[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This pilot analysis was conducted with data from 52 conventional grow-out broiler flocks in a prospective field observational study in the southeastern United States during 2003-2006. Each flock was sampled for Salmonella 1 wk before the end of grow-out, upon arrival at the processing plant, and during processing (prior to and immediately after carcass chilling). The broiler litter was sampled on the day of bird harvest. The grow-out feeding programs, including the medications delivered in feed, were surveyed with questionnaires completed by the broiler managers and feedmill managers. Each detail of the feeding program was tested for statistical association with the frequency of Salmonella in the flock at each sampling point, after accounting for variation in Salmonella frequency between the farms, broiler complexes, and companies. Significant associations were found between Salmonella frequency in the broiler flock pre- and postharvest and the inclusion of feeds containing individual coccidiostats and other antimicrobial growth promoters, days on feed, and total consumption of feeds containing these products, as well as with practices such as a mash feed and a nonmedicated withdrawal feed. The analysis provided testable hypotheses for how broiler feed medications impact the frequency of Salmonella in the flocks.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Hereditary Equine Regional Dermal Asthenia (HERDA) is an autosomal recessive disorder of Quarter Horses characterised by skin fragility. HERDA horses have a missense mutation in peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase B (PPIB) which encodes Cyclophilin B (CYPB) and alters folding and post-translational modifications of fibrillar collagen. Objectives: The study aimed to test the hypothesis that tendon, ligament, and great vessels, which like skin are rich in fibrillar collagen, will also have abnormal biomechanical properties in HERDA horses. Study design: Ex-vivo biomechanical study comparing horses with and without a diagnosis of HERDA. METHODS: Forelimb suspensory ligament, superficial and deep digital flexor tendons; withers, forelimb, and abdominal skin; main pulmonary artery and the aortic arch were harvested from 6 HERDA and 6 control horses without the HERDA allele. Tissues were distracted to failure. Tensile strength (TS), elastic modulus (EM), and energy to failure (ETF) were compared. RESULTS: HERDA horses had significantly lower TS and EM in tendinoligamentous tissues and great vessels, respectively. TS, EM and ETF were significantly lower in HERDA skin. Differences in TS and ETF were more extreme at the withers than the forelimb or abdomen. CONCLUSIONS: Tendinoligamentous tissue, great vessels, and skin are significantly weaker in horses with HERDA than horses lacking the PPIB mutation, substantiating that diverse tissues with high fibrillar collagen content are abnormal in HERDA and the HERDA phenotype is not limited to the integument.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of various competitive exclusion (CE) products for reducing Salmonella colonization in broiler chickens was evaluated using systematic review-meta-analysis-meta-regression (SR-MA-MR). Relevance screening identified 201 relevant studies that were subjected to methodological assessment. Of these studies, 159 were suitable for data extraction, 66 were presented in a number of MAs and 130 were examined in a meta-regression (MR). Fourteen different CE products were identified, 9 of them commercial products, and the most common route of administration was oral gavage (63.7% of trials). Meta-analyses indicated that a number of CE products reduce Salmonella colonization in broilers, the most effective one being Preempt™ which was formerly known as CF-3. Five study characteristics (publication year, CE type, CE route, sample origin, and Salmonella serovar administered/recovered) and three methodological soundness characteristics (treatment assignment, intervention and laboratory methods description) were retained as statistically significant (p<0.05) in the final MR model. The MR analysis indicated that, undefined CE products outperformed all commercial products, except for: Preempt™ and Broilact(®). Both were considered comparable to the undefined chicken source CE culture products in effectiveness. The administration of CE through spraying the chicks at the hatchery was determined to be just as effective as the oral gavage treatment, and more practical for farmers to administer. The results of this study could be useful in decision-making concerning the on-farm use of CE products in broiler chickens, and as inputs for risk assessments as the industry pushes for more antibiotic-free alternatives. Out of the various interventions to reduce Salmonella colonization in broilers on-farm, CE was the most studied; its inability to be licenced in certain countries and proof of consistent efficacy remains a barrier.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 05/2013; · 2.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclosporine is an immunosuppressive agent that inhibits T-cell function by decreasing production of cytokines such as interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). In dogs, there is currently no reliable analytical method for determining effective cyclosporine dosages in individual patients. Our laboratory has developed a quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay that measures IL-2 and IFN-γ gene expression, with the goal of quantifying immunosuppression in dogs treated with cyclosporine. This study focuses on analytical validation of our assay, and on the effects of sample storage conditions on cyclosporine-exposed samples. Heparinized whole blood collected from healthy adult dogs was exposed to a typical post-treatment blood concentration for cyclosporine (500 ng/mL) for 1 h, and then stored for 0, 24, and 48 h at both room temperature and 4 °C. The study was then repeated using a cyclosporine concentration of 75 ng/mL, with sample storage for 0, 24, and 48 h at 4 °C. Cytokine gene expression was measured using RT-qPCR, and assay efficiency and inter- and intra-assay variability were determined. Storage for up to 24 h at room temperature, and up to 48 h at 4 °C, did not significantly alter results compared to samples that were processed immediately. Validation studies showed our assay to be highly efficient and reproducible and robust enough to be feasible under standard practice submission conditions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Low-dose aspirin is used to prevent thromboembolic complications in dogs, but some animals are nonresponsive to the antiplatelet effects of aspirin ("aspirin resistance"). HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: That low-dose aspirin would inhibit platelet function, decrease thromboxane synthesis, and alter platelet cyclooxygenase (COX) expression. ANIMALS: Twenty-four healthy dogs. METHODS: A repeated measures study. Platelet function (PFA-100 closure time, collagen/epinephrine), platelet COX-1 and COX-2 expression, and urine 11-dehydro-thromboxane B(2) (11-dTXB(2) ) were evaluated before and during aspirin administration (1 mg/kg Q24 hours PO, 10 days). Based on prolongation of closure times after aspirin administration, dogs were divided into categories according to aspirin responsiveness: responders, nonresponders, and inconsistent responders. RESULTS: Low-dose aspirin increased closure times significantly (62% by Day 10, P < .001), with an equal distribution among aspirin responsiveness categories, 8 dogs per group. Platelet COX-1 mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) increased significantly during treatment, 13% on Day 3 (range, -29.7-136.1%) (P = .047) and 72% on Day 10 (range, -0.37-210%) (P < .001). Platelet COX-2 MFI increased significantly by 34% (range, -29.2-270%) on Day 3 (P = .003) and 74% (range, -19.7-226%) on Day 10 (P < .001). Urinary 11-dTXB(2) concentrations significantly (P = .005, P < .001) decreased at both time points. There was no difference between aspirin responsiveness and either platelet COX expression or thromboxane production. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Low-dose aspirin consistently inhibits platelet function in approximately one-third of healthy dogs, despite decreased thromboxane synthesis and increased platelet COX expression in most dogs. COX isoform expression before treatment did not predict aspirin resistance.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 12/2012; · 2.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cyclosporine has been shown to alter platelet plasma membranes and have a hypercoagulable effect in humans, leading to thromboembolic complications. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Our hypothesis was that by modulating platelet reactivity, cyclosporine increases the risk of thromboembolic complications. The objective was to determine the effects of cyclosporine on primary hemostasis in normal dogs. ANIMALS: Eight healthy, intact female dogs. METHODS: A repeated-measures design utilized flow cytometry to evaluate platelet expression of platelet reactivity markers (P-selectin and phosphatidylserine) and COX-1 and COX-2 during the administration of 2 cyclosporine dosages (19 mg/kg q12h [immunosuppressive dosage] and 5 mg/kg q24h [atopy dosage]). Urine 11-dehydro-thromboxane-B(2) (11-dTXB(2) ) concentration was normalized to urine creatinine concentration, and platelet function was analyzed by PFA-100. RESULTS: After a week of the immunosuppressive dosage, all platelet reactivity markers showed a significant decrease in mean fluorescent intensity (MFI). After the atopy dosage, only P-selectin and COX-2 MFI demonstrated a change from baseline, decreasing by 29% (P = .013) and 31% (P = .003), respectively. Urinary 11-dTXB(2) -to-creatinine ratio significantly increased at all time points during the immunosuppressive dosage, but no significant change occurred during administration of the atopy dosage. PFA-100 closure times using collagen/ADP cartridges increased by 62% (P = .008) with the immunosuppressive dosage and decreased by 45% with the atopy dosage (P = .035). No significant changes in closure times occurred with collagen/epinephrine cartridges. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Our study suggests that, similar to what is observed in humans, cyclosporine alters the platelet plasma membrane and increases thromboxane production in dogs, especially at immunosuppressive dosages.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 10/2012; · 2.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine effects of anti-inflammatory doses of COX-2 selective NSAIDs carprofen, meloxicam, and deracoxib on platelet function in dogs and urine 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2.
Randomized, blocked, crossover design with a 14-day washout period.
Healthy intact female Walker Hounds aged 1-6 years and weighing 20.5-24.2 kg.
Dogs were given NSAIDs for 7 days at recommended doses: carprofen (2.2 mg kg(-1), PO, every 12 hours), carprofen (4.4 mg kg(-1), PO, every 24 hours), meloxicam (0.2 mg kg(-1), PO, on the 1st day then 0.1 mg kg(-1), PO, every 24 hours), and deracoxib (2 mg kg(-1), PO, every 24 hours). Collagen/epinephrine and collagen/ADP PFA-100 cartridges were used to evaluate platelet function before and during and every other day after administration of each drug. Urine 11-dehydro-thromboxane B(2) was also measured before and during administration of each drug.
All NSAIDs significantly prolonged PFA-100 closure times when measured with collagen/epinephrine cartridges, but not with collagen/ADP cartridges. The average duration from drug cessation until return of closure times (collagen/epinephrine cartridges) to baseline values was 11.6, 10.6, 11 and 10.6 days for carprofen (2.2 mg kg(-1) every 12 hours), carprofen (4.4 mg kg(-1) every 24 hours), meloxicam and deracoxib, respectively.
Oral administration of some COX-2 selective NSAIDs causes detectable alterations in platelet function in dogs. As in humans, PFA-100 collagen/ADP cartridges do not reliably detect COX-mediated platelet dysfunction in dogs. Individual assessment of platelet function is advised when administering these drugs prior to surgery, particularly in the presence of other risk factors for bleeding.
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 03/2012; 39(2):206-17. · 1.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A focus group was organised to gather information and opinions from food animal veterinarians in Mississippi regarding sample submission to diagnostic laboratories. The research found that a range of factors influence the veterinarian's decision regarding whether samples will be submitted to a diagnostic laboratory, with the cost of diagnostics as the key influence. The veterinarians believed that the relationship they had with diagnostic laboratories was important in the protection of public health, but they thought that their role in disease surveillance was under-utilised. More attention needs to be directed towards strengthening veterinary surveillance at ground level to ensure that emergent diseases are detected effectively by a partnership approach between veterinary practitioners in the field and diagnosticians in diagnostic laboratories. This partnership is a vital component of the 'One Health' concept for the protection of both animal and human health. This study demonstrates that qualitative social science methodologies, such as focus groups, can usefully be applied to topics of relevance to veterinary public health.
Veterinaria italiana 01/2012; 48(1):31-9. · 0.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is synthesized in the liver and is bound to high-density lipoprotein particles in blood. PON1 protects against the development of atherosclerosis by metabolizing proatherogenic-oxidized lipids. The Southeastern USA (excluding Florida) has the country's highest age-adjusted mortality rate of cardiovascular disease. This study determines the association of PON1 status with atherosclerosis in individuals from the Southeastern USA.
Eighty African Americans (40 men, 40 women) and 120 Caucasians (60 men, 60 women) were enrolled from a cardiology practice in Northeastern Mississippi. Serum PON1 activities were determined using diazoxon, paraoxon, and phenyl acetate (PhAc) as substrates. The PON1(192) genotype of each individual was also determined. A multivariable logistic regression model was developed to identify the associations of clinical characteristics, serum PON1 activity, and PON1(192) genotype of the study population with atherosclerosis.
A core model consisting of age, sex, history of smoking, hypertension, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol group was constructed. The maximum-rescaled generalized r(2) value for the core model was 0.35. Addition of PON1 activity assessed by PhAc hydrolysis was the only measure of PON1 enzymatic activity to add significant information to the core model (P=0.0317) with the maximum-rescaled generalized r(2) value increasing to 0.37. Increasing PON1 activity was associated with decreased odds of atherosclerosis. The PON1(192) genotype was not significantly associated with atherosclerosis.
Increasing PON1 activity assessed by the hydrolysis of PhAc is associated with decreased odds of atherosclerosis in a group of African American and Caucasian Southerners.
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 09/2011; 21(12):867-75. · 3.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A scoping study and systematic review-meta-analyses (SR-MAs) were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of various interventions for Salmonella in broiler chicken, from grow-out farm to secondary processing. The resulting information was used to inform a quantitative exposure assessment (QEA) comparing various control options within the context of broiler chicken production in Ontario, Canada. Multiple scenarios, including use of two separate on-farm interventions (CF3 competitive exclusion culture and a 2% lactose water additive), a package of processing interventions (a sodium hydroxide scald water disinfectant, a chlorinated post-evisceration spray, a trisodium phosphate pre-chill spray and chlorinated immersion chilling) a package consisting of these farm and processing interventions and a hypothetical scenario (reductions in between-flock prevalence and post-transport concentration), were simulated and compared to a baseline scenario. The package of on-farm and processing interventions was the most effective in achieving relative reductions (compared to baseline with no interventions) in the concentration and prevalence of Salmonella by the end of chilling ranging from 89·94% to 99·87% and 43·88% to 87·78%, respectively. Contaminated carcasses entering defeathering, reductions in concentration due to scalding and post-evisceration washing, and the potential for cross-contamination during chilling had the largest influence on the model outcomes under the current assumptions. Scoping study provided a transparent process for mapping out and selecting promising interventions, while SR-MA was useful for generating more precise and robust intervention effect estimates for QEA. Realization of the full potential of these methods was hampered by low methodological soundness and reporting of primary research in this area.
Epidemiology and Infection 07/2011; 140(5):925-45. · 2.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reducing the burden of Salmonella in broiler flocks presents a challenge for public health. Worldwide, grow-out broilers are routinely vaccinated to prevent or lessen clinical manifestation of other infections. In this exploratory analysis we tested if details of a routine vaccination programme delivered to conventional grow-out broilers were associated with the burden of Salmonella in the flock as it progressed through its production cycle. None of the flocks studied were vaccinated against Salmonella or received a competitive exclusion product. The flocks were reared on conventional grow-out farms in southeastern USA, and sampled in a prospective field observational study. We observed significant associations between the content and design of a grow-out vaccination programme targeting other infections and the probability of detecting Salmonella in the broiler flock at different time points throughout the production cycle. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first field report of such associations.
Epidemiology and Infection 02/2011; 139(2):206-15. · 2.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the routine histologic evaluation of an outbreak of inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) in Mississippi broilers, a high incidence of renal enlargement and glomerulonephropathy was observed in the birds presenting classic hepatic pathology. Characteristic intranuclear adenoviral inclusion bodies were demonstrated in the livers of these birds, and fowl adenovirus was identified by viral isolation and by PCR. The glomerular lesions were consistent with proliferative or membranoproliferative forms of glomerulonephritis. Histomorphometric evaluations were performed to generate a more quantitative analysis of altered glomerular size and cellularity, to detect statistically significant borderline changes, and to get a clearer insight into the incidence of the glomerular alterations. Marked increases in both the average glomerular size (area) and the total glomerular cellularity were observed for the affected glomeruli relative to normal controls. The average glomerular area values for normal glomeruli in the peripheral subcapsular cortical and central cortical kidney regions were 1791 microm2 and 5302 microm2, respectively. In contrast, glomerular measurements for kidneys exhibiting glomerulonephritis by routine histopathology, had average values for the two regions of 4429 microm2 and 11,063 microm2. The average glomerular cell counts for the two regions in controls were 44 and 107 cells/ glomeruli, while averages for birds with glomerulonephritis were 85 and 193 cells/glomeruli. The proportion of IBH-associated glomeruli greater than two standard deviations above the mean glomerular size of the normal controls was 52% for the central region and 62% for the peripheral region.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the change in prevalence of Campylobacter on chicken carcasses during processing. A structured literature search of 8 electronic databases using the key words for "Campylobacter," "chicken," and "processing" identified 1,734 unique citations. Abstracts were screened for relevance by 2 independent reviewers. Thirty-two studies described prevalence at more than one stage during processing and were included in this review. Of the studies that described the prevalence of Campylobacter on carcasses before and after specific stages of processing, the chilling stage had the greatest number of studies (9), followed by washing (6), defeathering (4), scalding (2), and evisceration (1). Studies that sampled before and after scalding or chilling, or both, showed that the prevalence of Campylobacter generally decreased immediately after the stage (scalding: 20.0 to 40.0% decrease; chilling: 100.0% decrease to 26.6% increase). The prevalence of Campylobacter increased after defeathering (10.0 to 72.0%) and evisceration (15.0%). The prevalence after washing was inconsistent among studies (23.0% decrease to 13.3% increase). Eleven studies reported the concentration of Campylobacter, as well as, or instead of, the prevalence. Studies that sampled before and after specific stages of processing showed that the concentration of Campylobacter decreased after scalding (minimum decrease of 1.3 cfu/g, maximum decrease of 2.9 cfu/mL), evisceration (0.3 cfu/g), washing (minimum 0.3 cfu/mL, maximum 1.1 cfu/mL), and chilling (minimum 0.2 cfu/g, maximum 1.7 cfu/carcass) and increased after defeathering (minimum 0.4 cfu/g, maximum 2.9 cfu/mL). Available evidence is sparse and suggests more data are needed to understand the magnitude and mechanism by which the prevalence and concentration of Campylobacter changes during processing. This understanding should help researchers and program developers identify the most likely points in processing to implement effective control efforts. For example, if contamination will occur during defeathering and likely during evisceration, critical control points postevisceration are likely to have a greater effect on the end product going to the consumer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2007, an inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) outbreak affected several broiler farms in Mississippi. Results of logistic regression analyses showed significant associations between IBH occurrence and high enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay geometric mean titers for infectious bursal disease virus. However, there was no association between IBH occurrence and chicken infectious anemia virus status. Results of linear regression model analyses showed significant associations between IBH occurrence with average weight and with cost deviation. Broiler meat production cost was $0.0058/kg more expensive to produce when IBH occurred. Although feed conversion was higher with IBH occurrence, the association was not significant. IBH onset in the first farms affected occurred between 19 and 30 days of age, whereas in the last farms affected, IBH onset occurred as early as 10 days.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The conduct of randomized controlled trials in livestock with production, health and food-safety outcomes presents unique challenges that may not be adequately reported in trial reports. The objective of this project was to modify the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) statement to reflect the unique aspects of reporting these livestock trials. A 2-day consensus meeting was held on 18-19 November 2008 in Chicago, IL, USA, to achieve the objective. Prior to the meeting, a Web-based survey was conducted to identify issues for discussion. The 24 attendees were biostatisticians, epidemiologists, food-safety researchers, livestock-production specialists, journal editors, assistant editors and associate editors. Prior to the meeting, the attendees completed a Web-based survey indicating which CONSORT statement items may need to be modified to address unique issues for livestock trials. The consensus meeting resulted in the production of the REFLECT (Reporting Guidelines for Randomized Control Trials) statement for livestock and food safety and 22-item checklist. Fourteen items were modified from the CONSORT checklist and an additional sub-item was proposed to address challenge trials. The REFLECT statement proposes new terminology, more consistent with common usage in livestock production, to describe study subjects. Evidence was not always available to support modification to or inclusion of an item. The use of the REFLECT statement, which addresses issues unique to livestock trials, should improve the quality of reporting and design for trials reporting production, health and food-safety outcomes.
Zoonoses and Public Health 03/2010; 57(2):95-104. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated risk factors associated with the probability to detect Salmonella in samples of litter collected within 2 h prior to new flock placement in 76 grow-out houses on 38 conventional broiler farms located in the US states of Mississippi, Alabama and Texas. We evaluated characteristics of location and layout of the farm; area adjacent to and surrounding the house; house construction; condition and type of equipment in the house; litter management and other production, sanitation, visitation and biosecurity practices; non-broiler animal species on the farm; and weather conditions on the 3 days leading up to flock placement. Logistic regression was used to model the relationships between probability to detect Salmonella in litter and potential risk factors. In the screening process, each risk factor was evaluated as a single fixed effects factor in a multilevel model that accounted for variability among the sampled farms and their production complexes and companies. Of almost 370 risk factors screened, 24 were associated with the probability to detect Salmonella in litter. These were characteristics of the surroundings of the house, house construction and conditions, litter management, length of downtimes between flocks in the house, biosecurity and farm location. After investigation of collinearity between these variables and building of models for important risk factor categories, the list of candidate variables for the final model was refined to eight factors. The final model demonstrated that a higher probability of detecting Salmonella in litter was strongly associated with the use of wood to construct the base of the walls or to cover the inside of the broiler house foundation, and with the use of fresh wood shavings to top-dress or completely replace the litter between flocks.
Zoonoses and Public Health 02/2010; 58(3):158-68. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lighting is used during conventional broiler grow-out to modify bird behaviour to reach the goals of production and improve bird welfare. The protocols for lighting intensity vary. In a field study, we evaluated if the lighting practices impact the burden of Salmonella in broiler flocks.
Conventional grow-out flocks reared in the states of Alabama, Mississippi and Texas, USA in 2003 to 2006 were sampled 1 week before harvest (n = 58) and upon arrival for processing (n = 56) by collecting feathered carcass rinsate, crop and one cecum from each of 30 birds, and during processing by collecting rinsate of 30 carcasses at pre-chilling (n = 56) and post-chilling points (n = 54). Litter samples and drag swabs of litter were collected from the grow-out houses after bird harvest (n = 56). Lighting practices for these flocks were obtained with a questionnaire completed by the growers. Associations between the lighting practices and the burden of Salmonella in the flocks were tested while accounting for variation between the grow-out farms, their production complexes and companies.
Longer relative duration of reduced lights during the grow-out period was associated with reduced detection of Salmonella on the exterior of birds 1 week before harvest and on the broiler carcasses at the post-chilling point of processing. In addition, starting reduced lights for > or = 18 hours per day later in the grow-out period was associated with decreased detection of Salmonella on the exterior of broilers arriving for processing and in the post-harvest drag swabs of litter from the grow-out house.
The results of this field study show that lighting practices implemented during broiler rearing can impact the burden of Salmonella in the flock. The underlying mechanisms are likely to be interactive.