Greg Hajcak

Stony Brook University, 스토니브룩, New York, United States

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Publications (156)575.34 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Reward-processing abnormalities are thought to be a key feature of various psychiatric disorders and may also play a role in disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), a new diagnosis in DSM-5. In the current study, we used event-related potentials (ERP) sensitive to monetary gains (i.e., the reward positivity [RewP]) and losses (i.e., the N200) to examine associations between symptoms of DMDD during early childhood and later reward processing during preadolescence. Methods: To assess early emerging DMDD symptoms in a large longitudinal community sample (n = 373) of 3-year old children, we administered a diagnostic interview, Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) with parents. At a later assessment, *6 years later, children completed a monetary reward task while an electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Children's lifetime history of psychopathology was also assessed at that time using Kiddie-Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) with the child and parent. Results: Multiple regression analyses revealed that age 3 DMDD symptoms predicted an enhanced RewP to monetary rewards in preadolescence. This association is independent of demographics and lifetime history of symptoms of depression, any anxiety disorder, attention-deficit disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, or conduct disorder Conclusions: Early manifestations of DMDD in children as young as 3 years old predicted enhanced reward processing later in development. These findings add to the growing corpus of literature on the pathophysiology of DMDD, and underscore the predictive validity of preschool DMDD on a neural level.
    Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 01/2016; DOI:10.1089/cap.2015.0071 · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • Felicia Jackson · Brady D Nelson · Greg Hajcak ·
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    ABSTRACT: Errors are unpredictable events that have the potential to cause harm. The error-related negativity (ERN) is the electrophysiological index of errors and has been posited to reflect sensitivity to threat. Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is the tendency to perceive uncertain events as threatening. In the present study, 61 participants completed a self-report measure of IU and a flanker task designed to elicit the ERN. Results indicated that IU subscales were associated with the ERN in opposite directions. Cognitive distress in the face of uncertainty (Prospective IU) was associated with a larger ERN and slower reaction time. Inhibition in response to uncertainty (Inhibitory IU) was associated with a smaller ERN and faster reaction time. This study suggests that sensitivity to the uncertainty of errors contributes to the magnitude of the ERN. Furthermore, these findings highlight the importance of considering the heterogeneity of anxiety phenotypes in relation to measures of threat sensitivity.
    Biological psychology 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2015.11.007 · 3.40 Impact Factor
  • Brian Chin · Brady D. Nelson · Felicia Jackson · Greg Hajcak ·
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    ABSTRACT: Fear conditioning research on threat predictability has primarily examined the impact of temporal (i.e., timing) predictability on the startle reflex. However, there are other key features of threat that can vary in predictability. For example, the reinforcement rate (i.e., frequency) of threat is a crucial factor underlying fear learning. The present study examined the impact of threat reinforcement rate on the startle reflex and self-reported anxiety during a fear conditioning paradigm. Forty-five participants completed a fear learning task in which the conditioned stimulus was reinforced with an electric shock to the forearm on 50% of trials in one block and 75% of trials in a second block, in counter-balanced order. The present study also examined whether intolerance of uncertainty (IU), the tendency to perceive or experience uncertainty as stressful or unpleasant, was associated with the startle reflex during conditions of low (50%) vs. high (75%) reinforcement. Results indicated that, across all participants, startle was greater during the 75% relative to the 50% reinforcement condition. IU was positively correlated with startle potentiation (i.e., increased startle response to the CS+ relative to the CS-) during the 50%, but not the 75%, reinforcement condition. Thus, despite receiving fewer electric shocks during the 50% reinforcement condition, individuals with high IU uniquely demonstrated greater defense system activation when impending threat was more uncertain. The association between IU and startle was independent of state anxiety. The present study adds to a growing literature on threat predictability and aversive responding, and suggests IU is associated with abnormal responding in the context of uncertain threat.
    International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2015.11.006 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The importance of top-down factors such as goals and expectations is well-established in both visual perception and anxiety. However, researchers have attributed the perceptual prioritization of threatening stimuli in anxiety to bottom-up, automatic processing of these stimuli while neglecting the role of prestimulus, top-down factors. Furthermore, different kinds of anxiety (dispositional versus induced) impact cognitive functions differently, suggesting that top-down factors may have distinct effects on threat perception. In the present study, we examined whether prestimulus representations of threatening stimuli facilitate perception differently, depending on induced and trait anxiety. Two groups of participants completed a cued discrimination task using threatening or neutral cues to identify subsequently presented fearful and neutral faces, degraded to each participant's perceptual threshold. In Group 1, threat of shock induced anxiety (n = 22; 12 men), whereas in Group 2, no anxiety was induced (n = 29; 7 men). The impact of induced anxiety on perception interacted with trait anxiety. Following fear cues, higher trait anxiety was associated with improved perceptual sensitivity and faster reaction time under threat of shock, and worse perceptual sensitivity and slower reaction time in absence of shock. The present findings represent an important advance in the literature because they elucidate the role of previously ignored top-down factors in threat perception for individuals with varying levels of anxiety and highlight the distinct impact that different types of anxiety have on the perception of threatening stimuli. Furthermore, these findings underline the importance of including top-down factors in future conceptualizations of perceptual bias toward threat in anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record
    Emotion 10/2015; DOI:10.1037/emo0000098 · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is growing evidence that unpredictability and uncertainty can alter reward system functioning. The present study examined the impact of (1) a task-irrelevant unpredictable relative to predictable context and (2) individual differences in intolerance of uncertainty (IU) on the reward-related positivity (RewP), an event-related potential (ERP) response to monetary gains relative to losses. Specifically, 64 participants listened to predictable and unpredictable tone sequences while electroencephalography was recorded during a monetary gambling task. Participants also completed the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale, which measures both cognitive distress (prospective IU) and behavioral inhibition (inhibitory IU) elicited by uncertainty, in addition to the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Results indicated that the RewP was reduced during the unpredictable relative to the predictable context. Greater self-reported anxiety elicited by the unpredictable context was associated with a decreased RewP, and a decreased RewP was associated with poorer lose-shift behavioral adjustment. Furthermore, the RewP mediated the relationship between self-reported anxiety elicited by the unpredictable context and lose-shift behavioral adjustment. The IU subscales demonstrated the opposite relationship with the RewP across both contexts-inhibitory IU was associated with an attenuated RewP and prospective IU was associated with an enhanced RewP. In contrast, anxiety, depression, stress, and worry symptomatology were not associated with the RewP. This is the first study to demonstrate that an unpredictable context and individual differences in the degree to which people cannot tolerate uncertainty impact an ERP measure of reward system functioning.
    Cognitive Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience 10/2015; DOI:10.3758/s13415-015-0382-3 · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Natural disasters expose entire communities to stress and trauma, leading to increased risk for psychiatric symptoms. Yet, the majority of exposed individuals are resilient, highlighting the importance of identifying underlying factors that contribute to outcomes. Methods: The current study was part of a larger prospective study of children in Long Island, New York (n = 260). At age 9, children viewed unpleasant and pleasant images while the late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential component that reflects sustained attention toward salient information, was measured. Following the event-related potential assessment, Hurricane Sandy, the second costliest hurricane in United States history, hit the region. Eight weeks after the hurricane, mothers reported on exposure to hurricane-related stress and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Symptoms were reassessed 8 months after the hurricane. Results: The LPP predicted both internalizing and externalizing symptoms after accounting for prehurricane symptomatology and interacted with stress to predict externalizing symptoms. Among children exposed to higher levels of hurricane-related stress, enhanced neural reactivity to unpleasant images predicted greater externalizing symptoms 8 weeks after the disaster, while greater neural reactivity to pleasant images predicted lower externalizing symptoms. Moreover, interactions between the LPP and stress continued to predict externalizing symptoms 8 months after the hurricane. Conclusions: Results indicate that heightened neural reactivity and attention toward unpleasant information, as measured by the LPP, predispose children to psychiatric symptoms when exposed to higher levels of stress related to natural disasters, while greater reactivity to and processing of pleasant information may be a protective factor.
    Biological psychiatry 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.09.008 · 10.26 Impact Factor
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  • Annmarie MacNamara · Roman Kotov · Greg Hajcak ·

    Cognitive Therapy and Research 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10608-015-9717-1 · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Carver and White's (1994) Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scales have been useful tools for studying individual differences in reward-punishment sensitivity; however, their factor structure and invariance across development have not been well tested. In the current study, we examined the factor structure of the BIS/BAS Scales across 5 age groups: 6- to 10-year-old children (N = 229), 11- to 13-year-old early adolescents (N = 311), 14- to 16-year-old late adolescents (N = 353), 18- to 22-year-old young adults (N = 844), and 30- to 45-year-old adults (N = 471). Given poor fit of the standard 4-factor model (BIS, Reward Responsivity, Drive, Fun Seeking) in the literature, we conducted exploratory factor analyses in half of the participants and identified problematic items across age groups. The 4-factor model showed poor fit in our sample, whereas removing the BAS Fun Seeking subscale and problematic items from the remaining subscales improved fit in confirmatory factor analyses conducted with the second half of the participants. The revised model showed strict invariance across age groups and by sex, indicating consistent factor structure, item loadings, thresholds, and unique or residual variances. Additionally, in our cross-sectional data, we observed nonlinear relations between age and subscale scores, where scores tended to be higher in young adulthood than in childhood and later adulthood. Furthermore, sex differences emerged across development; adolescent and adult females had higher BIS scores than males in this age range, whereas sex differences were not observed in childhood. These differences may help us to understand the rise in internalizing psychopathology in adolescence, particularly in females. Future developmental studies are warranted to examine the impact of rewording problematic items. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychological Assessment 08/2015; DOI:10.1037/pas0000186 · 2.99 Impact Factor
  • Anna Weinberg · Huiting Liu · Greg Hajcak · Stewart A Shankman ·
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    ABSTRACT: Depressive disorders are associated with significant economic and public health burdens as well as increased morbidity. Yet, perhaps due to the heterogeneous nature of the disease, prevention and intervention efforts are only moderately efficacious. A better understanding of core mechanisms of depressive disorders might aid in the development of more targeted intervention, and perhaps help identify individuals at risk. One mechanism that may be particularly important to depressive phenotypes is reward insensitivity. Examination of neurobiological correlates of reward-processing, which should relate more directly to the neuropathology of depression, may be helpful in identifying liability for the disorder. To that end, we used a family study design to examine whether a neural response to rewards is a familial risk factor for depression in a sample of probands with a wide range of internalizing psychopathology, as well as their biological siblings. Event-related potentials were recorded during a simple forced-choice gambling paradigm, in which participants could either win or lose small amounts of money. Lower levels of positive affect in probands predicted a reduced neural response to rewards in siblings, even over and above the sibling's own level of positive and negative affect. Additionally, the neural response to rewards was familial (i.e., correlated among siblings). Combined, these analyses suggest that a blunted neural response to rewards may be useful in identifying individuals vulnerable to depressive illnesses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Abnormal Psychology 07/2015; DOI:10.1037/abn0000081 · 4.86 Impact Factor
  • Daniel N. Klein · Greg Hajcak ·

    Psychological Inquiry 07/2015; 26(3):247-252. DOI:10.1080/1047840X.2015.1032873 · 4.73 Impact Factor
  • Brady D Nelson · Felicia Jackson · Nader Amir · Greg Hajcak ·
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    ABSTRACT: An attentional bias to threat has been implicated in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Recently, attention bias modification (ABM) has been shown to reduce threat biases and decrease anxiety. However, it is unclear whether ABM modifies neural activity linked to anxiety and risk. The current study examined the relationship between ABM and the error-related negativity (ERN), a putative biomarker of risk for anxiety disorders, and the relationship between the ERN and ABM-based changes in attention to threat. Fifty-nine participants completed a single-session of ABM and a flanker task to elicit the ERN-in counterbalanced order (i.e., ABM-before vs. ABM-after the ERN was measured). Results indicated that the ERN was smaller (i.e., less negative) among individuals who completed ABM-before relative to those who completed ABM-after. Furthermore, greater attentional disengagement from negative stimuli during ABM was associated with a smaller ERN among ABM-before and ABM-after participants. The present study suggests a direct relationship between the malleability of negative attention bias and the ERN. Explanations are provided for how ABM may contribute to reductions in the ERN. Overall, the present study indicates that a single-session of ABM may be related to a decrease in neural activity linked to anxiety and risk.
    Cognitive Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience 06/2015; 15(4). DOI:10.3758/s13415-015-0365-4 · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    Jamie Ferri · Greg Hajcak ·
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    ABSTRACT: Attentional deployment is an emotion regulation strategy that involves shifting attentional focus within an emotional scene in order to modulate emotional experience. Attentional deployment is widely used and effective at reducing negative affect, yet the supporting neural mechanisms are poorly understood. The rich literature on the neural correlates of reappraisal may help inform our understanding of attentional deployment, as reappraisal recruits common control regions associated with emotion regulation and may tap into specific mechanisms associated with directing attention. We highlight commonalities between reappraisal and attentional deployment and then focus on potentially unique aspects of attentional deployment, including the importance of parietal regions and implications for understanding the normative development of emotion regulation, as well as both well-being and psychopathology.
    06/2015; 3:17-21. DOI:10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.01.010
  • Jonathan P. Dunning · Greg Hajcak ·
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    ABSTRACT: It is well established that fear conditioning plays a role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Moreover, abnormalities in fear generalization, extinction, and extinction recall have also been associated with anxiety. The present study used a generalization paradigm to examine fear processing during phases of generalization, extinction, and extinction recall. Specifically, participants were shocked following a CS+ and were also presented with stimuli that ranged in perceptual similarity to the CS+ (i.e., 20%, 40%, or 60% smaller or larger than the CS+) during a fear generalization phase. Participants were also presented with the same stimuli during an extinction phase and an extinction recall phase 1. week later; no shocks were presented during extinction or recall. Lastly, participants completed self-report measures of worry and trait anxiety. Results indicated that fear potentiated startle (FPS) to the CS+ and GS ± 20% shapes was present in generalization and extinction, suggesting that fear generalization persisted into extinction. FPS to the CS+ was also evident 1. week later during extinction recall. Higher levels of worry were associated with greater FPS to the CS+ during generalization and extinction phases. Moreover, individuals high in worry had fear response gradients that were steeper during both generalization and extinction. This suggests that high levels of worry are associated with greater discriminative fear conditioning to threatening compared to safe stimuli and less fear generalization to perceptually similar stimuli.
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    ABSTRACT: There is growing evidence that heightened sensitivity to unpredictable threat is a core mechanism of dysfunction in anxiety disorders. However, it is unclear whether anxiety sensitivity is also associated with sensitivity to unpredictable threat. In the present study, 131 participants completed the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3, which includes physical concerns (PC), social concerns (SC), and cognitive concerns (CC) subscales, and a predictable vs. unpredictable threat-of-shock task. Startle eyeblink and ERP responses (N100, P300) to the acoustic startle probes were measured during the task. PC and CC were associated with heightened and attenuated, respectively, startle for the unpredictable (but not predictable) condition. CC were also associated with attenuated probe N100 for the unpredictable condition only, and PC were associated with increased P300 suppression across the predictable and unpredictable conditions. This study provides novel evidence that the different anxiety sensitivity dimensions demonstrate unique relationships with the RDoC domains "acute" and "potential" threat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of anxiety disorders 05/2015; 33. DOI:10.1016/j.janxdis.2015.05.003 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reduced auditory target P300 amplitude is a leading biomarker for psychotic disorders, although its relevance for differential diagnosis and link to specific clinical features (symptom profiles, functional impairment, and course) are unclear. This study aims to clarify the clinical significance of auditory target P300 using concurrent and retrospective clinical data from a longitudinal cohort with psychosis. 92 cases from an epidemiological study of first-admission psychosis were assessed using an auditory oddball paradigm at 15-year follow-up along with 44 never-psychotic adults. Subcomponents of auditory target P300 amplitude (i.e., a central positive P3a, a parietal positive P3b, and a frontal negative slow wave) were isolated using temporal-spatial principal component analysis. P3a amplitude was blunted across psychotic disorders relative to non-psychotic adults. P3b amplitude was reduced in schizophrenia specifically, including cases initially misclassified at baseline. The frontal negative slow wave did not distinguish among groups. P3b amplitude reduction was associated with several clinical features at the concurrent assessment, as well as previous time points, including recovery from psychosis even 5years earlier and functioning even 15years earlier. Auditory target P300 amplitude yields both a schizophrenia-specific component (i.e., P3b) and a transdiagnostic psychosis component (i.e., P3a). The P3b component may also shed light on prognosis, real-world functioning, and course, as well as help to reduce misdiagnosis of psychotic disorders. Prospective studies are needed to test whether P3b tracks or predicts clinical status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Schizophrenia Research 04/2015; 165(2-3). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2015.04.013 · 3.92 Impact Factor
  • A Kujawa · C R Glenn · G Hajcak · D N Klein ·
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    ABSTRACT: Identifying early markers of risk for anxiety disorders in children may aid in understanding underlying mechanisms and informing prevention efforts. Affective modulation of the startle response indexes sensitivity to pleasant and unpleasant environmental contexts and has been shown to relate to anxiety, yet the extent to which abnormalities in affect-modulated startle reflect vulnerability for anxiety disorders in children has yet to be examined. The current study assessed the effects of parental psychopathology on affective modulation of startle in offspring. Nine-year-old children (n = 144) with no history of anxiety or depressive disorders completed a passive picture viewing task in which eye-blink startle responses were measured during the presentation of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant images. Maternal anxiety was associated with distinct patterns of affective modulation of startle in offspring, such that children with maternal histories of anxiety showed potentiation of the startle response while viewing unpleasant images, but not attenuation during pleasant images, whereas children with no maternal history of anxiety exhibited attenuation of the startle response during pleasant images, but did not exhibit unpleasant potentiation - even when controlling for child symptoms of anxiety and depression. No effects of maternal depression or paternal psychopathology were observed. These findings suggest that both enhanced startle responses in unpleasant conditions and failure to inhibit startle responses in pleasant conditions may reflect early emerging vulnerabilities that contribute to the later development of anxiety disorders.
    Psychological Medicine 04/2015; 45(12):1-10. DOI:10.1017/S003329171500063X · 5.94 Impact Factor
  • B D Nelson · G Perlman · G Hajcak · D N Klein · R Kotov ·
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    ABSTRACT: The late positive potential (LPP) is an event-related potential component that is sensitive to the motivational salience of stimuli. Children with a parental history of depression, an indicator of risk, have been found to exhibit an attenuated LPP to emotional stimuli. Research on depressive and anxiety disorders has organized these conditions into two empirical classes: distress and fear disorders. The present study examined whether parental history of distress and fear disorders was associated with the LPP to emotional stimuli in a large sample of adolescent girls. The sample of 550 girls (ages 13.5-15.5 years) with no lifetime history of depression completed an emotional picture-viewing task and the LPP was measured in response to neutral, pleasant and unpleasant pictures. Parental lifetime history of psychopathology was determined via a semi-structured diagnostic interview with a biological parent, and confirmatory factor analysis was used to model distress and fear dimensions. Parental distress risk was associated with an attenuated LPP to all stimuli. In contrast, parental fear risk was associated with an enhanced LPP to unpleasant pictures but was unrelated to the LPP to neutral and pleasant pictures. Furthermore, these results were independent of the adolescent girls' current depression and anxiety symptoms and pubertal status. The present study demonstrates that familial risk for distress and fear disorders may have unique profiles in terms of electrocortical measures of emotional information processing. This study is also one of the first to investigate emotional/motivational processes underlying the distress and fear disorder dimensions.
    Psychological Medicine 04/2015; 45(12):1-12. DOI:10.1017/S0033291715000471 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroticism and extraversion are multifaceted affective-laden personality traits that have been associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). Research and theory have argued that extraversion, and particularly its facet positive emotionality, is specific to MDD, while neuroticism is common across internalizing disorders. Converging evidence has suggested that MDD is associated with reduced engagement with emotional stimuli, but it remains unclear whether either extraversion, neuroticism, or both modulate reactivity to emotional cues. The late positive potential (LPP) is an event-related brain potential that is uniquely suited to assess engagement with emotional stimuli because it reflects sustained attention toward emotional content. The current study examined the LPP in relation to personality traits that may confer risk for depression by examining the relationship between the LPP and both neuroticism and extraversion in never-depressed adolescent girls. Specifically, 550 girls aged 13.5-15.5 with no lifetime history of depression completed an emotional picture-viewing task, and the LPP was measured in response to neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures. Personality traits were gathered via self- and informant report. Results indicated that high extraversion was associated with a potentiated LPP to emotional pictures-and this effect was accounted for by positive emotionality in particular. In contrast, there was no association between the LPP and neuroticism or its facets. The present study is one of the first to demonstrate that extraversion is associated with variation in neural indices of emotional picture processing, similar to what has been observed among individuals with depression and at high risk for depression. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
    Psychophysiology 04/2015; 52(8). DOI:10.1111/psyp.12436 · 2.99 Impact Factor
  • Brady D Nelson · Greg Hajcak · Stewart A Shankman ·
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    ABSTRACT: The startle reflex is a robust measure of defense system activation. Startle probes also elicit ERP P300 and N100 responses that capture attentional engagement. The startle probe-elicited P300 and N100 have been primarily examined during affective picture viewing paradigms, and no study has examined these measures in the context of a threat anticipation task or in relation to threat predictability. In the present study, 131 participants completed a no (N), predictable (P), and unpredictable (U) threat-of-shock task, and the startle eye blink reflex, P300, and N100 responses to the startle probe were measured. We also examined several psychometric properties of these psychophysiological measures. Results indicated probe P300 attenuation during the P and U relative to N condition. In contrast, probe N100 enhancement was present only for the U condition. The P300 and N100 decreased (i.e., habituated) at comparable rates across the different threat conditions. The startle reflex also decreased, but only startle during the U (and not P) condition continued to differ from the N condition by the end of the task. Internal consistency of the ERP measures was acceptable and comparable to the startle reflex. Finally, the startle reflex was correlated with the probe N100, but not P300, across threat conditions. This study is one of the first to use startle probe ERPs to demonstrate that a context of potential threat also elicits attentional engagement. Furthermore, this study provides novel evidence that the probe N100 may provide a measure that is uniquely sensitive to unpredictable threat. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
    Psychophysiology 02/2015; 52(7). DOI:10.1111/psyp.12418 · 2.99 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
575.34 Total Impact Points


  • 2007-2015
    • Stony Brook University
      • Department of Psychology
      스토니브룩, New York, United States
    • VU University Amsterdam
      • Department of Cognitive Psychology
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2009
    • Stony Brook University Hospital
      Stony Brook, New York, United States
  • 2002-2007
    • University of Delaware
      • Department of Psychology
      Delaware, United States
  • 2005
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Center for the Treatment and Study of Anxiety
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States