Sung Hoon Lee

Gwangju OK Hospital, Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea

Are you Sung Hoon Lee?

Claim your profile

Publications (62)196.84 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine which factors affect the rehabilitation duration in patients with congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) and to predict the duration of rehabilitation and prognosis. One hundred and eighteen patients (79 males and 39 females) who were diagnosed with CMT and received physical therapy were enrolled in this study. We retrospectively reviewed the information in terms of sex, gestational age, birth weight, methods of delivery, fetal presentation, age at diagnosis, the affected sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle site, SCM muscle thickness, ratio of muscle thickness on the affected side to that on the unaffected side (called the 'abnormal/normal [A/N] ratio'), and range of motion for cervical rotation and side bending. The SCM muscle thickness and A/N ratio had a positive linear relationship with the rehabilitation duration. Patients who were in the breech position needed longer rehabilitation. The birth weight and age at diagnosis were negatively correlated with the rehabilitation duration. However, the cervical range of motion, mass site, sex, gestational age, and methods of delivery were not correlated with the rehabilitation duration. Patients with a thicker SCM, lower birth weight, and history of breech delivery had a longer rehabilitation duration.
    02/2015; 39(1):18-24. DOI:10.5535/arm.2015.39.1.18
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is an endogenous inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) that acts as a neuromodulator in various neurophysiological and pathological conditions. Several researchers including us reported the induction of PAI-1 during inflammatory condition; however, the mechanism regulating PAI-1 induction is not yet clear. In this study, we investigated the role of non-receptor tyrosine kinase Fyn in the regulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced upregulation of PAI-1 in rat primary astrocyte. The activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling, induced by its ligand LPS, stimulated a physical interaction between TLR4 and Fyn along with phosphorylation of tyrosine residue in both molecules as determined by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Immunofluorescence staining also showed increased co-localization of TLR4-Fyn on cultured rat primary astrocytes after LPS treatment. The increased TRLR4-Fyn interaction induced expression of PAI-1 through the activation of PI3k/Akt/NFĸB pathway. Treatment with Src kinase inhibitor (PP2) or transfection of Fyn small interfering RNA (siRNA) into cultured rat primary astrocytes inhibited phosphorylation of tyrosine residue of TLR4 and blocked the interaction between TLR4 and Fyn resulting to the inhibition of LPS-induced expression of PAI-1. The activation of PI3K/Akt/NFĸB signaling cascades was also inhibited by Fyn knockdown in rat primary astrocytes. The induction of PAI-1 in rat primary astrocytes, which resulted in downregulation of tPA activity in culture supernatants, inhibited neurite outgrowth in cultured rat primary cortical neuron. The inhibition of neurite extension was prevented by PP2 or Fyn siRNA treatment in rat primary astrocytes. These results suggest the critical physiological role of TRL4-Fyn interaction in the modulation of PAI-1-tPA axis in astrocytes during neuroinflammatory responses such as ischemia/reperfusion injuries.
    Molecular Neurobiology 08/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12035-014-8837-z · 5.29 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Propofol, a widely used anesthetic, regulates neurological processes including neurotoxicity, neuroprotection, glial activation, synaptic plasticity and neuronal maturation. Tissue plasminogen activator/tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (tPA/PAI-1) in CNS acts as a neuromodulator regulating synaptic plasticity, neurite outgrowth, seizure spreading and cell survival. Here, we investigated the effects of propofol on tPA/PAI-1 system using cultured neurons and astrocytes and their role in the regulation of neurite extension. Cultured rat primary astrocytes were treated with propofol (1-10 µM) and LPS (10 ng/ml). The expression of functional tPA/PAI-1 was examined by casein zymography, Western blot and RT-PCR. Alternatively, culture supernatants were added to cultured rat primary neuron to investigate the effects on neurite extension. Propofol alone did not affect tPA activity in rat primary cortical neuron. Similarly, propofol alone changed neither tPA nor PAI-1 activity in rat primary astrocytes. In immunologically challenged situation using LPS, propofol synergistically increased expression of PAI-1 in rat primary astrocytes without affecting tPA expression in a manner dependent on MAPKs activation. Increased expression of PAI-1 reduced tPA activity in LPS plus propofol-treated rat primary astrocytes. Consistent with the critical role of tPA activity in the regulation of neurite extension (Cho et al. 2013), the diminished tPA activity in astrocyte culture supernatants resulted in decreased neurite extension when administered to cultured rat primary cortical neuron. The results from the present study suggest that propofol, especially in immunologically-challenged situation, dysregulates tPA/PAI-1 system in brain. Whether the dysregulated tPA/PAI-1 activity adversely affects neural differentiation as well as regeneration of neuron in vivo should be empirically determined in the future.
