[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-Acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) and its hydrolysis product, N-acylethanolamine (NAE), are minor but ubiquitous lipids in multicellular eukaryotes. Various physiological processes are severely affected by altering the expression of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an NAE-hydrolyzing enzyme. To determine the effect of altered FAAH activity on NAPE molecular species composition, NAE metabolism, and general membrane lipid metabolism, quantitative profiles of NAPEs, NAEs, galactolipids, and major and minor phospholipids for FAAH mutants of Arabidopsis were determined. The NAPE molecular species content was dramatically affected by reduced FAAH activity and elevated NAE content in faah knockouts, increasing by as much as 36-fold, far more than the NAE content, suggesting negative feedback regulation of phospholipase D-mediated NAPE hydrolysis by NAE. The N-acyl composition of NAPE remained similar to that of NAE, suggesting that the NAPE precursor pool largely determines NAE composition. Exogenous NAE 12:0 treatment elevated endogenous polyunsaturated NAE and NAPE levels in seedlings; NAE levels were increased more in faah knockouts than in wild-type or FAAH overexpressors. Treated seedlings with elevated NAE and NAPE levels showed impaired growth and reduced galactolipid synthesis by the "prokaryotic" (i.e., plastidic), but not the "eukaryotic" (i.e., extraplastidic), pathway. Overall, our data provide new insights into the regulation of NAPE-NAE metabolism and coordination of membrane lipid metabolism and seedling development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MOTIVATION: Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics has gained importance in the life sciences, yet it is not supported by software tools for high throughput identification of metabolites based on their fragmentation spectra. An algorithm (ISIS: in silico identification software) and its implementation are presented and show great promise in generating in silico spectra of lipids for the purpose of structural identification. Instead of using chemical reaction rate equations or rules-based fragmentation libraries, the algorithm uses machine learning to find accurate bond cleavage rates in a mass spectrometer employing collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: A preliminary test of the algorithm with 45 lipids from a subset of lipid classes shows both high sensitivity and specificity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dengue virus causes ∼50-100 million infections per year and thus is considered one of the most aggressive arthropod-borne human pathogen worldwide. During its replication, dengue virus induces dramatic alterations in the intracellular membranes of infected cells. This phenomenon is observed both in human and vector-derived cells. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry of mosquito cells, we show that this membrane remodeling is directly linked to a unique lipid repertoire induced by dengue virus infection. Specifically, 15% of the metabolites detected were significantly different between DENV infected and uninfected cells while 85% of the metabolites detected were significantly different in isolated replication complex membranes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that intracellular lipid redistribution induced by the inhibition of fatty acid synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in lipid biosynthesis, is sufficient for cell survival but is inhibitory to dengue virus replication. Lipids that have the capacity to destabilize and change the curvature of membranes as well as lipids that change the permeability of membranes are enriched in dengue virus infected cells. Several sphingolipids and other bioactive signaling molecules that are involved in controlling membrane fusion, fission, and trafficking as well as molecules that influence cytoskeletal reorganization are also up regulated during dengue infection. These observations shed light on the emerging role of lipids in shaping the membrane and protein environments during viral infections and suggest membrane-organizing principles that may influence virus-induced intracellular membrane architecture.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipidomics is a critical part of metabolomics and aims to study all the lipids within a living system. We present here the development and evaluation of a sensitive capillary UPLC-MS method for comprehensive top-down/bottom-up lipid profiling. Three different stationary phases were evaluated in terms of peak capacity, linearity, reproducibility, and limit of quantification (LOQ) using a mixture of lipid standards representative of the lipidome. The relative standard deviations of the retention times and peak abundances of the lipid standards were 0.29% and 7.7%, respectively, when using the optimized method. The linearity was acceptable at >0.99 over 3 orders of magnitude, and the LOQs were sub-fmol. To demonstrate the performance of the method in the analysis of complex samples, we analyzed lipids extracted from a human cell line, rat plasma, and a model human skin tissue, identifying 446, 444, and 370 unique lipids, respectively. Overall, the method provided either higher coverage of the lipidome, greater measurement sensitivity, or both, when compared to other approaches of global, untargeted lipid profiling based on chromatography coupled with MS.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 03/2012; 402(9):2923-33. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Establishment of sensitive methods for the detection of cellular sterols and their derivatives is a critical step in developing comprehensive lipidomics technology. We demonstrate that electrospray ionization tandem (triple quadrupole) mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) is an efficient method for monitoring steryl glucosides (SG) and acyl steryl glucosides (ASG). Comparison of analysis of SG and ASG by ESI-MS/MS with analysis by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) shows that the two methods yield similar molar compositions. These data demonstrate that ESI-MS/MS response per molar amount of sterol conjugate is similar among various molecular species of SG and ASG. Application of ESI-MS/MS to seed samples from wild-type Arabidopsis and a mutant deficient in two UDP-glucose:sterol glucosyltransferases, UGT80A2 and UGT80B1, revealed new details on the composition of sitosteryl, campesteryl and stigmasteryl glucosides and ASG. SG were decreased by 86% in the ugt80A2,B1 double mutant, compared to the wild-type, while ASG were reduced 96%. The results indicate that these glucosyltransferases account for much of the accumulation of the sterol conjugates in wild-type Arabidopsis seeds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Correlations between the dimensions of a 2-D separation create trend lines that depend on structural or chemical characteristics of the compound class and thus facilitate classification of unknowns. This broadly applies to conventional ion mobility spectrometry (IMS)/mass spectrometry (MS), where the major biomolecular classes (e.g., lipids, peptides, nucleotides) occupy different trend line domains. However, strong correlation between the IMS and MS separations for ions of same charge has impeded finer distinctions. Differential IMS (or FAIMS) is generally less correlated to MS and thus could separate those domains better. We report the first observation of chemical class separation by trend lines using FAIMS, here for lipids. For lipids, FAIMS is indeed more independent of MS than conventional IMS, and subclasses (such as phospho-, glycero-, or sphingolipids) form distinct, often non-overlapping domains. Even finer categories with different functional groups or degrees of unsaturation are often separated. As expected, resolution improves in He-rich gases: at 70% He, glycerolipid isomers with different fatty acid positions can be resolved. These results open the door for application of FAIMS to lipids, particularly in shotgun lipidomics and targeted analyses of bioactive lipids.
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 07/2011; 22(7):1146-55. · 3.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In mammals, the endocannabinoid signaling pathway provides protective cellular responses to ischemia. Previous work demonstrated increases in long-chain N-acylethanolamines (NAE) in ischemia and suggested a protective role for NAE. Here, a targeted lipidomics approach was used to study comprehensive changes in the molecular composition and quantity of NAE metabolites in a rat model of controlled brain ischemia. Changes of NAE, its precursors, N-acylphosphatidylethanolamines (NAPE), major and minor phospholipids and free fatty acids (FFA) were quantified in response to ischemia. The effect of intraperitoneal injection of N-palmitoylethanolamine (NAE 16:0) prior to ischemia on NAE metabolite and phospholipid profiles was measured. While ischemia, in general, resulted in elevated levels of N-acyl 16:0 and18:0 NAE, NAPE and FFA species, pretreatment with NAE 16:0 reduced infarct volume, neurological behavioral deficits in rats and FFA content in ischemic tissues. Pretreatment with NAE 16:0 did not affect the profiles of other NAE metabolites. These studies demonstrate the utility of a targeted lipidomics approach to measure complex and concomitant metabolic changes in response to ischemia. They suggest that the neuroprotective effects of exogenous NAE 16:0 and the reduction in inflammatory damage may be mediated by factors other than gross changes in brain NAE levels, such as modulation of transcriptional responses.
Journal of Glycomics and Lipidomics. 11/2010; 1(1):101.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-Acylethanolamines (NAE) are fatty acid derivatives, some of which function as endocannabinoids in mammals. NAE metabolism involves common (phosphatidylethanolamines, PEs) and uncommon (N-acylphosphatidylethanolamines, NAPEs) membrane phospholipids. Here we have identified and quantified more than a hundred metabolites in the NAE/endocannabinoid pathway in mouse brain and heart tissues, including many previously unreported molecular species of NAPE. We found that brain tissue of mice lacking fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH (-/-)) had elevated PE and NAPE molecular species in addition to elevated NAEs, suggesting that FAAH activity participates in the overall regulation of this pathway. This perturbation of the NAE pathway in brain was not observed in heart tissue of FAAH (-/-) mice, indicating that metabolic regulation of the NAE pathway differs in these two organs and the metabolic enzymes that catabolize NAEs are most likely differentially distributed and/or regulated. Targeted lipidomics analysis, like that presented here, will continue to provide important insights into cellular lipid signaling networks.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Harlequin ichthyosis is a congenital scaling syndrome of the skin in which affected infants have epidermal hyperkeratosis and a defective permeability barrier. Mutations in the gene encoding a member of the ABCA transporter family, ABCA12, have been linked to harlequin ichthyosis, but the molecular function of the protein is unknown. To investigate the activity of ABCA12, we generated Abca12 null mice and analyzed the impact on skin function and lipid content. Abca12-/- mice are born with a thickened epidermis and die shortly after birth, as water rapidly evaporates from their skin. In vivo skin proliferation measurements suggest a lack of desquamation of the skin cells, rather than enhanced proliferation of basal layer keratinocytes, accounts for the 5-fold thickening of the Abca12-/- stratum corneum. Electron microscopy revealed a loss of the lamellar permeability barrier in Abca12-/- skin. This was associated with a profound reduction in skin linoleic esters of long-chain omega-hydroxyceramides and a corresponding increase in their glucosyl ceramide precursors. Because omega-hydroxyceramides are required for the barrier function of the skin, these results establish that ABCA12 activity is required for the generation of long-chain ceramide esters that are essential for the development of normal skin structure and function.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2008; 283(52):36624-35. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oat kernels were extracted with methanol, and glycolipid-enriched fractions were prepared using silica solid phase extraction. Using direct infusion electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ESI-MS, and HPLC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-MS, we confirmed previous reports that digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) was the most abundant glycolipid in oat kernels and confirmed a previous report of the presence of a DGDG mono-estolide in oat kernels. In the current study we also identified several additional natural galactolipid estolides: two new DGDG estolides (di- and tri-estolides), two trigalactosyldiacylglycerol (TriGDG) estolides (mono- and di-estolides), and one tetragalactosyldiacylglycerol (TetraGDG) estolide (mono-estolide). The levels of total galactolipid estolides in oat kernels were estimated to be about 29% of the total glycolipid fraction. To our knowledge, this report is the first evidence of natural di- and tri-estolides of polar lipids.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii is a unicellular parasite characterized by unique extracellular and intracellular membrane compartments. The lipid composition of subcellular membranes has not been determined, limiting our understanding of lipid homeostasis, control, and trafficking, a series of processes involved in pathogenesis. In addition to a mitochondrion, Toxoplasma contains a plastid called the apicoplast. The occurrence of a plastid raised the question of the presence of chloroplast galactolipids. Using three independent rabbit and rat antibodies against digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) from plant chloroplasts, we detected a class of Toxoplasma lipids harboring a digalactolipid-like epitope (DGLE). Immunolabeling characterization supports the notion that the DGLE polar head is similar to that of DGDG. Mass spectrometry analyses indicated that dihexosyl lipids having various hydrophobic moieties (ceramide, diacylglycerol, and acylalkylglycerol) might react with anti-DGDG, but we cannot exclude the possibility that more complex dihexosyl-terminated lipids might also be immunolabeled. DGLE localization was analyzed by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy and confirmed by subcellular fractionation. No immunolabeling of the apicoplast could be observed. DGLE was scattered in pellicle membrane domains in extracellular tachyzoites and was relocalized to the anterior tip of the cell upon invasion in an actin-dependent manner, providing insights on a possible role in pathogenetic processes. DGLE was detected in other Apicomplexa (i.e., Neospora, Plasmodium, Babesia, and Cryptosporidium).
The Journal of Lipid Research 05/2008; 49(4):746-62. · 4.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tocopherols (vitamin E) are synthesized in plastids and have long been assumed to have essential functions restricted to these organelles. We previously reported that the vitamin e-deficient2 (vte2) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is defective in transfer cell wall development and photoassimilate transport at low temperature (LT). Here, we demonstrate that LT-treated vte2 has a distinct composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): lower levels of linolenic acid (18:3) and higher levels of linoleic acid (18:2) compared with the wild type. Enhanced 18:3 oxidation was not involved, as indicated by the limited differences in oxidized lipid species between LT-treated vte2 and the wild type and by a lack of impact on the LT-induced vte2 phenotype in a vte2 fad3 fad7 fad8 quadruple mutant deficient in 18:3. PUFA changes in LT-treated vte2 occur primarily in phospholipids due to reduced conversion of dienoic to trienoic fatty acids in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pathway. Introduction of the ER fatty acid desaturase mutation, fad2, and to a lesser extent the plastidic fad6 mutation into the vte2 background suppressed the LT-induced vte2 phenotypes, including abnormal transfer cell wall development. These results provide biochemical and genetic evidence that plastid-synthesized tocopherols modulate ER PUFA metabolism early in the LT adaptation response of Arabidopsis.
The Plant Cell 03/2008; 20(2):452-70. · 9.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Analysis of the polar lipids of Toxoplasma gondii by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry provides a detailed picture of the lipid molecular species of this parasitic protozoan. Most notably, T. gondii contains a relatively high level, estimated to about 2% of the total polar lipid, of ceramide phosphoethanolamine. The ceramide phosphoethanolamine has a fatty amide profile with only 16- and 18-carbon species. Compared with the host fibroblasts in which it was grown, T. gondii also has higher levels of phosphatidylcholine but lower levels of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylserine. Analysis at the molecular species level indicated that T. gondii has greater amounts of shorter-chain fatty acid in its polar lipid molecular species than the host fibroblasts. Shorter-chain fatty acids with a combined total of 30 or fewer acyl carbons make up 21% of Toxoplasma's, but only 3% of the host's, diacyl phosphatidylcholine. Furthermore, diacyl phosphatidylcholine with two saturated acyl chains with 12, 14, or 16 carbons make up over 11% of parasite phosphatidylcholine but less than 3% of the host phosphatidylcholine molecular species. The distinctive T. gondii tachyzoite lipid profile may be particularly suited to the function of parasitic membranes and the interaction of the parasite with the host cell and the host's immune system. Combined with T. gondii genomic data, these lipidomic data will assist in elucidation of metabolic pathways for lipid biosynthesis in this important human pathogen.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracellular phospholipase A2 (PLA2) plays an important role in regulating oxylipin biosynthesis in mammals, but the molecular and biochemical nature of intracellular PLA2 is not well understood in plants. Arabidopsis thaliana gene At1g61850 (AtPLAI) encodes a 140-kDa protein that is most similar to mammalian calcium-independent PLA2, and additionally contains leucine-rich repeats and Armadillo repeats. AtPLAI hydrolyzes phospholipids at both the sn-1 and sn-2 positions, but prefers galactolipids to phospholipids as substrates. Profiling of lipid species altered in response to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea revealed decreases in the levels of phosphatidylglycerol and digalactosyldiacylglycerol, suggesting that hydrolysis of plastidic polar lipids might provide precursors for pathogen-induced jasmonic acid (JA) production. Disruption of AtPLAI by T-DNA insertion reduced the basal level of JA, but did not impede pathogen-induced production of JA, free linolenic acid, or hydrolysis of plastidic lipids. Still, AtPLAI-deficient plants exhibited more damage than wild type plants after B. cinerea infection, and pretreatment of plants with methyl jasmonate alleviated pathogen damage to the mutant plants. The study shows that AtPLAI is an acyl hydrolase, rather than a specific phospholipase A. AtPLAI is involved in basal JA production and Arabidopsis resistance to the necrotrophic fungus B. cinerea.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2007; 282(25):18116-28. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the past dozen years, many new strategies for mass-spectrometry-based analyses of lipids have been developed. Lipidomics has emerged as a comprehensive approach to analysis of lipids from biological systems, and the most-utilized lipidomics methodologies involve electrospray ionization (ESI) sources and triple quadrupole analyzers. While mass spectral techniques for lipid profiling have advanced, challenges in developing uniform data acquisition methods and in handling, storing, and analyzing mass spectral data remain. Investigation of other ionization methods, including matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), has demonstrated that these are useful in specific applications. APCI is particularly amenable to analysis of less polar lipids, and MALDI provides a rapid technology with application for tissue imaging. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) is particularly suited for imaging of tissues and cells.