J H Graversen

Aarhus University, Aars, Region North Jutland, Denmark

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Publications (26)169.84 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Macrophages are important cells in immunity and the main producers of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The main objective was to evaluate if specific delivery of glucocorticoid to the macrophage receptor CD163 is superior to systemic glucocorticoid therapy in dampening the cytokine response to lipopolysaccharide infusion in pigs. Two randomized, placebo-controlled trials. University hospital laboratory. Female farm-bred pigs (26-31 kg). A humanized antibody that binds to pig and human CD163 was produced, characterized, and conjugated with dexamethasone. In the first study (total n = 12), pigs were randomly assigned to four groups: 1) saline; 2) dexamethasone (1.0 mg/kg); 3) dexamethasone (0.02 mg/kg); and 4) anti-CD163-conjugated dexamethasone (0.02 mg/kg). In the second study (total n = 36), two additional groups were included in addition to the four original groups: 5) anti-CD163-conjugated dexamethasone (0.005 mg/kg); 6) unconjugated anti-CD163. Treatments were given 20 hours prior to infusion of lipopolysaccharide (1 µg × kg × h) for 5 hours. Blood samples were analyzed for cytokines, cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone. In the saline group, lipopolysaccharide increased cytokine and plasma cortisol levels. In both studies, dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) and anti-CD163 dexamethasone (0.02 mg/kg) uniformly attenuated tumor necrosis factor-α peak levels (both p < 0.05) compared with low-dose dexamethasone (0.02 mg/kg). However, dexamethasone 1 mg/kg significantly suppressed plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels compared with anti-CD163 dexamethasone (0.02 mg/kg; p < 0.05). No significant hemodynamic difference existed between groups. The anti-CD163 dexamethasone drug conjugate exhibited a fast plasma clearance, with a half-life of approximately 5-8 minutes. Targeted delivery of dexamethasone to macrophages using a humanized CD163 antibody as carrier exhibits anti-inflammatory effects comparable with 50 times higher concentrations of free dexamethasone and does not inhibit endogenous cortisol production. This antibody-drug complex showing similar affinity and specificity for human CD163 is, therefore, a promising drug candidate in this novel type of anti-inflammatory therapy.
    Critical care medicine 08/2013; · 6.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Synthetic glucocorticoids are potent anti-inflammatory drugs but serious side effects such as bone mobilization, muscle mass loss, immunosuppression, and metabolic alterations make glucocorticoid therapy a difficult balance. The therapeutic anti-inflammatory effect of glucocorticoids relies largely on the suppressed release of tumor-necrosis factor-α and other cytokines by macrophages at the sites of inflammation. We have now developed a new biodegradable anti-CD163 antibody-drug conjugate that specifically targets the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone to the hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 in macrophages. The conjugate, that in average contains four dexamethasone molecules per antibody, exhibits retained high functional affinity for CD163. In vitro studies in rat macrophages and in vivo studies of Lewis rats showed a strong anti-inflammatory effect of the conjugate measured as reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced secretion of tumor-necrosis factor-α. The in vivo potency of conjugated dexamethasone was about 50-fold that of nonconjugated dexamethasone. In contrast to a strong systemic effect of nonconjugated dexamethasone, the equipotent dose of the conjugate had no such effect, measured as thymus lymphocytes apoptosis, body weight loss, and suppression of endogenous cortisol levels. In conclusion, the study shows antibody-drug conjugates as a future approach in anti-inflammatory macrophage-directed therapy. Furthermore, the data demonstrate CD163 as an excellent macrophage target for anti-inflammatory drug delivery.
    Molecular Therapy 05/2012; 20(8):1550-8. · 7.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 is exclusively expressed in the monocytic lineage and preferentially in tissue resident macrophages of the M2 phenotype and in macrophages in sites of inflammation and tumor growth. In the present study we have designed liposomes specifically targeting CD163 by hydrophobic linkage of CD163-binding monoclonal antibodies to polyethylene glycol-coated liposomes ('stealth liposomes'). Targeting to the endocytic CD163 protein greatly increased the uptake of liposomes in CD163 transfected cells and macrophages as visualized by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry of cells exposed to CD163 targeting liposomes loaded with calcein. Strong cytotoxic effects were seen in CD163-expressing human monocytes by using the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin as cargo of the liposomes. In conclusion, the use of stealth liposomes modified to recognize CD163 is a potential way to target drugs to macrophages that support inflammatory and malignant processes.
    Journal of Controlled Release 01/2012; 160(1):72-80. · 7.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CD163 is expressed exclusively on cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage and is widely used as a marker of human macrophages. Further, it has been suggested as a diagnostic marker of monocyte/macrophage activity in inflammatory conditions and as a therapeutic target. However, studies continue to exhibit great discrepancy in the measured percentage of CD163-expressing blood monocytes in healthy individuals. In this study we sought to clarify this inconsistency in reported levels of CD163 surface expression by a detailed analysis of a panel of CD163 antibodies used in previous studies. The cellular distribution of CD163 on human peripheral blood monocytes in freshly drawn blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from buffy-coats was investigated by flow cytometry using CD163 monoclonal antibodies recognizing scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domain 1 (MAC2-158), domain 4 (R-20), domain 7 (GHI/61), and domain 9 (RM3/1). The CD163 monoclonal antibodies were characterized in binding and endocytosis experiments in human macrophages and CD163-transfected Flp-In CHO cells. Calcium-dependent ligand binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance, and the specificity of the CD163 monoclonal antibodies was analyzed by western blotting. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the estimated proportion of CD163-expressing human peripheral blood monocytes increased when using CD163 monoclonal antibodies recognizing epitopes in the N-terminal part of CD163, remote from the membrane surface. Moreover, the proportion of CD163 positive monocytes observed was highly dependent on free calcium. GHI/61 did not exhibit CD163 binding in the presence of calcium as measured by surface plasmon resonance, which was in agreement with the concordant loss of binding in heparin-stabilized whole blood observed by flow cytometry. In contrast, RM3/1 exhibited weak binding to CD163 in the absence of calcium but high affinity binding to CD163 in the presence of calcium. R-20 and MAC2-158 were unaffected by extracellular calcium levels. The latter SRCR domain 1mAb consistently recognized more than 80% CD163-positive monocytes in human peripheral blood. Epitope accessibility and extracellular calcium dependence elucidate discrepancies in reported levels of monocytic CD163 expression. Utilizing monoclonal antibodies to the N-terminal part of CD163 more than 80% monocytes in human peripheral blood could be identified as CD163 positive, indicating that most, and conceivably all, human peripheral blood monocytes do express CD163.
    Immunobiology 02/2011; 216(8):882-90. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Renal handling of major HDL components was studied by analyzing urine from patients with Fanconi syndrome, a rare renal proximal tubular reabsorption failure, including dysfunction of the kidney HDL receptor, cubilin. A high urinary excretion of apolipoprotein A-I and A-IV corresponding to a major part of the metabolism of these proteins was measured. In contrast, no urinary excretion of apolipoprotein A-II which is more hydrophobic and tighter bound to HDL was found. Control urines displayed absence of the three apolipoproteins. Urinary excretion of phospholipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and cholesterol esters in patients was as low as in controls. In conclusion, these data indicate that the human kidney is a major site for filtered nascent apolipoprotein A-I and A-IV but not for HDL particles.
    Lipids 06/2008; 43(5):467-70. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An increased plasma level of the major high-density lipoprotein (HDL) component, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the aim of several therapeutic strategies for combating atherosclerotic disease. HDL therapy by direct intravenous administration of apoA-I is a plausible way; however, a fast renal filtration is a major obstacle for this approach. Using protein engineering technology, we have fused apoA-I to the trimerization domain of human tetranectin and thus constructed a high-mass recombinant trimeric apoA-I variant. The recombinant fusion protein was stable and expressed well; upon purification and intravenous injection into mice, it exhibited prolonged plasma retention time compared to wild type apoA-I. Trimeric apoA-I was biologically active in terms of promoting cholesterol efflux, stimulation of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase-mediated cholesterol esterification, and reducing progression of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice. Direct administration of recombinant high-mass apoA-I analogues with retarded clearance is therefore a potential novel therapeutic approach for atherosclerotic plaque stabilization.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 03/2008; 51(2):170-7. · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • Vascular Disease Prevention 01/2008; 4(1):314-321.
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    ABSTRACT: Haptoglobin and haptoglobin-related protein are homologous hemoglobin-binding proteins consisting of a complement control repeat (alpha-chain) and a serine protease domain (beta-chain). Haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex formation promotes high affinity binding of hemoglobin to the macrophage scavenger receptor CD163 leading to endocytosis and degradation of the haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex. In contrast, complex formation between haptoglobin-related protein and hemoglobin does not promote high affinity interaction with CD163. To define structural components of haptoglobin important for CD163 recognition, we exploited this functional difference to design and analyze recombinant haptoglobin/haptoglobin-related protein chimeras complexed to hemoglobin. These data revealed that only the beta-chain of haptoglobin is involved in receptor recognition. Substitution of 4 closely spaced amino acid residues of the haptoglobin beta-chain (valine 259, glutamate 261, lysine 262, and threonine 264) abrogated the high affinity receptor binding. The 4 residues are encompassed by a part of the primary structure not present in other serine protease domain proteins. Structural modeling based on the well characterized serine protease domain fold suggests that this sequence represents a loop extension unique for haptoglobin and haptoglobin-related protein. A synthetic peptide representing the haptoglobin loop sequence exhibited a pronounced inhibitory effect on receptor binding of haptoglobin-hemoglobin.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2007; 282(2):1072-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CD163 is the macrophage receptor for endocytosis of haptoglobin.hemoglobin complexes. The extracellular region consisting of nine scavenger receptor cysteine rich (SRCR) domains also circulates in plasma as a soluble protein. By ligand binding analysis of a broad spectrum of soluble CD163 truncation variants, the amino-terminal third of the SRCR region was shown to be crucial for the binding of haptoglobin.hemoglobin complexes. By Western blotting of the CD163 variants, a panel of ten monoclonal antibodies was mapped to SRCR domains 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, and 9, respectively. Only the two antibodies binding to SRCR domain 3 exhibited effective inhibition of ligand binding. Furthermore, analysis of purified native CD163 revealed that proteolytic cleavage in SRCR domain 3 inactivates ligand binding. Calcium protects against cleavage in this domain. Analysis of the calcium sensitivity of ligand binding to CD163 demonstrated that optimal ligand binding requires physiological plasma calcium concentrations, and an immediate ligand release occurs at the low calcium concentrations measured in acidifying endosomes. In conclusion, SRCR domain 3 of CD163 is an exposed domain and a critical determinant for the calcium-sensitive coupling of haptoglobin.hemoglobin complexes.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2005; 279(49):51561-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tetranectin is a homotrimeric protein containing a C-type lectin-like domain. This domain (TN3) can bind calcium, but in the absence of calcium, the domain binds a number of kringle-type protein ligands. Two of the calcium-coordinating residues are also critical for binding plasminogen kringle 4 (K4). The structure of the calcium free-form of TN3 (apoTN3) has been determined by NMR. Compared to the structure of the calcium-bound form of TN3 (holoTN3), the core region of secondary structural elements is conserved, while large displacements occur in the loops involved in calcium or K4 binding. A conserved proline, which was found to be in the cis conformation in holoTN3, is in apoTN3 predominantly in the trans conformation. Backbone dynamics indicate that, in apoTN3 especially, two of the three calcium-binding loops and two of the three K4-binding residues exhibit increased flexibility, whereas no such flexibility is observed in holoTN3. In the 20 best nuclear magnetic resonance structures of apoTN3, the residues critical for K4 binding span a large conformational space. Together with the relaxation data, this indicates that the K4-ligand-binding site in apoTN3 is not preformed.
    Biochemistry 08/2004; 43(27):8636-43. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tetranectin is a plasminogen kringle 4 domain-binding protein present in plasma and various tissue locations. Decreased plasma tetranectin or increased tetranectin in stroma of cancers correlates with cancer progression and adverse prognosis. A possible mechanism through which tetranectin could influence cancer progression is by altering activities of plasminogen or the plasminogen fragment, angiostatin. Tetranectin was found to bind to the kringle 1-4 form of angiostatin (AST $;{\text{K1-4}}$ ). In addition, tetranectin inhibited binding of plasminogen or AST $;{\text{K1-4}}$ to extracellular matrix (ECM) deposited by endothelial cells. Finally, tetranectin partially counteracted the ability of AST $;{\text{K1-4}}$ to inhibit proliferation of endothelial cells. This latter effect of tetranectin was specific for AST $;{\text{K1-4}}$ since it did not counteract the antiproliferative activities of the kringle 1-3 form of angiostatin (AST $;{\text{K1-3}}$ ) or endostatin. These findings suggest that tetranectin may modulate angiogenesis through interactions with AST.
    BioMed Research International 02/2004; 2004(2):73-78. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During intravascular hemolysis hemoglobin (Hb) binds to haptoglobin (Hp) leading to endocytosis of the complex by the macrophage receptor, CD163. In the present study, we used a phage-display Fab antibody strategy to explore if the complex formation between Hp and Hb leads to exposure of antigenic epitopes specific for the complex. By Hp-Hb-affinity screening of a phage-Fab library, we isolated a phage clone against the ligand complex. Surface plasmon resonance analyses of the Fab part expressed as a recombinant protein revealed a high affinity binding (KD = 3.9 nm) to Hp-Hb, whereas no binding was measured for non-complexed Hp or Hb. The Fab antibody completely inhibited the binding of 125I-labeled Hp-Hb complexes to CD163 and blocked their uptake in CD163-transfected cells. In conclusion, we have raised a receptor-blocking antibody specifically recognizing the Hp-Hb complex. In addition to provide new insight into the changes occurring when Hp and Hb bind, the present study provides a new potential tool for measuring and removal of Hp-Hb complexes from plasma/serum.
    European Journal Of Haematology 11/2003; 71(4):289-93. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipoprotein(a) is composed of low density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein(a). Apolipoprotein(a) has evolved from plasminogen and contains 10 different plasminogen kringle 4 homologous domains [KIV(1-110)]. Previous studies indicated that lipoprotein(a) non-covalently binds the N-terminal region of lipoprotein B100 and the plasminogen kringle 4 binding plasma protein tetranectin. In this study recombinant KIV(2), KIV(7) and KIV(10) derived from apolipoprotein(a) were produced in E. coli and the binding to tetranectin and low density lipoprotein was examined. Only KIV(10) bound to tetranectin and binding was similar to that of plasminogen kringle 4 to tetranectin. Only KIV(7) bound to LDL. In order to identify the residues responsible for the difference in specificity between KIV(7) and KIV(10), a number of surface-exposed residues located around the lysine binding clefts were exchanged. Ligand binding analysis of these derivatives showed that Y62, and to a minor extent W32 and E56, of KIV(7) are important for LDL binding to KIV(7), whereas R32 and D56 of KIV(10) are required for tetranectin binding of KIV(10).
    Biological Chemistry 12/2002; 383(11):1743-50. · 2.96 Impact Factor
  • Jonas Heilskov Graversen, Mette Madsen, Søren K Moestrup
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    ABSTRACT: CD163 is a highly expressed macrophage membrane protein belonging to the scavenger receptor cysteine rich (SRCR) domain family. The CD163 expression is induced by interleukin-6, interleukin-10 and glucocorticoids. Its function has remained unknown until recently when CD163 was identified as the endocytic receptor binding hemoglobin (Hb) in complex with the plasma protein haptoglobin (Hp). This specific receptor-ligand interaction leading to removal from plasma of the Hp-Hb complex-but not free Hp or Hb-now explains the depletion of circulating Hp in individuals with increased intravascular hemolysis. Besides having a detoxificating effect by removing Hb from plasma, the CD163-mediated endocytosis of the Hp-Hb complex may represent a major pathway for uptake of iron in the tissue macrophages. The novel functional linkage of CD163 and Hp, which both are induced during inflammation, also reveal some interesting perspectives relating to the suggested anti-inflammatory properties of the receptor and the Hp phenotypes.
    The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 05/2002; 34(4):309-14. · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The hemoglobin scavenger receptor (HbSR/CD163) is an interleukin-6- and glucocorticoid-regulated macrophage/monocyte receptor for uptake of haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes. Moreover, there are strong indications that HbSR serves an anti-inflammatory function. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting enabled identification of a soluble plasma form of HbSR (sHbSR) having an electrophoretic mobility equal to that of recombinant HbSR consisting of the extracellular domain (scavenger receptor cysteine-rich 1-9). A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was established and used to measure the sHbSR level in 130 healthy subjects (median, 1.87 mg/L; range, 0.73-4.69 mg/L). To evaluate the sHbSR levels in conditions with increased leukocyte stimulation and proliferation, 140 patients admitted to a hematological department were screened. Several patients, with a broad spectrum of diagnoses, had a level of sHbSR above the range of healthy persons. Patients with myelomonocytic leukemias and pneumonia/sepsis exhibited the highest levels (up to 67.3 mg/L). In conclusion, sHbSR is an abundant plasma protein potentially valuable in monitoring patients with infections and myelomonocytic leukemia.
    Blood 02/2002; 99(1):378-80. · 9.78 Impact Factor
  • M Madsen, J H Graversen, S K Moestrup
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    ABSTRACT: The plasma protein haptoglobin and the endocytic hemoglobin receptor HbSR/CD163 are key molecules in the process of removing hemoglobin released from ruptured erythrocytes. Hemoglobin in plasma is instantly bound with high affinity to haptoglobin--an interaction leading to the recognition of the complex by HbSR/CD163 and endocytosis in macrophages. The haptoglobin-dependent HbSR/CD163 scavenging system for hemoglobin clearance prevents toxic effects of hemoglobin in plasma and kidney and explains the decrease in the haptoglobin plasma concentration in patients with accelerated hemolysis. The HbSR/CD163 activity may be of quantitative importance for iron uptake in macrophages in general and for some iron-associated pathological processes, e.g. the atherogenesis-promoting oxidation of LDL leading to foam cell formation and apoptosis in the vessel wall.
    Redox Report 02/2001; 6(6):386-8. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intravascular haemolysis is a physiological phenomenon as well as a severe pathological complication when accelerated in various autoimmune, infectious (such as malaria) and inherited (such as sickle cell disease) disorders. Haemoglobin released into plasma is captured by the acute phase protein haptoglobin, which is depleted from plasma during elevated haemolysis. Here we report the identification of the acute phase-regulated and signal-inducing macrophage protein, CD163, as a receptor that scavenges haemoglobin by mediating endocytosis of haptoglobin-haemoglobin complexes. CD163 binds only haptoglobin and haemoglobin in complex, which indicates the exposure of a receptor-binding neoepitope. The receptor-ligand interaction is Ca2+-dependent and of high affinity. Complexes of haemoglobin and multimeric haptoglobin (the 2-2 phenotype) exhibit higher functional affinity for CD 163 than do complexes of haemoglobin and dimeric haptoglobin (the 1-1 phenotype). Specific CD163-mediated endocytosis of haptoglobin-haemoglobin complexes is measurable in cells transfected with CD163 complementary DNA and in CD163-expressing myelo-monocytic lymphoma cells.
    Nature 02/2001; 409(6817):198-201. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: C-type lectin-like domains are found in many proteins, where they mediate binding to a wide diversity of compounds, including carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. The binding of a C-type lectin-like domain to a ligand is often influenced by calcium. Recently, we have identified a site in the C-type lectin-like domain of tetranectin, involving Lys-148, Glu-150, and Asp-165, which mediates calcium-sensitive binding to plasminogen kringle 4. Here, we investigate the effect of conservative substitutions of these and a neighboring amino acid residue. Substitution of Thr-149 in tetranectin with a tyrosine residue considerably increases the affinity for plasminogen kringle 4, and, in addition, confers affinity for plasminogen kringle 2. As shown by isothermal titration calorimetry analysis, this new interaction is stronger than the binding of wild-type tetranectin to plasminogen kringle 4. This study provides further insight into molecular determinants of importance for binding selectivity and affinity of C-type lectin kringle interactions.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2001; 275(48):37390-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kringle domains are found in a number of proteins where they govern protein-protein interactions. These interactions are often sensitive to lysine and lysine analogues, and the kringle-lysine interaction has been used as a model system for investigating kringle-protein interactions. In this study, we analyze the interaction of wild-type and six single-residue mutants of recombinant plasminogen kringle 4 expressed in Escherichia coli with the recombinant C-type lectin domain of tetranectin and trans-aminomethyl-cyclohexanoic acid (t-AMCHA) using isothermal titration calorimetry. We find that all amino acid residues of plasminogen kringle 4 found to be involved in t-AMCHA binding are also involved in binding tetranectin. Notably, one amino acid residue of plasminogen kringle 4, Arg 32, not involved in binding t-AMCHA, is critical for binding tetranectin. We also find that Asp 57 and Asp 55 of plasminogen kringle 4, which both were found to interact with the low molecular weight ligand with an almost identical geometry in the crystal of the complex, are not of equal functional importance in t-AMCHA binding. Mutating Asp 57 to an Asn totally eliminates binding, whereas the Asp 55 to Asn, like the Arg 71 to Gln mutation, was found only to decrease affinity.
    Biochemistry 07/2000; 39(25):7414-9. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The two C-terminal domains, TN23 (residues 17-181), of human recombinant tetranectin, a plasminogen kringle 4 binding C-type lectin, have been crystallized in two different space groups. Using PEG 8000 as precipitant and at a pH of 8.5, crystals belonging to the monoclinic space group C2 are obtained, with unit-cell parameters a = 160.4, b = 44.7, c = 107.5 A, beta = 127.6 degrees. Using sodium formate as precipitant and at a pH of 5.0, TN23 crystallizes in a rhombohedral space group, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 107.4 A, alpha = beta = gamma = 78.3 degrees. A full data set to 4.5 A has been collected from the monoclinic crystals. Using the structure of full-length tetranectin, a molecular-replacement solution has been obtained. The crystal packing shows that TN23 crystallizes as a trimer, with one trimer in the asymmetric unit.
    Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography 06/2000; 56(Pt 5):637-9. · 14.10 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
169.84 Total Impact Points


  • 1997–2012
    • Aarhus University
      • • Department of Biomedicine
      • • Department of Medical Biochemistry
      • • Department of Chemistry
      Aars, Region North Jutland, Denmark
  • 2002–2011
    • Aarhus University Hospital
      • Department of Clinical Biochemistry
      Aarhus, Central Jutland, Denmark