N Cautero

Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Policlinico Modena, Modène, Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Are you N Cautero?

Claim your profile

Publications (57)90.17 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction. One of the critical factors that influence graft function after live donor liver transplantation is the presence or absence of global or sectorial liver congestion. Many authors advocate for routine middle hepatic vein (MHV) reconstruction because it is often difficult to determine when the MHV or one of its major branches have functional significance. Predictive tests to assess hemodynamic and functional significance of the MHV and its tributaries are still under study. Case Report. We have described a novel intraoperative manipulation and Doppler ultrasonographic evaluation that led to the decision to include the MHV with the right lobe graft.
    Transplantation Proceedings 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2013.09.058 · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) has been treated in adults by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or, if complications arise, by multivisceral transplantation because the stomach is often involved. Eleven adults with CIPO were transplanted by intestinal graft in our center from 2000 to 2011. Nine patients underwent isolated intestinal transplant and 2 patients had multivisceral transplant. Immunosuppression was represented by FK and steroids plus induction with alemtuzumab, daclizumab, or thymoglobulin. Average age at transplant was 33.5 years. We reported 1 graftectomy, followed by retransplantation. Seven patients are currently alive with working small bowel; cause of death was infection in the 4 remaining cases. In 9 isolated intestinal transplants, we performed different digestive reconstructions to allow gastric emptying. In 2 cases we were forced, after transplant, to perform ileostomy to improve intestinal motility. Graft and patient survival after 5 years are 60% and 70%, respectively, while after 10 years, 45% and 56%, respectively. Adults with CIPO and irreversible TPN complications benefit from isolated intestinal transplant with different surgical techniques to empty the native stomach: this strategy achieves good gastric emptying, with effective establishment of oral feeding and graft and patient survivals comparable to isolated intestinal transplant for short bowel syndrome.
    Transplantation Proceedings 11/2013; 45(9):3351-5. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2013.06.014 · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a well-recognized complication of chronic liver disease with a prevalence ranging from 1% to 16%. We performed a retrospective review of 447 consecutive patients who underwent liver transplantation (OLT) between October 2000 and December 2011 comparing 51 recipients with PVT (study group) with 399 without PVT (control group). The aim of this study was to determine the impact of pre-existent PVT on the surgical procedure, to identify specific preventable perioperative complications, and based on our studies and other works, to determine whether this group of patients are acceptable candidates for OLT. Among the 51 patients with PVT, 44 showed partial and 7 complete thrombosis. In 47 cases, we performed a thromboendovenectomy. There were six anastomoses at the confluence of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) and one, with a venous graft interposition. In four complete thrombosis recipients we performed an extra-anatomic by pass between the main trunk of the SMV and the donor portal vein. Compared with the control group, regarding preoperative characteristics, PVT patients were older at the time of transplantation (P = .001) and had a higher use of TIPS (P = .02). The operative characteristics showed a longer warm ischemia time in the PVT group (46.9 ± 22.5 vs 39.3 ± 15 min; P = .004). There were significant differences in postoperative evaluations, nor in the complication rates. Overall survivals at 10 years were similar: 61.7% versus 65.3%; (P = .9). Although PVT was associated with greater operative complexity, it had no influence on postoperative complications or overall survival.
    Transplantation Proceedings 09/2013; 45(7):2692-9. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2013.07.046 · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Highly effective antiretroviral therapy in the last decade has increased the survival rates of HIV-positive patients, yielding a greater number of HIV patients suffering from liver-related disease. Liver transplantation (LT) is the only curative treatment for end-stage liver disease (ESLD) associated or not with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). From June 2003 to September 2010, 23 patients underwent cadaveric donor LT for ESLD at our institution. Inclusion criteria followed the Italian Protocol for LT in HIV-positive patients. Immunosuppressive regimens were based on cyclosporine or tacrolimus, eventually switched to Rapamycin. The median CD4 T-cell count was 275/mmc (range=119-924). All patients were affected by ESLD, which was associated with HCC in 14 cases. Ten patients were within the Milan criteria and four patients exceeded them but were within the San Francisco criteria. Conversion from calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) to rapamycin occurred in ten cases. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence occurred in 13/21 HCV-positive patients. Acute cellular rejection occurred in eight patients with one developing chronic cellular rejection. Overall patient and graft survivals at 80 months were 50% and 45% respectively. LT in HIV-positive patients is a feasible procedure, even if in our experience was burdened by a greater incidence of complications including HCV recurrence and infection compared with HIV-negative patients.
