial difficulties, particularly health-related quality of life. Continued follow-up through pre-adolescence and adolescence is warranted. Key Words: Craniosynostoses; Health-Related Quality of Life; Neurobehavioral; National Birth Defects Prevention Study.
    The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal 02/2012; · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the hypothesis that 3-year-old children with single-suture craniosynostosis would receive lower neurodevelopmental scores than a comparable group of children born with patent sutures. Longitudinal comparison study. Five tertiary care craniofacial centers.Participants: Patients with craniosynostosis (cases) and a comparison group of children without craniosynostosis(controls). Patients diagnosed with single-suture craniosynostosis from 2002 to 2006 were eligible as cases.Controls were frequency-matched to cases on age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, and study site. Craniosynostosis. We administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition, mental and motor development indices and the Preschool Language Scales, Third Edition, receptive and expressive communication scales. Children were evaluated at baseline (before surgery in cases and at a similar age in controls)and at 18 and 36 months of age. We compared the groups' performances at 36 months by fitting adjusted linear and logistic regression models. We also estimated adjusted associations between age at surgery and neurodevelopmental scores. Adjusted mean case deficits ranged from 3 to 6 points (P≤ .008 for all comparisons). Compared with controls, the odds of cases being delayed ranged from 1.5 to 2.0, depending on the neurodevelopmental scale (P values ranged from .03 to .09). Cases' ages at craniosynostosis repair were not strongly related to neurodevelopmental performance. In this large, carefully controlled, multicenter study, we observed consistently lower mean neurodevelopmental scores in children with single-suture craniosynostosis compared with controls. These results provide further support for neurodevelopmental screening in young children with single-suture craniosynostosis.
    JAMA Pediatrics 02/2012; 166(6):536-42. · 4.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess 3-dimensional (3D) changes in head shape in infancy and at age 18 months in children with and without plagiocephaly or brachycephaly. Using a longitudinal design, we evaluated head shape using 3D surface imaging. We compared the head shapes of children with (1) diagnosed deformational plagiocephaly or brachycephaly (cases; n=233); (2) unaffected controls, with no evidence of dysmorphology (n=167); and (3) affected controls, who despite having no previous diagnosis demonstrated skull dysmorphology on 3D surface imaging (n=70). Cases had greater skull flattening and asymmetry than unaffected controls at both time points, as did controls with skull dysmorphology. In all groups, head shapes became less flat and more symmetric over time. Among cases, symmetry improved slightly more for those who received orthotic treatment. Although head shape improves over time for children with deformational plagiocephaly or brachycephaly, skull dysmorphology persists relative to unaffected controls. Further research is needed to clarify the extent to which these differences are detectable to clinicians and lay observers.
    The Journal of pediatrics 11/2011; 160(4):673-678.e1. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective : To compare relative levels of stress reported by mothers and fathers in families containing infants with and without single-suture craniosynostosis. Design : Case-control study. Participants : Mothers and fathers of 246 infants with recently diagnosed single-suture craniosynostosis and 253 frequency-matched control infants completed the Parenting Stress Index just prior to their infant's cranioplastic surgery. Family demographic information and mothers' ratings of the severity of their child's single-suture craniosynostosis were obtained. Results : Average Parent Domain scores for parents of infants with single-suture craniosynostosis differed little from those reported by parents of control infants; however, Child Domain scores among parents of infants with single-suture craniosynostosis were higher on some subscales, primarily related to unexpected infant health and appearance issues. In both groups, fathers reported higher Child Domain stress than mothers, and mothers reported higher Parent Domain stress than fathers. Case mothers reported greater stress if they perceived their child's condition as more noticeable to others. Conclusions : Prior to cases' cranioplastic surgery, parents of children with and without single-suture craniosynostosis reported similar levels of stress in relation to their parenting roles and the behavioral characteristics of their infants. Visibility of condition should be considered a risk for increased stress for mothers of infants with single-suture craniosynostosis. Stress differences between mothers and fathers were far more discernible than those associated with the presence or absence of single-suture craniosynostosis.
    The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal 09/2011; 48(5):509-18. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether the heightened risk of developmental delays seen in infancy in patients with deformational plagiocephaly (DP) continues into the toddler years. Longitudinal study comparing the development of children with and without DP, with assessments in infancy (mean age, 7 months) and at age 18 months. Infants with DP were recruited from a large craniofacial center, and unaffected infants were recruited from a research registry. The study included 227 children with DP and 232 children without previously diagnosed DP. Diagnosis of DP by a craniofacial specialist. Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, scores. Toddlers with DP scored lower than did unaffected children on all the scales of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. Motor score differences were smaller and cognitive and language score differences were greater than those observed in infancy. Toddlers with DP continue to exhibit evidence of developmental delays relative to toddlers without DP. These findings do not necessarily imply a causal relationship between DP and development because children with delays may be more likely to develop DP. Nonetheless, it seems that increased developmental surveillance is warranted in this population.
    JAMA Pediatrics 07/2011; 165(7):653-8. · 4.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. To test the hypothesis that children with orofacial clefts and their parents show poorer psychosocial adaptation than controls. Design. A case-control design was utilized to examine psychosocial outcomes in children with and without oral clefts and their parents. Participants. Outcomes were evaluated in 93 cases with orofacial clefts and 124 controls, ages 5-9 years, who were part of the Massachusetts Center for Birth Defects Research and Prevention registry. Main Outcome Measures. Measures included the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the PedsQL 4.0, the Social Competence Scale (SCS), and the Parenting Stress Inventory (PSI). Results. Group differences were negligible for all measures (p > .05), and findings changed little with the application of inverse probability weighting to examine the effects of response bias. Stratified analyses revealed differences according to both sex and age, with worse outcomes observed in male cases and cases ages 7-9 years. Conclusions. We found minimal support for the notion that children with orofacial clefts and their parents show worse psychosocial adaptation than controls. Social-emotional deficits may become apparent in older school-age children, and the preschool and early elementary school years might be an optimal time for preventive interventions. Key words: orofacial cleft, craniofacial, psychological, psychosocial, parent.
    The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal 02/2011; · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether preadolescent children with hemifacial microsomia (HFM) have higher risk of neurodevelopmental delays than unaffected control individuals. Case-control follow-up study of neurodevelopment in children with and without HFM. Case individuals were originally recruited from 26 craniofacial centers across the United States and Canada, and controls were recruited through community pediatricians. One hundred thirty-six children with HFM (cases) and 568 unaffected children (controls). Main Exposure History of HFM. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Third Edition, the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration-Fifth Edition, and the Academic Competence scales from the Child Behavior Checklist and the Teacher Report Form. Children with HFM scored lower than controls on all measures (effect size = -0.27 to -0.45; P < .001 to P = .008). Compared with controls, cases were 2 to 3 times as likely to score in the at-risk range. Relative to controls, outcomes were worse for male cases and those whose mothers were 25 years or younger at the time of their birth. Cases with HFM plus other malformations had poorer outcomes, as did cases with hearing, vision, or speech impairments. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to show that children with HFM have poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes than unaffected children, but further study using more detailed assessments is indicated. Clinically, the findings suggest that early neurodevelopmental screening is warranted for all children with HFM.
    JAMA Pediatrics 02/2011; 165(2):134-40. · 4.28 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
231.58 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • University of Iowa
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Iowa City, Iowa, United States
  • 1990–2014
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Computer Science and Engineering
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2013
    • Colorado State University
      Fort Collins, Colorado, United States
  • 2009–2013
    • Boston University
      • Slone Epidemiology Center
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Pittsburgh
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2005–2012
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Surgery
      Evanston, IL, United States
  • 1997–2012
    • Seattle Children's Hospital
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine
      • • Children's Hospital and Regional Medical Center
      • • Children's Hospital and Medical Center
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • University of Oregon
      Eugene, Oregon, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2007
    • Children's National Medical Center
      • Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
  • 1998–2003
    • California State University, Sacramento
      • Department of Psychology
      Sacramento, CA, United States
  • 2001
    • Pennsylvania State University
      University Park, Maryland, United States
  • 1976
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      Urbana, Illinois, United States