    Archives of Pharmacal Research 07/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12272-014-0442-1 · 1.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Here, we report a method of fabricating thin layer of polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS), with a thickness in the range of 60 to 80 nm, which can be repeatedly generated (more than ten times) from the same block of PDMS via controlled interfacial fracture. The thin layers can be transferred to various substrates by peeling off from the bulk PDMS. The cleavage is attributed to the built-in stress at the fracture interface due to plasma treatment, resulting in the repetitive formation of the thin membranes, with no residue from processing, and with a surface roughness of ~5 nm. We were able to demonstrate transferred patterns with controlled thickness by varying the oxygen plasma treatment conditions and the composition of bulk PDMS stamp. Using the method, we achieved residual-free patterns with sub-micron resolution for applications in biomolecule array templates.
    ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 07/2014; 6(14). DOI:10.1021/am502477w · 5.90 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A ganglion cyst is a relatively common benign tumor on the wrist. Conservative and surgical approaches have been used for its treatment. Various conservative treatment methods have been suggested such as reassurance, aspiration, sclerosant injection, and direct compression. But, there is no acceptable treatment of choice yet because each suggested method has a relatively high recurrence rate. We want to report two cases in which the size of the wrist ganglion was decreased by using electroacupuncture. One patient presented with a chronic ganglion for six years and the other patient presented with a recently occurred acute ganglion. We applied electroacupuncture for 20 minutes once a week for eight weeks to both of them. Afterwards, the size of the wrist ganglion diminished in the follow-up sonography and the accompanying pain was also relieved. Herein we report both cases along with a review of the relevant literature.
    06/2014; 38(3):415-20. DOI:10.5535/arm.2014.38.3.415
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: One quantitative liquid handling method in conventional assay processes is pipetting, which delivers a precise volume of one sample at a time. As this process becomes laborious and time-consuming as the number of samples increases, researchers in individual laboratories need a way to conduct large-scale assays in a reasonable amount of time and at an affordable cost. Here we report a novel handling technique of chemical substances termed 'partipetting', which allows the one-step pipetting of various chemical-laden hydrogels. We pipette and assemble various types of encoded chemical-laden microparticles in microwell arrays in parallel. The combination of this heterogeneous particle chip and a cell chip induces the release of the chemicals from the hydrogels and, eventually, the chemicals treat the targets. Based on bioassay applications using partipetting, we show its capability in large-scale bioassays, without the need for high-throughput bioassay resources, owing to a reduction in the assay costs and time.
    Nature Communications 03/2014; 5:3468. DOI:10.1038/ncomms4468 · 10.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intracellular Ca(2+) signal is a key regulator of axonal growth during brain development. As transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are permeable to Ca(2+) and mediate numerous brain functions, it is conceivable that many TRP channels would regulate neuronal differentiation. We therefore screened TRP channels that are involved in the regulation of neurite growth. Among the TRP channels, the Trpm2 level was inversely associated with neurite growth. TRPM2 was highly expressed in embryonic brain. Pharmacological perturbation or knockdown of TRPM2 markedly increased the axonal growth, whereas its overexpression inhibited the axonal growth. Addition of ADP ribose, an endogenous activator of TRPM2, to PC12 cells significantly repressed the axonal growth. TRPM2 was actively involved in the neuronal retraction induced by cerebrospinal fluid-rich lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). More importantly, neurons isolated from the brain of Trpm2-deficient mice have significantly longer neurites with a greater number of spines than those obtained from the brain of wild-type mice. Therefore, we conclude that TRPM2 mediates the LPA-induced suppression of axonal growth, which provides a long-sought mechanism underlying the effect of LPA on neuronal development.
    Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 01/2014; 466(10). DOI:10.1007/s00424-013-1436-4 · 3.07 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite the important role of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) as a neuromodulator in neurons, microglia, and astrocytes, its role in neural progenitor cell (NPC) development is not clear yet. We identified that tPA is highly expressed in NPCs compared with neurons. Inhibition of tPA activity or expression using tPA stop, PAI-1, or tPA siRNA inhibited neurite outgrowth from NPCs, while overexpression or addition of exogenous tPA increased neurite outgrowth. The expression of Wnt and β-catenin as well as phosphorylation of LRP5 and LRP6, which has been implicated in Wnt-β-catenin signaling, was rapidly increased after tPA treatment and was decreased by tPA siRNA transfection. Knockdown of β-catenin or LRP5/6 expression by siRNA prevented tPA-induced neurite extension. NPCs obtained from tPA KO mice showed impaired neurite outgrowth compared with WT NPCs. In ischemic rat brains, axon density was higher in the brains transplanted with WT NPCs than in those with tPA KO NPCs, suggesting increased axonal sprouting by NPC-derived tPA. tPA-mediated regulation of neuronal maturation in NPCs may play an important role during development and in regenerative conditions.
    Molecular Neurobiology 08/2013; 49(1). DOI:10.1007/s12035-013-8511-x · 5.29 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is expressed in several regions of brain and plays regulatory roles such as neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity and long term potentiation. The activity of tPA is regulated by an endogenous inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), which is expressed mainly in astrocytes. Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor that is used for the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorders, promotes neurite extension, neuronal growth and has neuroprotective effect in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we examined whether the neurite extension effects of VPA is mediated by modulating tPA/PAI-1 system. VPA dose-dependently increased tPA activity and decreased PAI-1 activity in rat primary astrocytes but not in neurons. PAI-1 protein level secreted into the culture medium but not tPA per se was decreased by VPA. In co-culture system or in neuronal culture stimulated with astrocyte conditioned media but not in pure neuronal cell culture, VPA induced neurite outgrowth via increased tPA activity due to the decreased PAI-1 activity in astrocytes. The decrease in PAI-1 activity and increased neurite extension was regulated via JNK mediated post-transcriptional pathway. The essential role of tPA/PAI-1 system in the regulation of VPA-mediated neurite extension was further demonstrated by experiments using astrocyte conditioned media obtained from tPA or PAI-1 knockout mice. Regulation of PAI-1 activity in astrocyte by VPA may affect both physiological and pathological processes in brain by upregulating tPA activity. GLIA 2013.
    Glia 05/2013; 61(5). DOI:10.1002/glia.22463 · 5.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AIMS: Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is an essential neuromodulator whose involvement in multiple functions such as synaptic plasticity, cytokine-like immune function and regulation of cell survival mandates rapid and tight tPA regulation in the brain. We investigated the possibility that a transient metabolic challenge induced by glucose deprivation may affect tPA activity in rat primary astrocytes, the main cell type responsible for metabolic regulation in the CNS. MAIN METHODS: Rat primary astrocytes were incubated in serum-free DMEM without glucose. Casein zymography was used to determine tPA activity, and tPA mRNA was measured by RT-PCR. The signaling pathways regulating tPA activity were identified by Western blotting. KEY FINDINGS: Glucose deprivation rapidly down-regulated the activity of tPA without affecting its mRNA level in rat primary astrocytes; this effect was mimicked by translational inhibitors. The down-regulation of tPA was accompanied by increased tPA degradation, which may be modulated by a proteasome-dependent degradation pathway. Glucose deprivation induced activation of PI3K-Akt-GSK3β, p38 and AMPK, and inhibition of these pathways using LY294002, SB203580 and compound C significantly inhibited glucose deprivation-induced tPA down-regulation, demonstrating the essential role of these pathways in tPA regulation in glucose-deprived astrocytes. SIGNIFICANCE: Rapid and reversible regulation of tPA activity in rat primary astrocytes during metabolic crisis may minimize energy-requiring neurologic processes in stressed situations. This effect may thereby increase the opportunity to invest cellular resources in cell survival and may allow rapid re-establishment of normal cellular function after the crisis.
    Life sciences 04/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2013.03.011 · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine whether a routine ultrasonography (US) is necessary for diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of hip (DDH), presenting with congenital muscular torticollis (CMT). Cases of 133 patients (81 males, 52 females) diagnosed as CMT were reviewed, retrospectively. We reviewed the medical charts and diagnostic examination. We also assessed the coincidence of CMT and DDH, and investigated the clinical features of CMT related to DDH. Twenty (15.0%) patients out of 133 CMT patients were diagnosed as having DDH by US. Of whom, 8 patients were radiographically positive and 4 patients were both clinically and radiographically positive. Nine patients were treated with a harness and 1 of them needed closed reduction and casting. Out of 9 patients treated with a harness, only 4 were clinically positive. The difference and ratio of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle thickness between the normal and abnormal side was significantly greater in DDH patients (p=0.014). Further, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed when the SCM ratio is greater than 2.08 and the SCM difference is greater than 6.1 mm, the efficiency of US for the diagnosis of the DDH was found to be the best (p<0.05). To evaluate DDH, physical examination showed low sensitivity and radiologic study has limitation for the child before 4 to 6 months of age. Therefore, we recommend that hip is screened by US for the diagnosis of DDH associated with CMT when physical examination is positive or CMT patients with large SCM difference and high SCM ratio.
    02/2013; 37(1):26-32. DOI:10.5535/arm.2013.37.1.26
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A QR-coded microtaggant for the anti-counterfeiting of drugs is proposed that can provide high capacity and error-correctioncapability. It is fabricated lithographically in a microfluidic channel with special consideration of the island patterns in the QR Code. The microtaggant is incorporated in the drug capsule ("on-dose authentication") and can be read by a simple smartphone QR Code reader application when removed from the capsule and washed free of drug.
    Advanced Materials 11/2012; 24(44). DOI:10.1002/adma.201201486 · 15.41 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of concentrate feeding on rumen papillae development in suckling Hanwoo calves before weaning (60 days of age). Twenty-four Hanwoo calves (12 heifers and 12 bulls) at six days of age were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments [hay and two levels (low and high) of concentrate feeding] and given each diet with free access to their dams for suckling until 60 days of age. At 60 days of age, two calves from each treatment were sacrificed and used for post-mortem examination of rumen papillae development. Feed intake between 31 and 60 days of age was significantly higher (P
    10/2012; 54(5). DOI:10.5187/JAST.2012.54.5.355
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report on a new pitch reduction lithographic technique by utilizing pressure-assisted selective wetting and thermal reflow. The primary line-and-space pattern of low molecular weight polystyrene (PS) (Mw=17,300) was formed by solvent-assisted capillary force lithography (CFL), on which a diluted photoresist (PR) solution was selectively filled into the spaces by the application of a slight pressure (200 g cm(-2)). Subsequent removal of the PS pattern by toluene and ashing process led to a line pattern with approximately 50% pitch reduction. It was observed that the size reduction and space to width ratios were controllable by changing PR concentration and ashing time.
    Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 03/2012; 376(1):250-4. DOI:10.1016/j.jcis.2012.02.044 · 3.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oroxylin A is a flavone isolated from a medicinal herb reported to be effective in reducing the inflammatory and oxidative stresses. It also modulates the production of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in cortical neurons by the transactivation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). As a neurotrophin, BDNF plays roles in neuronal development, differentiation, synaptogenesis, and neural protection from the harmful stimuli. Adenosine A2A receptor colocalized with BDNF in brain and the functional interaction between A2A receptor stimulation and BDNF action has been suggested. In this study, we investigated the possibility that oroxylin A modulates BDNF production in cortical neuron through the regulation of A2A receptor system. As ex-pected, CGS21680 (A2A receptor agonist) induced BDNF expression and release, however, an antagonist, ZM241385, prevented oroxylin A-induced increase in BDNF production. Oroxylin A activated the PI3K-Akt-GSK-3β signaling pathway, which is inhibited by ZM241385 and the blockade of the signaling pathway abolished the increase in BDNF production. The physiological roles of oroxylin A-induced BDNF production were demonstrated by the increased neurite extension as well as synapse formation from neurons. Overall, oroxylin A might regulate BDNF production in cortical neuron through A2A receptor stimulation, which promotes cellular survival, synapse formation and neurite extension.
    Biomolecules and Therapeutics 01/2012; 20(1):27-35. DOI:10.4062/biomolther.2012.20.1.027 · 0.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this retrospective study is to report the MRI findings of biopsyproven Aspergillus spondylitis. CONCLUSION: Aspergillus spondylitis should be suspected when multiple disk levels are involved with skip lesions or subligamentous spread on MRI. A serrated appearance of the vertebral endplates and subchondral T2 hypointensity are suggestive of Aspergillus spondylitis.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 11/2011; 197(5):W919-23. DOI:10.2214/AJR.11.6786 · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although originally known as a plasma serine protease involved in clot dissolution, tPA and its primary inhibitor, PAI-1, play crucial roles in synaptic reorganization and plasticity in the central nervous system. In contrast to the wide array of work conducted in neural cells, relatively little is known about the regulatory mechanism governing tPA/PAI-1 expression in astrocytes. Glucocorticoids (GCs) such as hydrocortisone regulate the expression of tPA/PAI-1 in various biological systems in a tissue-specific manner. However, little is known about GC-mediated regulation of tPA/PAI-1 system in CNS. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether tPA/PAI-1 expression is regulated by hydrocortisone in rat primary astrocytes. Enzyme activity of tPA was decreased in a concentration-dependent manner by hydrocortisone treatment, and the activity of PAI-1 was increased by hydrocortisone. Hydrocortisone did not affect the level of tPA mRNA, which suggests that transcriptional down-regulation of tPA mRNA is not involved in the down-regulation of tPA enzyme activity in astrocytes. However, the level of PAI-1 mRNA and protein was increased. Both hydrocortisone and a tPA-Stop treatment prevented glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in rat cortical primary mixed astrocyte-neuron culture, which suggests a neurotoxic role for tPA in our culture system. Interestingly, hydrocortisone further increased LPS-induced up-regulation of PAI-1 while inhibiting the up-regulation of iNOS and COX-2 expression. Our data show that hydrocortisone up-regulated PAI-1 expression along with down-regulation of tPA activity in both normal and inflammatory conditions.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 07/2011; 89(7):1059-69. DOI:10.1002/jnr.22619 · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the mold design rules for assuring residual layer-free patterning in thermal imprint processes. Using simple relations for mass balance, structural stability, and work of adhesion, we derive the conditions with respect to the given single or multigeometrical feature of the mold, which are compared with simple thermal imprint experiments using soft imprint molds. Our analysis could serve as a guideline for designing the optimum mold geometry and selecting mold material in residual layer-free thermal imprint processes.
    Langmuir 06/2011; 27(12):7944-8. DOI:10.1021/la201425v · 4.38 Impact Factor
  • Jae Joon Chae, Sung Hoon Lee, Kahp Y. Suh
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Size variations of pattern spacing as well as gradient control of the as‐formed polymeric pattern via a spatially controlled reflow process are presented. Micro‐ and nanopatterns of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) in the form of line‐and‐space strips are first generated by capillary force lithography (CFL), and the residual layers are removed by ashing process. Subsequently, the exposed PMMA strips underwent a controlled reflow process above the glass transition temperature (Tg) while heating single or both sides of the substrate either in parallel to the line pattern (parallel reflow) or perpendicular to the line pattern (perpendicular reflow). As a result of this controlled reflow, a linear or a parabolic profile of pattern spacing is achieved depending on the heating mode. Furthermore, multiscale gradient patterns are formed with the spacing ranging from 98 nm to 4.23 μm (a difference of two orders of magnitude) in a single patterned layer using the original micropattern of 16 μm width and 8 μm spacing. In order to explain reflow behaviors, a simple theoretical model relating the normalized pattern width to the polymer viscosity is derived based on a leveling kinetics of polymer melt. Also, gradient PMMA channels are fabricated and bonded to a glass substrate, which are used to flow a liquid inside the channels by capillarity‐driven flow.
    Advanced Functional Materials 03/2011; 21(6):1147 - 1153. DOI:10.1002/adfm.201001687 · 10.44 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The electrospinning technique has attracted significant research attention because of its various potential applications and simplicity of manufacturing fibers of diameter from several micrometers to nanometer range. However, the methods for controlling the shape, structure, and uniformity of electrospun fibers have not yet been fully investigated. In this research electrospinning instabilities, such as cyclical electrospinning fluctuation and multi-jet ejections, which are closely related to the corresponding nanofiber deposition, were investigated for various polymer solution concentrations. The cyclical electrospinning fluctuation was evaluated with an image analysis program integrated with an image acquisition system that we developed. Two different drop size fluctuations of the cyclical process of the drop formation were observed.
    Journal of Macromolecular Science Part B 03/2011; Part B(Vol. 50):517-527. DOI:10.1080/00222341003781168 · 0.62 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

751 Citations
196.84 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013–2015
    • Gwangju OK Hospital
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
  • 2006–2014
    • Seoul National University
      • • School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences
      • • School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010–2013
    • Konkuk University
      • School of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009–2011
    • Pusan National University
      • Department of Organic Material Science and Engineering
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
    • Kookmin University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2002–2009
    • Hanyang University
      • • Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering
      • • Division of Materials Science and Engineering (MSE)
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Pohang University of Science and Technology
      • Division of Molecular and Life Sciences
      Andong, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2008
    • Gachon University
      • Department of Urology
      Sŏngnam, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2007–2008
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005–2006
    • Samsung Medical Center
      • Department of Radiology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2004
    • Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology KRIBB
      Anzan, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea