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Publications (10)33.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: There are 2 subtypes of human T-cell lymphoma/ leukemia virus type II (HTLV-II), A and B. HTLV-II is increasingly associated with rare forms of lymphocytic neoplasia and a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by hyperspasticity and ataxia. We have used PCR to amplify, clone and sequence 140 bp of the pol gene from many isolates of HTLV-IIA and HTLV-IIB from around the world. Analysis of these and other published sequences established that all HTLV-IIA sequences contained a unique Hinf I site and all HTLV-IIB sequences a unique Mse I site. A rapid and specific oligomer restriction (OR) assay was developed utilizing the primer pair SK110/SK111 and subsequent digestion with these enzymes. Concordance between sequenced and OR-based subtyping of DNA amplified by PCR was absolute among 22 HTLV-II isolates tested.Further OR or sequence analyses on an additional 30 other isolates indicated that the majority of North American non-indian HTLV-II isolates were subtype A, while all Paleo-Amerindian samples, including those from the Seminole of Florida; the Guaymi from Panama; and the Toba, Chorote, Wichi, and Chulupe of Argentina, belonged to subtype B. The SK110/SK111 PCR-OR format should facilitate molecular epidemiology studies of HTLV-II infection and allow for subtype stratification in assessing the sensitivity and specificity of HTLV detection formats and HTLV-II disease association. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, inc.
    Journal of Medical Virology 12/2005; 45(1):1 - 9. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from asymptomatic HTLV-II-infected and uninfected Gran Chaco Amerindians were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for expansions of T-cell receptor (TCR) V-beta gene clonotypes. Analyses were performed using primer pairs designed to identify expanded T-cell familial clonotypes based on their unique TCR beta gene rearrangements. Of the 30 HTLV-IIB-positive samples tested, five showed evidence of V-beta clonotypic T-cell expansion. Of the five expansions, two were monoclonotypic and the remaining three were oligoclonotypic. In comparison, 30 HTLV-II-negative Amerindians showed no evidence of clonotypic T-cell expansion. Amplified DNA from one of the monoclonotypic samples was subsequently cloned and sequenced and was found to have uniform variable/ diversity/joining sequences confirming its unique monoclonal T-cell expansion. This method of detecting clonal TCR beta gene rearrangements has the advantage over traditional Southern blot techniques of being more sensitive and specific even with suboptimal specimens. The prognostic significance of clonotypic T-cell expansion in a group such as the HTLV-II-infected Gran Chaco Amerindians remains to be determined.
    Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 07/1998; 18(2):178-85.
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    ABSTRACT: Human T-cell lymphoma/leukemia viruses types I and II (HTLV-I and HTLV-II) are related exogenous human retroviruses. The former is definitely pathogenic while disease association with the latter is unclear. There are two subtypes of HTLV-II, A and B. Currently, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on HTLV-I antigens are used to screen for the presence of HTLV-I and -II antibodies. Confirmation and subtyping are accomplished by Western blot (WB) or ELISAs based on HTLV-I whole viral antigens and/or HTLV-I and HTLV-IIA peptides. The sensitivity and specificity of these serologic assays were compared to those of HTLV-I and-II-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays in tests on samples from Indians from South America in whom the HTLV-IIB subtype is endemic. Sera from 246 Gran Chaco Indians were evaluated for HTLV antibodies with the use of four ELISAs (Retrotek HTLV-I; Cambridge Biotech rgp21 enhanced HTLV-I/II; Vironostika HTLV-I/II; and Select HTLV-I/II), and a WB assay. Peripheral blood leukocyte DNA from each Indian was analyzed for HTLV-I or HTLV-II pol DNA via PCR. Fifteen of the PCR-positive samples were further subtyped via cloning and sequencing and/or oligomer restriction. Ninety-seven samples (39%) were positive for HTLV-II by serologic and/or PCR assays. All 15 positive DNA samples that were further analyzed were of the HTLV-IIB subtype and were clustered as a highly conserved phylogenetic group. Comparative analyses indicate that the sensitivity and specificity of the various assays were: PCR, 97 and 100 percent; Retrotek, 70 and 91 percent; Cambridge Biotech, 74 and 96 percent; Vironostika, 73 and 99 percent; Select 72 and 98 percent; and WB, 70 and 100 percent. The sensitivities of the tested HTLV serologic assays were comparable. However, the specificity of the Retrotek ELISA was significantly lower than that of the others. When positive, the subtyping assays were very specific. However, PCR assays would seem preferable or to be a necessary adjunct for the sensitive detection of HTLV-IIB infection.
    Transfusion 02/1997; 37(1):52-9. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: From 1985 through 1990, 1100 of 500,000 human blood donations in Syracuse, New York were repeatedly reactive by ELISA for antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Nine hundred of the ELISA-reactive samples were confirmed as negative by Western blot (WB), 40 were confirmed as positive, and the remaining 160 sera were indeterminate, reacting mainly with HIV-1 gag gene products. Twenty donors with the most reactive indeterminate WB were selected for follow-up studies. Four of these 20 donors admitted to retroviral risk factors and, interestingly, 12 (60%) had exposure to dairy cattle and drank unpasteurized milk. These 20 donors were analyzed over a 3-year period for the presence of the pathogenic human retroviruses HIV-1, HIV-2, human T cell lymphoma/leukemia virus types I and II (HTLV-I and HTLV-II), as well as bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) and leukemia virus (BLV). Retroviral analyses included serology, plasma antigen capture, virus culture, and the polymerase chain reaction. Only one donor seroconverted and was clearly infected with HIV-1. None of the other 19 donor serological reactivities to HIV-1 changed, nor were they positive for any of the above-mentioned retroviruses. Although we cannot ascertain whether these latter 19 HIV-1 WB-indeterminate donors were exposed to human or bovine retroviral proteins, it is unlikely that their HIV-1 seroreactivity was caused by infection with HIV-1, HIV-2, HTLV-I, HTLV-II, BLV, or BIV.
    AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 04/1995; 11(3):409-14. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are 2 subtypes of human T-cell lymphoma/leukemia virus type II (HTLV-II), A and B. HTLV-II is increasingly associated with rare forms of lymphocytic neoplasia and a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by hyperspasticity and ataxia. We have used PCR to amplify, clone and sequence 140 bp of the pol gene from many isolates of HTLV-IIA and HTLV-IIB from around the world. Analysis of these and other published sequence established that all HTLV-IIA sequences contained a unique Hinf I site and all HTLV-IIB sequences a unique Mse I site. A rapid and specific oligomer restriction (OR) assay was developed utilizing the primer pair SK110/SK111 and subsequent digestion with these enzymes. Concordance between sequenced and OR-based subtyping of DNA amplified by PCR was absolute among 22 HTLV-II isolates tested. Further OR or sequence analyses on an additional 30 other isolates indicated that the majority of North American non-indian HTLV-II isolates were subtype A, while all Paleo-Amerindian samples, including those from the Seminole of Florida; the Guaymi from Panama; and the Toba, Chorote, Wichi, and Chulupe of Argentina, belonged to subtype B. The SK110/SK111 PCR-OR format should facilitate molecular epidemiology studies of HTLV-II infection and allow for subtype stratification in assessing the sensitivity and specificity of HTLV detection formats and HTLV-II disease association.
    Journal of Medical Virology 02/1995; 45(1):1-9. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to better understand the genomic diversity and molecular phylogeny of the human retroviruses, the plasmas from 250 Zairean patients collected in 1969 were tested for antibodies to human T-cell lymphoma and human immunodeficiency viruses (HTLV or HIV) using ELISA and confirmatory Western blots and for viral nucleic acids by reverse transcriptase-directed PCR (RT-PCR). Interestingly, none of the patients was confirmed positive for HIV, even though this region is now endemic for HIV-1. However, 74 (30%) and 3 (1%) of the samples were positive for antibodies to HTLV-I and II, respectively. Forty-four of 74 (59%) Western blot-positive Zairean samples were RT-PCR positive for HTLV-I, while 1 of 3 (33%) of HTLV-II-seropositive samples was RT-PCR positive. On the contrary, none of the Western blot-negative or indeterminate samples were RT-PCR positive for either HTLV-I or HTLV-II. We have cloned and sequenced 140 bp of the pol gene flanked by SK110/SK111 from 8 HTLV-I-and 1 HTLV-II-positive archival samples from Zaire. The HTLV-I isolates from Zaire cluster together as a phylogenetic group, diverging from the prototype Japanese HTLV-I (ATK) by a range of 1.4 to 3.6%. Their close homology to some African STLV-I isolates suggests relatively recent interspecies transmission. The Zairean HTLV-II isolate is closely grouped with the HTLV-II substrain of isolates found in Paleo-Amerindians of the New World, making it unlikely that it represents an endemic African strain.
    Virology 08/1994; · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nonisotopic, microwell-based DNA hybridization assays for the specific detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gag, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) pol, and HTLV-II pol DNA sequences were evaluated. The performances of these detection kits (Gene Detective enzyme oligonucleotide assays; Cellular Products, Inc., Buffalo, N.Y.) were assessed by using clinical samples whose infection status were established by amplification by PCR and then liquid hybridization detection by using virus-specific probes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysates from 59 HIV-1-, 35 HTLV-I-, and 19 HTLV-II-infected individuals and from 15 healthy blood donors were used as substrates for PCR amplification. The results of the study demonstrated a clinical sensitivity of 100%. In addition, the enzyme oligonucleotide assays were able to detect 1 to 10 proviral copies subsequent to PCR amplification, indicating an analytical sensitivity comparable to that of liquid hybridization.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 03/1994; 32(2):547-50. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Signature primer pairs designed for use with the polymerase chain reaction have been developed which can determine if a positive result originated from the intended target nucleic acid or from so-called “carry-over” contamination of previously amplified DNA. The 3' ends of each signature primer, SK339/ 341, SSK110/111, and SSK58/59 contain a viral specific sequence complementary to regions of either HIV-1, HTLV-I and II respectively. The 5' ends of each primer contain a non-human, non-viral (NHNV) signature sequence including restriction endonuclease sites for subsequent cloning. A fourth set of primers, SK338/340, consist solely of these NHNV sequences and are designed to anneal to any product previously amplified by the viral-specific signature primers. These primers were tested against their corresponding positive and negative DNA targets, to determine their specificity and sensitivity. As expected, the viral-specific signature primers detected the retroviral infected samples while no detectable amplification occurred in negative DNA controls. Primers SK338/ 340 did not amplify any viral positive or negative template DNA's. Samples spiked with amplified material generated from the viral-specific signature primers could be specifically amplified by the NHNV primers SK338/340. Primers SK338/340 were determined to be more sensitive than the viral-specific signature primers, ensuring the detection of extremely low amounts of carry-over. This strategy may be useful in developing other retroviral or non-retroviral primers with a built-in signature sequence that can differentiate false positives from true positives in a subsequent confirmatory test.
    Journal of Virological Methods 02/1994; 46(1):51-59. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DNA from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 17 different individuals infected with human T-cell lymphoma/leukemia virus type II (HTLV-II) was successfully amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the primer pair SK110/SK111. This primer pair is conserved among the pol genes of all primate T-cell lymphoma viruses (PTLV) and flanks a 140-bp fragment of DNA which, when used in comparative analyses, reflects the relative degree of diversity among PTLV genomes. Cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic comparisons of these amplified 140-bp pol fragments indicated that there are at least two distinct genetic substrains of HTLV-II in the Western Hemisphere. These data were confirmed for selected isolates by performing PCR, cloning, and sequencing with to 10 additional primer pair-probe sets specific for different regions throughout the PTLV genome. HTLV-II isolates from Seminole, Guaymi, and Tobas Indians belong in the new substrain of HTLV-II, while the prototype MoT isolate defines the original substrain. There was greater diversity among HTLV-II New World strains than among HTLV-I New World strains. In fact, the heterogeneity among HTLV-II strains from the Western Hemisphere was similar to that observed in HTLV-I and simian T-cell lymphoma/leukemia virus type I isolates from around the world, including Japan, Africa, and Papua New Guinea. Given these geographic and anthropological considerations and assuming similar mutation rates and selective forces among the PTLV, these data suggest either that HTLV-II has existed for a long time in the indigenous Amerindian population or that HTLV-II isolates introduced into the New World were more heterogeneous than the HTLV-I strains introduced into the New World.
    Journal of Virology 04/1993; 67(3):1175-84. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previously reported serologic and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based findings have suggested an association between the human retrovirus, HTLV-I, and multiple sclerosis (MS). Due to the inherent ability of PCR to produce false-positive results, we developed a set of physical and procedural safeguards to minimize the possibility of molecular carryover. These were applied as part of a blinded, large-scale, multipopulation, multiplex PCR-based study designed to examine this issue of association. Our results do not support the hypothesis that HTLV-I, which plays a role in the pathogenesis of an encephalomyeloneuropathy, HTLV-II, or closely related agents are associated with MS. A concomitant review of the current literature supports this view.
    Neurology 04/1991; 41(3):335-43. · 8.30 Impact Factor