    Transplantation Proceedings 05/2011; 43(4):1114-8. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2011.03.017 · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been a major global health problem for almost 3 decades, with the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in 1996 and effective prophylaxis and management of opportunistic infections, mortality from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome has decreased markedly. In developed countries, this condition is now being treated as a chronic condition. As a result, rates of morbidity and mortality from other medical conditions leading to end-stage liver, kidney, and heart disease are steadily increasing in individuals with HIV. Because the definitive treatment for end-stage organ failure is transplantation, the demand for it has increased among HIV-infected patients. For these reasons, many transplant centers have eliminated HIV infection as a contraindication to transplantation, as a result of better patient management and demand.
    Transplant Infectious Disease 03/2011; 13(5):501-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-3062.2011.00622.x · 1.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Disorders in lipoprotein metabolism do not contraindicate liver procurement and transplantation (LT). In this circumstance, LT provides an intriguing opportunity to assess the in vivo contribution of the liver to the synthesis and degradation of genetically polymorphic plasma proteins. Apolipoprotein (APO) E exists with several common phenotypic differences due to gene polymorphism. Some authors have shown that the APOE phenotype of the recipient was virtually completely converted to that of the donor, providing evidence that >90% of plasma APOE arises from the liver. Homozygosis for APOE2 (E2-E2) is related to an increased incidence of type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP). Recently, some authors have identified 4 new APOE mutations that are strongly linked to a unique entity of renal lipidosis called lipoprotein glomerulopathy (LPG). At present, 65 cases of LPG have been reported worldwide, although most patients have been discovered in Japan and other East Asian countries. We have herein reported a case of LT in a patient with advanced hepatocarcinoma who received a liver from a caucasian donor affected by type III HLP due to homozygous E2-E2. The LPG was due to a novel genetic mutation in APOE. After the LT, the recipient, developed de novo severe lipid abnormalities despite good graft function. To our knowledge this is the first report of an LT using a graft from a non Asian donor with homozygous E2-E2 with the presence of a novel APOE mutation.
    Transplantation Proceedings 05/2010; 42(4):1349-51. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2010.03.104 · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The current therapy for hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation OLT is based on interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) in monotherapy or combination. The rate of sustained virological response (SVR) varies between 10% and 45%. We have retrospectively analyzed factors that could predict SVR after antiviral therapy. We analyzed 42 patients who completed a cycle of therapy with natural or pegylated IFN plus RBV. There were 15 (35.7%) patients who obtained an SVR. The following factors were significantly associated with a lack of SVR: donor age >or=50 years (P = .046); donor body mass index (BMI) > 27 (P = .016); genotype 1 versus 2 to 3 (P = 0.010), aspartate transferase (AST) before therapy >or= 140 U/L (P = .046), alanine transferase before therapy >or= 280 U/L (P = .055), use of natural IFN versus pegylated IFN (P = .016). The only factors remaining after multivariate analysis were: donor BMI, AST before therapy and genotype. Our data confirmed that genotype 1 was associated with poorer outcomes; other additional parameters can influence the response to antiviral therapy.
    Transplantation Proceedings 05/2010; 42(4):1223-5. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2010.03.052 · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is an acceptable procedure that has proven benefits in the treatment of patients who have complications from portal hypertension due to liver cirrhosis. In the literature few reports have described complications after TIPS placement. Initial surgery and local hemostasis have been needed to manage abdominal bleeding: if this treatment is insufficient, it may be necessary to perform a liver transplantation. This report describes the role of liver transplantation to manage dangerous complications in 2 patients after TIPS placement, when surgical procedures and hemostasis were unable to stop the bleeding.
    Transplantation Proceedings 05/2010; 42(4):1375-7. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2010.03.077 · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Radical resection is the only potential cure for pancreatic malignancies and a useful treatment for other benign diseases, such as pancreatitis. Over the last two decades, medical and surgical improvements have drastically changed the postoperative outcome of elderly patients undergoing pancreatic resection, and appropriate treatment for elderly potential candidates for pancreatic resection has become an important issue. A hundred and five consecutive patients undergoing radical pancreatic resection between 2003 and 2007 at the Surgery Unit of the University of Modena, Italy, were considered and divided into two groups according to their age, i.e., over 75-year olds (group 1, 25 patients) and under 75-year-olds (group 2, 80 patients). The two groups were compared as regards to demographic features, American Society of Anesthesiologists scores, comorbidities, previous major surgery, surgical procedure, postoperative mortality, and morbidity. There were no significant differences between the two groups concerning postoperative mortality, and the duration of hospital stay and days in the postoperative Intensive Care Unit were also similar. Complications such as pancreatic fistulas, wound infections, and pneumonia were more frequent in the older group, but the differences were not statistically significant. In the light of these findings and as reported for other series, old age is probably not directly related with any increase in the rate of postoperative complications, but comorbidities (which are naturally related to the patients' previous life) may have a key role in the postoperative course.
    Minerva chirurgica 02/2010; 65(1):1-9. · 0.71 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Surgery is the only effective treatment able to improve survival of patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). However, the significance of prognostic factors on overall survival is still debated. We evaluated early and long-term outcomes of patients resected for hilar cholangiocarcinoma over a 3-year period to determine the role of prognostic factors and their effect on overall survival. Medical records of patients with hilar CCA who underwent resection between January 2001 and December 2004 were retrospectively reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors associated with survival. Thirty-two of 45 patients underwent surgical resection with curative intent. Morbidity was 24.4 per cent; perioperative mortality was 0 per cent. Overall median survival was 22.3 months. Well-differentiated tumor grading and R0 resection were independently associated with better survival at multivariate analysis. Aggressive surgery, including biliary resection combined with
  • Transplantation 01/2010; 90. DOI:10.1097/00007890-201007272-00327 · 3.78 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nephrotoxicity is a serious adverse effect after liver transplantation often related to calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) with a incidence of 18.1% at 5 years. Sirolimus (SRL) is a new immunosuppressive drug that was introduced into solid organ transplant management in 1999. Herein we have performed a retrospective review of patients who developed renal insufficiency owing to CNI therapy after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Thirty-one patients were switched to SRL monotherapy because of nephrotoxicity as evidenced by serum creatinine levels (SCr) > 1.8 mg/dL and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) < 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2). The dosage was adjusted to achieve trough levels between 8 and 10 ng/mL. The patients were followed for a mean of 52 months (range 2-88 months) after OLT. Mean follow-up after the switch was 27.5 months (range, 2-71.2 months). Immunosuppression was switched after a mean of 35.2 months (range, 0.2-43.4 months). Renal function was significantly improved, as shown by the improved SCr, urea, and eGFR after the switch. CNIs may be associated with significant nephrotoxicity and chronic kidney damage. Patients who develop renal dysfunction after OLT may be successfully treated by an early switch from CNIs to SRL, stopping the progression toward chronic renal damage and preserving allograft survival.
    Transplantation Proceedings 05/2009; 41(4):1297-9. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2009.03.018 · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The incidence and clinical consequences of hepatic injuries (parenchymal, vascular, and biliary) due to surgical handling during multiorgan procurement are still underestimated. Surgical damage to liver grafts may lead to an increased mortality and graft dysfunction rate; therefore, multiorgan procurements require a high level of expertise and training. We report our experience in two cases of accidental venous outflow damage during liver procurement focusing on our repair strategies. In one case, a short suprahepatic inferior vena cava (IVC) was extended by a venous cuff obtained from a long infrahepatic IVC from the same liver graft. In the second case, we observed a complete transection of the middle hepatic vein during in situ splitting procedure. The damage was reconstructed by cadaveric iliac vein interposition. In both cases, liver transplantation was successfully performed without venous complication. An adequate surgical technique in liver procurement and venous reconstruction during living donor and domino liver transplantation are formidable tools to achieve successful liver transplantation with a damaged graft.
    Transplantation Proceedings 07/2008; 40(6):1941-3. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2008.06.003 · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acute cellular rejection (ACR) episodes in intestinal transplant recipients are diagnosed by histologic and clinical findings. We have applied zoom video endoscopy and the use of serologic markers granzyme B (GrB) and perforin (PrF) to monitor rejection together with conventional tools. Seven hundred eighty-two blood samples (obtained at the time of the biopsy) collected from 34 recipients for GrB/PrF upregulation were positive among 64.9% of ACRs during a 3-year follow-up. Considering only the first year results posttransplantation, it reached 73.1% of rejection events. Zoom videoendoscopy was used by our group in 29 recipients of isolated intestine (n = 24) or multivisceral transplantations (n = 5) to enable observation of villi and crypt areas. From more than 270 procedures, 84% of the zoom findings agreed with the histologic results, namely, a specificity of 95%. In fact, during ongoing ACR, villi were altered in 80% of cases. Both procedures were helpful to support conventional histologic findings and clinical symptoms of ACR in intestinal transplant recipients.
    Transplantation Proceedings 07/2008; 40(5):1575-6. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2008.03.153 · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endogenous opioids modulate the growth of nervous and non-nervous cells. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the main cell phenotype involved in liver fibrogenesis, display molecular markers of neuronal cells and respond to neurotransmitters. To evaluate the role of endogenous opioids on liver fibrogenesis. Activated rat HSCs (passage 1-3) were used to evaluate cell proliferation and intracellular signalling pathway activation. Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) administration. Opioid receptors showed a different pattern of expression when measured in quiescent and activated (in vitro and in vivo) HSCs. The activation of opioid receptors increased HSC proliferation and collagen accumulation. Opioid receptor stimulation induced a calcium-dependent protein kinase C alpha (PKC alpha)/extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway activation that mediated the effect of endogenous opioids on HSC proliferation and collagen synthesis. In DMN-treated rats, the opioid antagonist naloxone reduced alpha-smooth muscle actin expression (as a marker of HSC activation) and collagen deposition, both measured by morphometry after 5 weeks of treatment. In both DMN-treated rats and human liver biopsies from chronic liver diseases, opioid receptors were observed in HSCs in area of active fibrogenesis. The endogenous opioid met-enkephalin increased its expression in zone 3 hepatocytes close to the area of necrosis after DMN administration and in the cellular target of chronic liver injury in human biopsies, and stimulated HSC proliferation and collagen synthesis. Endogenous opioids released during chronic liver injury participate in the process of liver fibrogenesis by stimulating HSC proliferation and collagen production in a paracrine manner.
    Gut 04/2008; 57(3):352-64. DOI:10.1136/gut.2007.120303 · 13.32 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Due to the shortage of available cadaveric organs, living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been recently applied extensively in adults. The use of the left lobe should be encouraged because of donor safety, but frequently the metabolic requirements of severely cirrhotic patients are great and subsequent graft dysfunction is encountered after transplantation. The importance of increased portal inflow to the graft in previously severely cirrhotic patients and other hemodynamic changes in LDLT using left lobes are still under debate, as are the surgical modulations to correct them. In this study, we have reported an initial series of adult-to-adult LDLT using left lobes, underlining the hemodynamic changes encountered during the transplant and the surgical modulations we applied to correct them. Eight adult recipients underwent left lobe liver transplantation from living donors. Portal vein pressure and central venous pressure were measured before and after surgical modulation. We encountered four cases of small-for-size syndrome. Two patients were retransplanted; the other two died. Seventy-five percent of our recipients survived and 50% did not require further surgery. Surgical portal inflow modulation should be considered in cases of left lobe liver transplantation between adults.
    Transplantation Proceedings 07/2007; 39(6):1874-6. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2007.05.052 · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sarcomas are rare neoplasms, accounting for a 1.7% incidence among all transplanted patients presenting with de novo malignancies. Our present report focused on a 46-year-old woman who received immunosuppressive therapy based on cyclosporine and steroids for renal transplantation. Eight years after transplantations, she suffered lower abdominal pain and a mass involving peritoneal soft tissues was located near the right iliac vessels. Upon radical tumor excision, the histological examination revealed a high-grade leiomyosarcoma. Immunosuppression was reduced and cyclosporine switched to rapamycin. After 30 days, a computed tomography scan revealed two small pulmonary metastases, so the patient received adriamycin. Six months after the diagnosis, there was no intra-abdominal relapse and the pulmonary metastasis remain stable. The function of the transplanted kidney was normal and the patient was listed for laparoscopic pulmonary resection. Sarcomas in solid organ transplant patients appear to have aggressive features with 62% being high grade and 40% metastatic at the time of primary diagnosis with a recurrence rate of 30% and a 5-year survival rate of 25%. Patients diagnosed with sarcoma should be treated with multimodality therapy. After aggressive surgery whenever possible, a combination of a traditional cytotoxic drug and a "signal" blocking agent like rapamycin may increase selectivity toward tumor cells.
    Transplantation Proceedings 07/2007; 39(6):2038-9. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2007.05.074 · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report our experience with intestinal and multivisceral transplantation in Italy. We performed 23 adult isolated intestinal transplants and seven multivisceral ones, three with liver, between December 2000 and June 2005. Indications for transplantation were loss of venous access (n = 14), recurrent sepsis (n = 10), and electrolyte-fluid imbalance (n = 6), 14 of whom also presented with total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-related liver dysfunction. Immunosuppression was based on induction agents like daclizumab (followed by tacrolimus and steroids) in the first period; alemtuzumab or thymoglobulin (with tacrolimus) in a second period after 2002. The mean follow-up was 742 +/- 550 days. Three-year patient actuarial survival rate was 88% for intestinal transplants and 42% for multivisceral (P = .015). Three-year graft actuarial survival rate was 73% for intestinal patients and 42.8% for multivisceral (P = .1). Graft loss was mainly due to rejection (57%). Complications were mainly represented by bacterial infections (92% of patients), relaparotomies (82%), and rejections (72%). Full bowel function without any parenteral nutrition or intravenous fluid support was achieved in 60% of recipients with functioning bowel including 95% on a regular diet. One patient underwent abdominal wall transplantation as well. Intestinal transplantation has achieved high rates of patient and graft survival with even longer follow-up. Early referral of patients, especially in cases of TPN-liver disease, is mandatory to obtain good outcomes and avoid high mortality rates on the transplant waiting list. Immunosuppressive management remains the key factor to increase the success rate.
    Transplantation Proceedings 07/2006; 38(6):1696-8. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2006.05.021 · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An accurate in vivo preparation of the hepatic hilum is a fundamental prerequisite for a successful multiorgan transplantation. Our preferred technique in this surgical setting is in vivo procurement in the heart-beating donor. This technique allows an effective exposition of the hilum structures and recognition of anatomical vascular variants, particularly those of the hepatic artery. Also, the cold ischemia time is drastically reduced, and the back-table preparation is left to a minimum. In this article we show the results of a consecutive series of 250 procurements.
    Transplantation Proceedings 06/2006; 38(4):1068. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2006.03.042 · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Digestive and Liver Disease 03/2006; 38(2):149-50. DOI:10.1016/j.dld.2005.09.016 · 2.89 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

253 Citations
90.17 Total Impact Points


  • 2010–2014
    • Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Policlinico Modena
      Modène, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 2005–2013
    • University of Bologna
      • Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine DIMES
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 2002–2013
    • Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
      • Department of Biomedical, Metabolical and Neurosciences
      Modène, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 2008
    • Università Politecnica delle Marche
      Ancona, The Marches, Italy
  • 1998–2007
    • University of Udine
      • Department of Medical and Biological Sciences
      Udine, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy