Sun-Kyung Lee

Kyung Hee University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (25)58.04 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Although previous studies have demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H(2) S) stimulated or inhibited osteoclastic differentiation, little is known about the effects of H(2) S on the differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. To determine the possible bioactivities of H(2) S on bone metabolism, we investigated the in vitro effects of H(2) S on cytotoxicity, osteoblastic, and osteoclastic differentiation as well as the underlying mechanism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and nicotine-stimulated human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs). The H(2) S donor, _NaHS, protected hPDLCs from nicotine and LPS-induced cytotoxicity and recovered nicotine- and LPS-downregulated osteoblastic differentiation, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mRNA expression of osteoblasts, including ALP, osteopontin, and osteocalcin, and mineralized nodule formation. Concomitantly, NaHS inhibited the differentiation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclasts in mouse bone marrow cells and blocked nicotine- and LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis regulatory molecules, such as RANKL, OPG, M-CSF, MMP-9, TRAP, and cathepsin K mRNA. NaHS blocked nicotine and LPS-induced activation of p38, ERK, MKP-1, PI3K, PKC and PKC isoenzymes, and NF-κB. The effects of H(2) S on nicotine- and LPS-induced osteoblastic and osteoclastic differentiation were remarkably reversed by MKP-1 enzyme inhibitor (vanadate) and expression inhibitor (triptolide). Taken together, we report for the first time that H(2) S inhibited cytotoxicity and osteoclastic differentiation and recovered osteoblastic differentiation in a nicotine- and periodontopathogen-stimulated hPDLCs model, which has potential therapeutic value for treatment of periodontal and inflammatory bone diseases. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 11/2012; · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are an interesting class of bone substitute materials. However, the biological effects of CPCs have not been well studied in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CPCs on the mechanical properties, growth, and odontoblastic differentiation in HDPCs compared with Portland cement (PC) and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Experimental CPCs either containing chitosan (Ch-CPC) or without chitosan (CPC) were composed from the alpha-tricalcium phosphate powder. Setting time, compressive strength measurements, cell growth, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, the levels of messenger RNA for differentiation-related genes, and mineralization of the HDPCs on various cements were assessed. The setting time for CPC-Ch was 7.5 minutes, which was significantly less than the 8.6 minutes for the CPC. On the seventh day of immersion, the compressive strength of CPC-CH reached 13.1 MPa, which was higher than 10.8 MPa of CPC. CPC and Ch-CPC-treated cells showed decreased cell proliferation but increased the levels of ALP activity, enhanced mineralized nodule formation, and upregulated odontoblastic markers messenger RNA including osteonectin, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, dentin matrix protein-1, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein, and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), compared with untreated control. The response of CPC and CP-CPC were similar to that of PC and MTA. However, the adhesion, growth, and differentiation in Ch-CPC-treated cells were similar to that in the CPC. CPC may be useful for pulp-capping applications based on its abilities to promote HDPC differentiation.
    Journal of endodontics 09/2010; 36(9):1537-42. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the mechanisms through which mechanical stress and lipopolysaccharide treatment modulate osteoblastic differentiation in periodontal ligament cells. Cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide and/or mechanical strain applied with a Flexercell Strain Unit. Protein expression and mRNA were analyzed by Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. When lipopolysaccharide was co-applied with mechanical strain, the increase in the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2, bone morphogenetic protein-7, and Runx2 mRNA seen with mechanical strain alone was restricted, but heme oxygenase-1 expression was further enhanced. Furthermore, pretreatment with an inhibitor of heme oxygenase-1 or inhibitors of p38, mitogen-activated protein kinase, JNK, phosphoinositide 3-kinases, protein kinase G, and nuclear factor kappaB restricted osteogenic differentiation induced by the application of lipopolysaccharide and mechanical strain. These results suggest that orthodontic force-induced osteogenesis in alveolar bone is inhibited by the accompanying periodontal inflammation via the upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 expression. Thus, the heme oxygenase-1 pathway could provide a possible therapeutic strategy to improve bone formation in orthodontic treatment.
