[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To evaluate the effects of the videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) timing after the nasogastric tube (NGT) removal on swallowing function of the patients with dysphagia.
This study was conducted on 40 NGT-fed patients with dysphagia. To assess the patients' swallowing function, VFSS was performed twice using a 5-mL 35% diluted barium solution. For the initial examination, VFSS was performed immediately after the NGT removal (VFSS 1). For the second examination, VFSS was performed five hours after the NGT removal (VFSS 2). We used the functional dysphagia scale (FDS) to assess swallowing function. In the FDS, a significant difference in the four items in the oral phase, seven items in the pharyngeal phase, and total scores were assessed (p<0.05). We also used modified penetration-aspiration scale (mPAS) to compare the two examinations (p<0.05).
A paired t-test was performed to confirm the statistical significance of the two examinations (p<0.05). The overall swallowing function was assessed as better in VFSS 2 than in VFSS 1. In the FDS, significant differences in the residue in valleculae (p=0.002), the residue in pyriform sinuses (p=0.001), the coating of pharyngeal wall after swallow (p=0.001), and the total scores (p<0.001) were found between the two examinations. Also, in the mPAS that assessed the degree of penetration-aspiration, a significant difference was found between the two examinations (p<0.001).
The results of this study confirmed that the timing of the VFSS after the NGT removal affects the swallowing function. Thus, to accurately assess the swallowing function, VFSS must be performed in NGT-fed patients after they have rested for a certain period following the removal of their NGT.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine 09/2015; 39(4):517-523. DOI:10.5535/arm.2015.39.4.517
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a psychiatric disease that causes mood swings between manic and depressed states. Although genetic linkage studies have shown an association between BD and TRPM2, a Ca2+-permeable cation channel, the nature of this association is unknown. Here, we show that D543E, a mutation of Trpm2 that is frequently found in BD patients, induces loss of function. Trpm2-deficient mice exhibited BD-related behavior such as increased anxiety and decreased social responses, along with disrupted EEG functional connectivity. Moreover, the administration of amphetamine in wild-type mice evoked a notable increase in open-field activity that was reversed by the administration of lithium. However, the anti-manic action of lithium was not observed in the Trpm2-/- mice. The brains of Trpm2-/- mice showed a marked increase in phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), a key element in BD-like behavior and a target of lithium. In contrast, activation of TRPM2 induced the dephosphorylation of GSK-3 via calcineurin, a Ca2+ –dependent phosphatase. Importantly, the overexpression of the D543E mutant failed to induce the dephosphorylation of GSK-3. Therefore, we conclude that the genetic dysfunction of Trpm2 causes uncontrolled phosphorylation of GSK-3, which may lead to the pathology of BD. Our findings explain the long-sought etiologic mechanism underlying the genetic link between Trpm2 mutation and BD.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 08/2015; 35(34):11811-23. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5251-14.2015 · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To achieve a higher capacity and rate capability, the electrochemical performance of doped Li-rich layered oxide (LLO), in which Co and O ions are substituted with various dopants (Ti, Zr, Ce, Mo, W, and F), is investigated using first-principles calculations. W and Mo are candidate dopants to enhance the phase stability but are excluded due to the decreased average cell voltage of 2.5–5.4 %, lowering the energy density of a battery. Instead, F is selected as a promising dopant because F-doped LLO can achieve high structural stability without a reduction in the average cell voltage compared with un-doped LLO. The Li slab distance in F-doped LLO expands approximately 3–8% depending on the Li concentration, and the activation energy for Li hopping is reduced about 30%, suggesting faster Li ion diffusion. The enthalpy of formation of F-doped LLO is reduced to 5.3–12.4 kJ mol−1 during de-lithiation, implying an increase in phase stability. Based on the DFT prediction, we experimentally demonstrate F-doped LLO (Li1.17Ni0.17Co0.17Mn0.50O1.96F0.04) exhibits a high capacity of 252.2 mAh g−1 at 0.33C rate in the cut-off voltage range of 3.0–4.6 V. The rate capability is enhanced, and the capacity is retained up to 83% at 3C compared with the 0.33C rate.
Journal of Power Sources 05/2015; 281. DOI:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.01.158 · 6.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inversion domain boundaries (IDBs) are frequently found in GaN films grown on sapphire substrates. However, the lack of atomic-level understandings about the effects of the IDBs on the properties of GaN films has hindered to utilize the IDBs for the stress release that minimizes the crack-formation in GaN films. This study performed atomistic computational analyses to fundamentally understand the roles of the IDBs in the development of the stresses in the GaN films. A sudden reduction of the IDB density induces a strong intrinsic stress in the GaN films, possibly leading to the mud-cracking of the films. A gradual decrease in the IDB density was achieved by slowly reducing the GaCl flux during the growth process of GaN buffer layer on sapphire substrates, and allowed us to experimentally demonstrate the successful fabrication of 4-in. crack-free GaN films. This approach may contribute to the fabrication of larger crack-free GaN films.
Materials Science and Engineering B 03/2015; 193. DOI:10.1016/j.mseb.2014.11.012 · 2.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine which factors affect the rehabilitation duration in patients with congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) and to predict the duration of rehabilitation and prognosis.
One hundred and eighteen patients (79 males and 39 females) who were diagnosed with CMT and received physical therapy were enrolled in this study. We retrospectively reviewed the information in terms of sex, gestational age, birth weight, methods of delivery, fetal presentation, age at diagnosis, the affected sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle site, SCM muscle thickness, ratio of muscle thickness on the affected side to that on the unaffected side (called the 'abnormal/normal [A/N] ratio'), and range of motion for cervical rotation and side bending.
The SCM muscle thickness and A/N ratio had a positive linear relationship with the rehabilitation duration. Patients who were in the breech position needed longer rehabilitation. The birth weight and age at diagnosis were negatively correlated with the rehabilitation duration. However, the cervical range of motion, mass site, sex, gestational age, and methods of delivery were not correlated with the rehabilitation duration.
Patients with a thicker SCM, lower birth weight, and history of breech delivery had a longer rehabilitation duration.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine 02/2015; 39(1):18-24. DOI:10.5535/arm.2015.39.1.18
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) is a promising tool for the therapy of immune disorders. However, their efficacy and mechanisms in treating allergic skin disorders are less verified. We sought to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (hUCB-MSCs) against murine atopic dermatitis (AD) and to explore distinct mechanisms that regulate their efficacy. AD was induced in mice by the topical application of Dermatophagoides farinae. Naïve or activated-hUCB-MSCs were administered to mice, and clinical severity was determined. The subcutaneous administration of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2)-activated hUCB-MSCs exhibited prominent protective effects against AD, and suppressed the infiltration and degranulation of mast cells (MCs). A β-hexosaminidase assay was performed to evaluate the effect of hUCB-MSCs on MC degranulation. NOD2-activated MSCs reduced the MC degranulation via NOD2-COX2 signaling. In contrast to bone marrow-derived MSCs, hUCB-MSCs exerted a cell-to-cell contact-independent suppressive effect on MC degranulation through the higher production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Additionally, TGF-β1 production from hUCB-MSCs in response to IL-4 contributed to the attenuation of MC degranulation by down-regulating FcεRI expression in MCs. In conclusion, the subcutaneous application of NOD2-activated hUCB-MSCs can efficiently ameliorate AD, and MSC-derived PGE2 and TGF-β1 are required for the inhibition of MC degranulation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is an endogenous inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) that acts as a neuromodulator in various neurophysiological and pathological conditions. Several researchers including us reported the induction of PAI-1 during inflammatory condition; however, the mechanism regulating PAI-1 induction is not yet clear. In this study, we investigated the role of non-receptor tyrosine kinase Fyn in the regulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced upregulation of PAI-1 in rat primary astrocyte. The activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling, induced by its ligand LPS, stimulated a physical interaction between TLR4 and Fyn along with phosphorylation of tyrosine residue in both molecules as determined by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Immunofluorescence staining also showed increased co-localization of TLR4-Fyn on cultured rat primary astrocytes after LPS treatment. The increased TRLR4-Fyn interaction induced expression of PAI-1 through the activation of PI3k/Akt/NFĸB pathway. Treatment with Src kinase inhibitor (PP2) or transfection of Fyn small interfering RNA (siRNA) into cultured rat primary astrocytes inhibited phosphorylation of tyrosine residue of TLR4 and blocked the interaction between TLR4 and Fyn resulting to the inhibition of LPS-induced expression of PAI-1. The activation of PI3K/Akt/NFĸB signaling cascades was also inhibited by Fyn knockdown in rat primary astrocytes. The induction of PAI-1 in rat primary astrocytes, which resulted in downregulation of tPA activity in culture supernatants, inhibited neurite outgrowth in cultured rat primary cortical neuron. The inhibition of neurite extension was prevented by PP2 or Fyn siRNA treatment in rat primary astrocytes. These results suggest the critical physiological role of TRL4-Fyn interaction in the modulation of PAI-1-tPA axis in astrocytes during neuroinflammatory responses such as ischemia/reperfusion injuries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Propofol, a widely used anesthetic, regulates neurological processes including neurotoxicity, neuroprotection, glial activation, synaptic plasticity and neuronal maturation. Tissue plasminogen activator/tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (tPA/PAI-1) in CNS acts as a neuromodulator regulating synaptic plasticity, neurite outgrowth, seizure spreading and cell survival. Here, we investigated the effects of propofol on tPA/PAI-1 system using cultured neurons and astrocytes and their role in the regulation of neurite extension. Cultured rat primary astrocytes were treated with propofol (1-10 µM) and LPS (10 ng/ml). The expression of functional tPA/PAI-1 was examined by casein zymography, Western blot and RT-PCR. Alternatively, culture supernatants were added to cultured rat primary neuron to investigate the effects on neurite extension. Propofol alone did not affect tPA activity in rat primary cortical neuron. Similarly, propofol alone changed neither tPA nor PAI-1 activity in rat primary astrocytes. In immunologically challenged situation using LPS, propofol synergistically increased expression of PAI-1 in rat primary astrocytes without affecting tPA expression in a manner dependent on MAPKs activation. Increased expression of PAI-1 reduced tPA activity in LPS plus propofol-treated rat primary astrocytes. Consistent with the critical role of tPA activity in the regulation of neurite extension (Cho et al. 2013), the diminished tPA activity in astrocyte culture supernatants resulted in decreased neurite extension when administered to cultured rat primary cortical neuron. The results from the present study suggest that propofol, especially in immunologically-challenged situation, dysregulates tPA/PAI-1 system in brain. Whether the dysregulated tPA/PAI-1 activity adversely affects neural differentiation as well as regeneration of neuron in vivo should be empirically determined in the future.
Archives of Pharmacal Research 07/2014; 38(4). DOI:10.1007/s12272-014-0442-1 · 2.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we report a method of fabricating thin layer of polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS), with a thickness in the range of 60 to 80 nm, which can be repeatedly generated (more than ten times) from the same block of PDMS via controlled interfacial fracture. The thin layers can be transferred to various substrates by peeling off from the bulk PDMS. The cleavage is attributed to the built-in stress at the fracture interface due to plasma treatment, resulting in the repetitive formation of the thin membranes, with no residue from processing, and with a surface roughness of ~5 nm. We were able to demonstrate transferred patterns with controlled thickness by varying the oxygen plasma treatment conditions and the composition of bulk PDMS stamp. Using the method, we achieved residual-free patterns with sub-micron resolution for applications in biomolecule array templates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A stretchable resistive pressure sensor is achieved by coating a compressible substrate with a highly stretchable electrode. The substrate contains an array of microscale pyramidal features, and the electrode comprises a polymer composite. When the pressure-induced geometrical change experienced by the electrode is maximized at 40% elongation, a sensitivity of 10.3 kPa(-1) is achieved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A ganglion cyst is a relatively common benign tumor on the wrist. Conservative and surgical approaches have been used for its treatment. Various conservative treatment methods have been suggested such as reassurance, aspiration, sclerosant injection, and direct compression. But, there is no acceptable treatment of choice yet because each suggested method has a relatively high recurrence rate. We want to report two cases in which the size of the wrist ganglion was decreased by using electroacupuncture. One patient presented with a chronic ganglion for six years and the other patient presented with a recently occurred acute ganglion. We applied electroacupuncture for 20 minutes once a week for eight weeks to both of them. Afterwards, the size of the wrist ganglion diminished in the follow-up sonography and the accompanying pain was also relieved. Herein we report both cases along with a review of the relevant literature.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine 06/2014; 38(3):415-20. DOI:10.5535/arm.2014.38.3.415
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One quantitative liquid handling method in conventional assay processes is pipetting, which delivers a precise volume of one sample at a time. As this process becomes laborious and time-consuming as the number of samples increases, researchers in individual laboratories need a way to conduct large-scale assays in a reasonable amount of time and at an affordable cost. Here we report a novel handling technique of chemical substances termed 'partipetting', which allows the one-step pipetting of various chemical-laden hydrogels. We pipette and assemble various types of encoded chemical-laden microparticles in microwell arrays in parallel. The combination of this heterogeneous particle chip and a cell chip induces the release of the chemicals from the hydrogels and, eventually, the chemicals treat the targets. Based on bioassay applications using partipetting, we show its capability in large-scale bioassays, without the need for high-throughput bioassay resources, owing to a reduction in the assay costs and time.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracellular Ca(2+) signal is a key regulator of axonal growth during brain development. As transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are permeable to Ca(2+) and mediate numerous brain functions, it is conceivable that many TRP channels would regulate neuronal differentiation. We therefore screened TRP channels that are involved in the regulation of neurite growth. Among the TRP channels, the Trpm2 level was inversely associated with neurite growth. TRPM2 was highly expressed in embryonic brain. Pharmacological perturbation or knockdown of TRPM2 markedly increased the axonal growth, whereas its overexpression inhibited the axonal growth. Addition of ADP ribose, an endogenous activator of TRPM2, to PC12 cells significantly repressed the axonal growth. TRPM2 was actively involved in the neuronal retraction induced by cerebrospinal fluid-rich lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). More importantly, neurons isolated from the brain of Trpm2-deficient mice have significantly longer neurites with a greater number of spines than those obtained from the brain of wild-type mice. Therefore, we conclude that TRPM2 mediates the LPA-induced suppression of axonal growth, which provides a long-sought mechanism underlying the effect of LPA on neuronal development.
Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 01/2014; 466(10). DOI:10.1007/s00424-013-1436-4 · 4.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding seleniferous whole crop barley silage (WCBS) on the growth performance, blood and carcass characteristics, and tissue selenium deposition infinishing Hanwoo steers. A total of 20 growing Hanwoo steers were selected and assigned to one of the following feed groups: control (0.1 ppm Se), T1 (0.3 ppm Se), T2 (0.9 ppm Se), and T3 (0.9 ppm of inorganic Se). Five steers were allocated to each treatment group, and the trial lasted for 90 days. All experimental diets combined seleniferous and/or non-seleniferous WCBS up to a ratio of 30%. For the T3 diet, 0.9 ppm Se in the form of sodium selenite was added to the control diet. Dietary level and type of selenium did not affect feed intake and body weight gain. Blood total lipid and triglyceride concentrations were significantly (p
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the important role of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) as a neuromodulator in neurons, microglia, and astrocytes, its role in neural progenitor cell (NPC) development is not clear yet. We identified that tPA is highly expressed in NPCs compared with neurons. Inhibition of tPA activity or expression using tPA stop, PAI-1, or tPA siRNA inhibited neurite outgrowth from NPCs, while overexpression or addition of exogenous tPA increased neurite outgrowth. The expression of Wnt and β-catenin as well as phosphorylation of LRP5 and LRP6, which has been implicated in Wnt-β-catenin signaling, was rapidly increased after tPA treatment and was decreased by tPA siRNA transfection. Knockdown of β-catenin or LRP5/6 expression by siRNA prevented tPA-induced neurite extension. NPCs obtained from tPA KO mice showed impaired neurite outgrowth compared with WT NPCs. In ischemic rat brains, axon density was higher in the brains transplanted with WT NPCs than in those with tPA KO NPCs, suggesting increased axonal sprouting by NPC-derived tPA. tPA-mediated regulation of neuronal maturation in NPCs may play an important role during development and in regenerative conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is expressed in several regions of brain and plays regulatory roles such as neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity and long term potentiation. The activity of tPA is regulated by an endogenous inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), which is expressed mainly in astrocytes. Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor that is used for the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorders, promotes neurite extension, neuronal growth and has neuroprotective effect in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we examined whether the neurite extension effects of VPA is mediated by modulating tPA/PAI-1 system. VPA dose-dependently increased tPA activity and decreased PAI-1 activity in rat primary astrocytes but not in neurons. PAI-1 protein level secreted into the culture medium but not tPA per se was decreased by VPA. In co-culture system or in neuronal culture stimulated with astrocyte conditioned media but not in pure neuronal cell culture, VPA induced neurite outgrowth via increased tPA activity due to the decreased PAI-1 activity in astrocytes. The decrease in PAI-1 activity and increased neurite extension was regulated via JNK mediated post-transcriptional pathway. The essential role of tPA/PAI-1 system in the regulation of VPA-mediated neurite extension was further demonstrated by experiments using astrocyte conditioned media obtained from tPA or PAI-1 knockout mice. Regulation of PAI-1 activity in astrocyte by VPA may affect both physiological and pathological processes in brain by upregulating tPA activity. GLIA 2013.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims:
Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is an essential neuromodulator whose involvement in multiple functions such as synaptic plasticity, cytokine-like immune function and regulation of cell survival mandates rapid and tight tPA regulation in the brain. We investigated the possibility that a transient metabolic challenge induced by glucose deprivation may affect tPA activity in rat primary astrocytes, the main cell type responsible for metabolic regulation in the CNS.
Rat primary astrocytes were incubated in serum-free DMEM without glucose. Casein zymography was used to determine tPA activity, and tPA mRNA was measured by RT-PCR. The signaling pathways regulating tPA activity were identified by Western blotting.
Glucose deprivation rapidly down-regulated the activity of tPA without affecting its mRNA level in rat primary astrocytes; this effect was mimicked by translational inhibitors. The down-regulation of tPA was accompanied by increased tPA degradation, which may be modulated by a proteasome-dependent degradation pathway. Glucose deprivation induced activation of PI3K-Akt-GSK3β, p38 and AMPK, and inhibition of these pathways using LY294002, SB203580 and compound C significantly inhibited glucose deprivation-induced tPA down-regulation, demonstrating the essential role of these pathways in tPA regulation in glucose-deprived astrocytes.
Rapid and reversible regulation of tPA activity in rat primary astrocytes during metabolic crisis may minimize energy-requiring neurologic processes in stressed situations. This effect may thereby increase the opportunity to invest cellular resources in cell survival and may allow rapid re-establishment of normal cellular function after the crisis.
Life sciences 04/2013; 92(17-19). DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2013.03.011 · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether a routine ultrasonography (US) is necessary for diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of hip (DDH), presenting with congenital muscular torticollis (CMT).
Cases of 133 patients (81 males, 52 females) diagnosed as CMT were reviewed, retrospectively. We reviewed the medical charts and diagnostic examination. We also assessed the coincidence of CMT and DDH, and investigated the clinical features of CMT related to DDH.
Twenty (15.0%) patients out of 133 CMT patients were diagnosed as having DDH by US. Of whom, 8 patients were radiographically positive and 4 patients were both clinically and radiographically positive. Nine patients were treated with a harness and 1 of them needed closed reduction and casting. Out of 9 patients treated with a harness, only 4 were clinically positive. The difference and ratio of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle thickness between the normal and abnormal side was significantly greater in DDH patients (p=0.014). Further, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed when the SCM ratio is greater than 2.08 and the SCM difference is greater than 6.1 mm, the efficiency of US for the diagnosis of the DDH was found to be the best (p<0.05).
To evaluate DDH, physical examination showed low sensitivity and radiologic study has limitation for the child before 4 to 6 months of age. Therefore, we recommend that hip is screened by US for the diagnosis of DDH associated with CMT when physical examination is positive or CMT patients with large SCM difference and high SCM ratio.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine 02/2013; 37(1):26-32. DOI:10.5535/arm.2013.37.1.26
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study has been conducted to investigate the effects of feeding seleniferous whole crop barley (WCB) to finishing pigs on their growth performance, blood and carcass characteristics as well as on tissue selenium deposition. A total of 40 cross-bred barrows ((LandraceYorkshire)Duroc) were allotted to five replicates of four treatments. Each replicate was arranged to 2 pigs per pen; the experimental period lasted for 6 weeks. The finishing pigs were fed diets containing 0.1 (non-seleniferous WCB as a control), 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 ppm of selenium (Se) by supplementing the diets with seleniferous WCB. The isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing 5% non-seleniferous or seleniferous WCB were formulated. Feeding seleniferous WCB did not affect (p
Hangug chugsan sigpum haghoeji = Korean journal for food science of animal resources 12/2012; 32(6). DOI:10.5851/kosfa.2012.32.6.828 · 0.25 Impact Factor