    The Angle Orthodontist 07/2010; 80(4):552-9. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is involved in osteoblastic differentiation, the HO-1- and odontoblastic differentiation-inducing effects of mechanical stress (MS) have not been clarified in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). In this study, we examined the effects of MS on the odontoblastic differentiation of immortalized HDPCs and on the primary intracellular signaling pathways, including the HO-1 pathway, implicated in this differentiation. A Flexercell strain unit was used to generate cyclic tensile strain in HDPCs. Expressions of mRNAs encoding HO-1 and HDPC differentiation markers, such as osteopontin (OPN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), and dentin matrix-protein-1 (DMP-1), were evaluated using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Expression of the NF-E2-related transcription factor 2 (Nrf2) protein was analyzed by Western blotting. MS significantly increased the expression of HO-1, OPN, BSP, DSPP, and DMP-1 mRNAs in HDPCs. HO-1 silencing and inhibitors of HO-1, p38 MAPK, ERK, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) all attenuated MS-stimulated differentiation. The MS-induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 was suppressed by inhibitors of PI3K and NF-kappaB. Collectively, these results provide the first evidence that MS stimulates odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs via modulation of the Nrf2-mediated HO-1 pathway.
    Life sciences 12/2009; 86(3-4):107-14. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) play important roles in the regulation of stem cell proliferation and differentiation. However, it has not been examined whether human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells can differentiate into osteoblast-like cells by NO activity mediated via HO-1. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of NO on proliferation and differentiation in human PDL cells, and to identify the underlying mechanism of its actions. Primary human PDL cells were cultured with NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP); cell proliferation and differentiation were measured. NO production, cell viability and cell proliferation were evaluated using the Griess reagent, MTT assay and BrdU incorporation, respectively. To analyze differentiation, we measured alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin (OC), osteonectin (ON) expression, and bone sialoprotein (BSP) by Western blotting. SNP-induced NO production is associated with inducible nitric oxide synthase induction in a time and dose-dependent manner. SNP resulted in decreased cell proliferation and increased expression of osteogenic differentiation markers such as ALP, OC, ON and BSP. Maximal HO-1 was reached with 0.05 mM SNP and gradually decreased with 1.0 mM. Treatment with an HO-1 inhibitor and selective inhibitors of extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 and nuclear factor-kappaB blocked the SNP-induced growth inhibition, as well as osteoblastic differentiation. These data suggest that NO-induced osteogenic differentiation through HO-1 may be an important mediator of periodontal regeneration or bone tissue engineering.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 09/2009; 32(8):1328-34. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although substance P (SP) is associated with osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, little is known about the osteogenic differentiation-inducing effects of SP in periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. This study investigated whether PDL cells could differentiate into osteoblastic-like cells by SP. The expression of osteoblastic differentiation markers such as osteopontin (OPN), osteonectin (ON), osteocalcin (OCN) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) were evaulated by Western blotting. Additionally, SP-mediated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathways were further clarified. SP increased HO-1 and osteogenic differentiation in concentration- and time-dependent manners, as determined by OPN, ON, OCN and BSP expression. Furthermore, treatment with inhibitors of p38, ERK MAPK, and NF-kappaB abolished SP-induced osteogenic differentiation and HO-1 expression. SP-induced translocation of Nrf-2 was also observed. The combined results suggest that SP activates the stress-response enzymes HO-1 and Nrf-2, subsequently leading to upregulation of osteogenic differentiation in human PDL cells.
    Cell Biology International 03/2009; 33(3):424-8. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of mechanical stress, particularly cyclic strain, on proinflammatory cytokines as well as antioxidant properties and their interactions with cellular defense systems in human dental pulp (HDP) cells. Exposure of HDP cells to mechanical strain induced inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6, as well as antioxidant genes such as heme oxygenase-1, superoxide dismutases, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate quinone oxidoreductase-1, and glutathione peroxidases. In addition, treatment with N-acetylcysteine, indomethacin, and heme oxygenase-1 inhibitors blocked reactive oxygen species production, antioxidant response element (ARE) gene expression, and Nrf2 accumulation that occurred in response to mechanical stress. These data demonstrate that mechanical strain activates inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress, which then act in concert to induce the Nrf2-/ARE-mediated antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, we suggest that the activation of a compensatory adaptation or defense antioxidant system might represent a novel mechanism for protecting HDP cells against mechanical stress.
    Journal of endodontics 12/2008; 34(11):1364-9. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aim: The inducible stress protein, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is considered to be a mediator of cytoprotective processes that might be of particular significance during inflammatory events. Currently, there is nothing in the literature regarding HO-1 expression and proliferation in oral lichen planus (OLP). We investigate whether HO-1 and proliferation are more expressed in the tissues of OLP patients compared to normal tissues. Methods: Streptavidin-based immunohistochemical staining was used to detect proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and HO-1 in 36 cases of OLP. Results: In OLP, HO-1 was found to be expressed in basal and parabasal dendritic cells and lymphocytes and was coincident with PCNA expression. PCNA and HO-1 immunoreactivities were higher in OLP mucosa than in normal mucosa, and the differences were statistically significant. Conclusions: These results suggest an elevation of HO-1 expression in OLP. HO-1 may play an adaptive or cytoprotective role during the immunologic stress of OLP.
    Basic and Applied Pathology 11/2008; 1(3):144 - 148.
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha (MIP-3alpha or CCL20) is an intriguing molecule in cancer immunotherapy, but MIP-3alpha expression and signalling are not well understood in oral cancer cells. We investigated CCL20 expression and signal transduction by treating immortalized human oral keratinocyte (IHOK) and oral cancer (HN4) cells with deferoxamine (DFO) and examined the mRNA expression of CCL20 using RT-PCR and ELISA. IHOK and HN4 cells treated with DFO showed increased mRNA and protein expression of CCL20, and the upregulation of DFO-induced CCL20 expression was higher in IHOK cells than in HN4 cells. Selective inhibitors of p38 and ERK1/2 abolished DFO-induced CCL20 expression in both IHOK and HN12 cells, and p38 and ERK1/2 inhibitors prevented DFO-induced degradation of I-kappaB and NF-kappaB activation. Activation of c-fos and c-jun also occurred following DFO treatment in IHOK and HN4 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that DFO-induced MIP-3alpha, which is involved in the MAP kinase, c-fos, c-jun, and NF-kappaB pathways, may be an important mediator of the antitumour immune response in oral keratinocytes and warrants consideration as a target molecule for oral cancer treatment.
    Archives of Oral Biology 10/2008; 53(9):801-9. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although hydrogen peroxide may play an important role in the development of cancer, it can be an efficient inducer of apoptosis in cancer cells; the exact mechanism by which this action occurs is not completely understood in oral cancer cells. In this study, the mechanisms by which H(2)O(2) inhibited growth and induced apoptosis were differentially investigated using HPV-immortalized human oral keratinocytes (IHOK) and oral cancer cells (HN4). H(2)O(2) treatment sensitively and dose-dependently induced growth inhibition and typical apoptosis in IHOK and HN4 cells, as demonstrated by a decreased level of cell viability, an increased population of cells in the sub-G(0)/G(1) phase, ladder formation of the genomic DNA, chromatin condensation and accumulation of Annexin V(+)/PI(+) cells. Furthermore, the expression of Bax, p53 and p21(WAF1/CIP1) increased, whereas the expression of Bcl-2 decreased in immortalized and malignant keratinocytes that were treated with H(2)O(2). In addition, cytochrome-c from the mitochondria was observed in H(2)O(2)-treated IHOK and oral cancer cells, and this was accompanied by the activation of caspase-3 and -9. Additionally, H(2)O(2) treatment induced upregulation of CHOP, GRP78 and several representative endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-responsive proteins, including heme oxygenase-1. Overall, these results suggest that H(2)O(2) triggers apoptosis via the mitochondrial and ER stress pathway in IHOK and HN4 cells, and that increasing the cellular levels of H(2)O(2) sufficiently may lead to selective killing of oral cancer cells and therefore be therapeutically useful.
    Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 09/2008; 37(8):490-8. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been reported, the HO-1 and odontoblastic differentiation-inducing effects against H2O2 have not been clarified in human pulp cells. In this study, we investigated whether HO-1 is involved in the protective mechanisms against the cytotoxic effects of H2O2 by using a cell viability assay, and we examined the production of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and other mineralization markers by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in human pulp cells. H2O2 decreased cell viability but increased HO-1 and DSPP expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Antioxidants and inhibitors of HO-1, phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase blocked H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and the expression of HO-1 and DSPP mRNA in pulp cells. These data suggest that the induction of HO-1 by H2O2 in pulp cells plays a protective role against the cytotoxic effects of H2O2 and stimulates DSPP expression, resulting in premature odontoblast differentiation through pathways that involve phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinase, p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase.
    Journal of endodontics 08/2008; 34(8):983-9. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the pulpal response to direct capping with either mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) or calcium hydroxide (CH) cement in humans, with a focus on dentin bridge formation and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Direct pulp capping was performed in 20 cases of caries-free human third molars. The pulps were exposed and capped with either MTA or hard-setting CH. After 2 months, the teeth were extracted, and the specimens were prepared for histologic and immunohistochemical evaluations. Histologically, 100% of the MTA group and 60% of the CH group developed dentin bridges. The mean thickness of the dentin bridges observed in the MTA group was statistically greater than that of CH group. In addition, DSP and HO-1 were expressed in the odontoblast-like cells and pulp fibroblasts beneath the dentin bridge; furthermore, significantly greater immunostaining was observed in the MTA group than in the CH group. Collectively, these results indicate that MTA is superior to CH in terms of inducing the dentinogenic process in human pulp capping.
    Journal of endodontics 07/2008; 34(6):666-70. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) exhibits cytoprotective effects in many different cell types and is induced by nicotine exposure in human gingival fibroblasts. However, the role of HO-1 in cancer cells exposed to nicotine has not previously been described. We investigated the effects of nicotine on HO-1 protein expression and cell viability in immortalized (IHOK) and malignant (HN12) human oral keratinocyte cells using the 3,4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and Western blotting. We also examined the involvement of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling pathways in nicotine-induced cytotoxicity and HO-1 levels in IHOK and HN12 cells. Nicotine-induced HO-1 production and had cytotoxic effects on cells in both a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Nicotine-induced cytotoxicity and accumulation of HO-1 were greater in IHOK cells than in HN12 cells. Molecular inhibitors of the ERK, p38 MAP kinase, PI3 K, and NF-kappaB signaling pathways blocked the cytotoxic effects and induction of HO-1 expression by nicotine. Treatment with antioxidants (bilirubin, N-acetylcysteine) protected cells against nicotine-induced cytotoxicity and blocked the upregulation of HO-1, the effects of which were more pronounced in IHOK cells than in HN12 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that HO-1 plays a principal role in the protective response to nicotine in oral cancer and immortalized keratinocytes. Moreover, the addition of exogenous antioxidants may help to protect oral epithelial cells as chemopreventive agents against nicotine-induced oxidative stress.
    Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 06/2008; 37(5):278-86. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although verticinone, a major alkaloid isolated from the bulbus of Fritillaria ussuriensis, has been shown to induce differentiation in human leukemia cells, the exact mechanism of this action is not completely understood in cancer cells. Verticinone was used to conduct growth and apoptosis-related experiments for two stages of oral cancer on immortalized human oral keratinocytes (IHOKs) and primary oral cancer cells (HN4). The procedures included MTT assay, three-dimensional (3-D) raft cultures, Western blotting, cell cycle analysis, nuclear staining and cytochrome c expression related to the apoptosis signaling pathway. Verticinone inhibited the proliferation of immortalized and malignant oral keratinocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In 3-D organotypic culture, verticinone-treated cells were less mature than the control cells, displaying low surface keratinization and decreased epithelial thickness. The major mechanism by which verticinone inhibits growth appears to be induced apoptosis and G(0)G(1) cell cycle arrest. This finding is supported by the results of the cell cycle analysis, FITC-Annexin V staining, DNA fragmentation assay and Hoechst 33258 staining. Furthermore, the cytosolic level of cytochrome c was increased, while the expression of Bcl-2 protein was gradually down-regulated and Bax was up-regulated, accompanied by caspase-3 activation. The data suggests that verticinone may induce apoptosis through a caspase pathway mediated by mitochondrial damage in immortalized keratinocytes and oral cancer cells.
    Phytotherapy Research 04/2008; 22(3):416-23. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sulfur is commonly used in Asia as an herbal medicine to treat inflammation and cancer, and potent chemopreventive effects have been demonstrated in various in vivo and in vitro models for sulfur-containing compounds found in naturally occurring products. Here, we report the growth inhibitory and apoptosis-related effects of a newly developed highly purified sulfur (HPS) on immortalized human oral keratinocytes (IHOKs) and on oral cancer cells representing two stages of oral cancer (HN4, HN12) based on a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Western blotting, cell cycle analysis, and nuclear staining. The purity of the sulfur preparation was verified by high-performance liquid chromatography. HPS inhibited the proliferation of immortalized and malignant oral keratinocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. FITC-annexin V staining, DNA fragmentation testing, and Hoechst 33258 staining revealed that HPS inhibited cell growth via apoptosis. HPS increased the sub-G1 cell cycle fraction, with decreased expression of cyclins D1, D2, and E and their activating partners cdk2, cdk4, and cdk6, and a concomitant induction of p53 and p21/WAF1. Furthermore, HPS treatment increased the cytosolic level of cytochrome c and resulted in caspase-3 activation; this effect was correlated with Bax up-regulation and Bcl-2 down-regulation. Thus, these data suggest that HPS is a potential candidate for anti-cancer therapy in oral cancer.
    Toxicology in Vitro 03/2008; 22(1):87-95. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is involved in a variety of regulatory and protective cellular mechanisms as a stress-responsive protein. Whether HO-1 plays a protective role against NO-induced cytotoxicity in oral cancer cells has not yet been established. We used sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as a source of exogenous NO in studies of NO-induced cytotoxicity in immortalized (IHOK) and malignant oral keratinocytes (HN12). The roles of the caspase pathway, of regulatory proteins of iron metabolism (iron regulatory protein (IRP)1, IRP2, transferrin receptor (TfR), and ferritin), and of HO-1 in protection against NO-induced cytotoxicity were assessed. The SNP-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis of IHOK and HN12 cells was reduced by addition of ferric citrate (FC). At low concentrations (< 1 mM), SNP up-regulated cellular iron metabolism by increasing expression of IRP1, IRP2, and TfR, whereas at high concentrations (> 2 mM), SNP down-regulated expression of these proteins. A consistent correlation between decreased levels of IRP1, IRP2, and TfR and increased NO-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis was observed. Addition of FC inhibited the NO-induced decrease in IRP1, IRP2, and TfR levels. Moreover, SNP increased the expression of HO-1 and ferritin in IHOK and HN12 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. NO-induced cytotoxicity was also inhibited by hemin (an HO-1 agonist) and was enhanced by zinc protoporphyrin IX (an HO-1 inhibitor). Based on these results, we conclude that HO-1 plays a major role in mediating cytoprotection and iron homeostasis against NO toxicity in immortalized and malignant oral keratinocytes.
    Cancer Letters 06/2007; 249(2):283-93. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a cytokine that plays an important role in tumor progression in a variety of cancer types; however, its regulation is not well understood in oral cancer cells. In the present study, we examined the expression and mechanism of IL-8 in which it is involved by treating immortalized (IHOK) and malignant human oral keratinocytes (HN12) cells with deferoxamine (DFO). IL-8 production was measured by an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays was used to determine NF-kappaB binding activity. Phosphorylation and degradation of the I-kappaB were analyized by Western blot. IHOK cells incubated with DFO showed increased expression of IL-8 mRNA, as well as higher release of the IL-8 protein. The up-regulation of DFO-induced IL-8 expression was higher in IHOK cells than in HN12 cells and was concentration-dependent. DFO acted additively with IL-1beta to strongly up-regulate IL-8 in IHOK cells but not in HN12 cells. Accordingly, selective p38 and ERK1/2 inhibitors for both kinases abolished DFO-induced IL-8 expression in both IHOK and HN12 cells. Furthermore, DFO induced the degradation and phosphorylation of IkappaB, and activation of NF-kappaB. The IL-8 inducing effects of DFO were mediated by a nitric oxide donor (S-nitrosoglutathione), and by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, an inhibitor of NF-kappaB, as well as by wortmannin, which inhibits the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent activation of NAD(P)H oxidase. This results demonstrate that DFO-induced IL-8 acts via multiple signaling pathways in immortalized and malignant oral keratinocytes, and that the control of IL-8 may be an important target for immunotheraphy against human oral premalignant lesions.
    BMC Cancer 02/2007; 7:176. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) on human pulp cells and the involvement of cyclic 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) in pulpal protection induced by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) against NO-induced cytotoxicity. This study investigated cytotoxicity and HO-1 induction in pulp cells induced by the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP), by using Western blotting and a cell viability assay. It also investigated whether HO-1 contributes to the cytoprotective effect against the cytotoxicity caused by NO and the relationship between HO-1 and cGMP in the signaling pathway. S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine decreased cell viability, but increased HO-1 expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in human pulp cells. NO-induced cytotoxicity was inhibited in the presence of hemin (inducer of HO-1), whereas it was enhanced in the presence of zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP IX, HO-1 inhibitor); therefore, the NO-induced cytotoxicity was correlated with HO-1 expression. Pretreatment with a membrane-permeable cGMP analog, 8-bromo-cGMP, restored cell death and enhanced the HO-1 protein expression induced by SNAP. By contrast, 1 mM SNAP inhibited guanylate cyclase in pulp cells pretreated with 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3-alpha]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), resulting in marked cytotoxicity. These findings of a link between HO-1, regulated via the cGMP system and NO-induced cytotoxicity in human pulp cells, suggest a protective role for HO-1 in pulpal inflammation.
    Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology 01/2007; 102(6):803-8. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coptidis rhizoma (C. rhizoma) had been demonstrated as an antioxidant and anticancer agent, however, its antioral cancer mechanism still remains unclear. Using water extracts of C. rhizoma, growth and apoptosis-related experiments for the treatment of multi-stage of oral cancer were carried out on immortalized human oral keratinocytes (IHOK), primary oral cancer cells (HN4), metastatic oral cancer cells (HN12) and human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) by MTT assay, three-dimensional (3-D) raft cultures, western blotting, cell cycle analysis, nuclear staining and cytochrome c expression related to the apoptosis signaling pathway. C. rhizoma inhibited the proliferation of immortalized and malignant oral keratinocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In 3-D organotypic culture, C. rhizoma-treated cells showed less maturation than the control cells, displaying low surface keratinization and decreased epithelial thickness. The major mechanism of growth inhibition by C. rhizoma appears to be the induction of apoptosis, which is supported by the results of the cell cycle analysis, FITC-annexin V staining, DNA fragmentation assay and DAPI staining. The induction of apoptosis by C. rhizoma was more prominent in immortalized keratinocytes than in malignant oral keratinocytes. Cytochrome-c release from mitochondria, accompanied by the activation of caspase-3, was observed in C. rhizoma-treated IHOK and oral cancer cells. These results suggest that C. rhizoma has apoptotic effects in immortalized and malignant oral keratinocytes via the mitochondrial signaling pathway.
    Phytotherapy Research 10/2006; 20(9):773-9. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Iron is essential for neoplastic cell growth, and iron chelators have been tested for potential anti-proliferative and anti-cancer effects, but the effects of iron chelators on oral cancer have not been clearly elucidated. To determine the mechanism of cell death induced by iron chelators, we explored the pathways of the three structurally related mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase subfamilies during iron chelator-induced apoptosis and differentiation of immortalized human oral keratinocytes (IHOK) and oral cancer cells (HN4). The iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO) exerted potent time- and dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the growth and apoptosis of IHOK and HN4 cells. DFO strongly activates p38 MAP kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but does not activate c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase. Of the three MAP kinase blockers used, the selective p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580 and ERK inhibitor PD98059 protected IHOK and HN4 cells against iron chelator-induced cell death, which indicates that the p38 and ERK MAP kinase is a major mediator of apoptosis induced by this iron chelator. Interestingly, treatment of IHOK and HN4 cells with SB203580 and PD98059 abolished cytochrome c release, as well as the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8. DFO suppressed the expression of epithelial differentiation markers such as involucrin, CK6, and CK19, and this suppression was blocked by p38 and ERK MAP kinase inhibitors. Collectively, these data suggested that p38 and ERK MAP kinase plays an important role in iron chelator-mediated cell death and in the suppression of differentiation of oral immortalized and malignant keratinocytes, by activating a downstream apoptotic cascade that executes the cell death pathway.
    Life Sciences 10/2006; 79(15):1419-27. · 2.56 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

253 Citations
58.04 Total Impact Points


  • 2012
    • Kyung Hee University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2006–2010
    • Wonkwang University
      • College of Dentistry
      Riri, North Jeolla, South Korea
  • 2009
    • Catholic University of Korea
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea