Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal

New University of Lisbon, Caparica, Distrito de Setubal, Portugal

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Publications (234)621.35 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The concerted effects of changes in gene expression due to changes in the environment are ultimately reflected in the metabolome. Dynamics of metabolite concentrations under a certain condition can therefore give a description of the cellular state with a high degree of functional information. We used this potential to evaluate the metabolic status of two recombinant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during anaerobic batch fermentation of a glucose/xylose mixture. Two isogenic strains were studied, differing only in the pathways used for xylose assimilation: the oxidoreductive pathway with xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) or the isomerization pathway with xylose isomerase (XI). The isogenic relationship between the two strains ascertains that the observed responses are a result of the particular xylose pathway and not due to unknown changes in regulatory systems. An increased understanding of the physiological state of these strains is important for further development of efficient pentose-utilizing strains for bioethanol production. Using LC-MS/MS we determined the dynamics in the concentrations of intracellular metabolites in central carbon metabolism, nine amino acids, the purine nucleotides and redox cofactors. The general response to the transition from glucose to xylose was increased concentrations of amino acids and TCA-cycle intermediates, and decreased concentrations of sugar phosphates and redox cofactors. The two strains investigated had significantly different uptake rates of xylose which led to an enhanced response in the XI-strain. Despite the difference in xylose uptake rate, the adenylate energy charge remained high and stable around 0.8 in both strains. In contrast to the adenylate pool, large changes were observed in the guanylate pool. The low uptake of xylose by the XI-strain led to several distinguished responses: depletion of key metabolites in glycolysis and NADPH, a reduced GTP/GDP ratio and accumulation of PEP and aromatic amino acids. These changes are strong indicators of carbon starvation. The XR/XDH-strain displayed few such traits. The coexistence of these traits and a stable adenylate charge indicates that xylose supplies energy to the cells but does not suppress a response similar to carbon starvation. Particular signals may play a role in the latter, of which the GTP/GMP ratio could be a candidate as it decreased significantly in both strains.
    Biotechnology for Biofuels 05/2012; 5(1):34. · 5.55 Impact Factor
  • Michael J. O’Donohue, Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal
    Process Biochemistry - PROCESS BIOCHEM. 03/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulose raw materials requires industrial xylose-fermenting strains capable of complete and efficient D-xylose consumption. A central question in xylose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered for xylose fermentation is to improve the xylose uptake. In the current study, the glucose/xylose facilitator Gxf1 from Candida intermedia, was expressed in three different xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strains of industrial origin. The in vivo effect on aerobic xylose growth and the initial xylose uptake rate were assessed. The expression of Gxf1 resulted in enhanced aerobic xylose growth only for the TMB3400 based strain. It displayed more than a 2-fold higher affinity for D-xylose than the parental strain and approximately 2-fold higher initial specific growth rate at 4 g/L D-xylose. Enhanced xylose consumption was furthermore observed when the GXF1-strain was assessed in simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of pretreated wheat straw. However, the ethanol yield remained unchanged due to increased by-product formation. Metabolic flux analysis suggested that the expression of the Gxf1 transporter had shifted the control of xylose catabolism from transport to the NAD(+) dependent oxidation of xylitol to xylulose.
    Enzyme and microbial technology. 05/2011; 48(6-7):518-25.
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    Kim Olofsson, David Runquist, Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal, Gunnar Lidén
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    ABSTRACT: Genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are able to ferment xylose present in lignocellulosic biomass. However, better xylose fermenting strains are required to reach complete xylose uptake in simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. In the current study, haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains expressing a heterologous xylose pathway including either the native xylose reductase (XR) from P. stipitis, a mutated variant of XR (mXR) with altered co-factor preference, a glucose/xylose facilitator (Gxf1) from Candida intermedia or both mXR and Gxf1 were assessed in SSCF of acid-pretreated non-detoxified wheat straw. The xylose conversion in SSCF was doubled with the S. cerevisiae strain expressing mXR compared to the isogenic strain expressing the native XR, converting 76% and 38%, respectively. The xylitol yield was less than half using mXR in comparison with the native variant. As a result of this, the ethanol yield increased from 0.33 to 0.39 g g-1 when the native XR was replaced by mXR. In contrast, the expression of Gxf1 only slightly increased the xylose uptake, and did not increase the ethanol production. The results suggest that ethanolic xylose fermentation under SSCF conditions is controlled primarily by the XR activity and to a much lesser extent by xylose transport.
    AMB Express. 01/2011; 1(1):4.
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    David Runquist, Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal, Maurizio Bettiga
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    ABSTRACT: Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) has been genetically engineered to ferment the pentose sugar xylose present in lignocellulose biomass. One of the reactions controlling the rate of xylose utilization is catalyzed by xylose reductase (XR). In particular, the cofactor specificity of XR is not optimized with respect to the downstream pathway, and the reaction rate is insufficient for high xylose utilization in S. cerevisiae. The current study describes a novel approach to improve XR for ethanol production in S. cerevisiae. The cofactor binding region of XR was mutated by error-prone PCR, and the resulting library was expressed in S. cerevisiae. The S. cerevisiae library expressing the mutant XR was selected in sequential anaerobic batch cultivation. At the end of the selection process, a strain (TMB 3420) harboring the XR mutations N272D and P275Q was enriched from the library. The V(max) of the mutated enzyme was increased by an order of magnitude compared to that of the native enzyme, and the NADH/NADPH utilization ratio was increased significantly. The ethanol productivity from xylose in TMB 3420 was increased ∼40 times compared to that of the parent strain (0.32 g/g [dry weight {DW}] × h versus 0.007 g/g [DW] × h), and the anaerobic growth rate was increased from ∼0 h(-1) to 0.08 h(-1). The improved traits of TMB 3420 were readily transferred to the parent strain by reverse engineering of the mutated XR gene. Since integrative vectors were employed in the construction of the library, transfer of the improved phenotype does not require multicopy expression from episomal plasmids.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 10/2010; 76(23):7796-802. · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a recent study combining transcriptome analyses of a number of recombinant laboratory and industrial S. cerevisiae strains with improved xylose utilization and their respective control strains, the ORF YLR042c was identified as a downregulated gene and it was shown that the gene deletion improved aerobic growth on xylose in the tested strain background. In the present study, the influence of deleting YLR042c on xylose fermentation was investigated in two different xylose-fermenting strains: TMB3001, which expresses genes from the initial xylose catabolizing pathway, including heterologous xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) and endogenous xylulokinase (XK); and TMB3057, which, in addition to the initial xylose catabolizing pathway, overexpresses the endogenous genes encoding the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway enzymes. The deletion of YLR042c led to improved aerobic growth on xylose in both strain backgrounds. However, the effect was more significant in the strain with the poorer growth rate on xylose (TMB3001). Under anaerobic conditions, the deletion of YLR042c increased the specific xylose consumption rate and the ethanol and xylitol yields. In strain TMB3057, xylose consumption was also improved at low concentrations and during co-fermentation of xylose and glucose. The effect of the gene deletion and overexpression was also tested for different carbon sources. Altogether, these results suggest that YLR042c influences xylose and the assimilation of carbon sources other than glucose, and that the effect could be at the level of sugar transport or sugar signalling.
    Yeast 09/2010; 27(9):741-51. · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    David Runquist, Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal, Peter Rådström
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    ABSTRACT: Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) has been engineered for xylose utilization to enable production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulose raw material. One unresolved challenge is that S. cerevisiae lacks a dedicated transport system for pentose sugars, which means that xylose is transported by non-specific Hxt transporters with comparatively low transport rate and affinity for xylose. In this study, we compared three heterologous xylose transporters that have recently been shown to improve xylose uptake under different experimental conditions. The transporters Gxf1, Sut1 and At5g59250 from Candida intermedia, Pichia stipitis and Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively, were expressed in isogenic strains of S. cerevisiae and the transport kinetics and utilization of xylose was evaluated. Expression of the Gxf1 and Sut1 transporters led to significantly increased affinity and transport rates of xylose. In batch cultivation at 4 g/L xylose concentration, improved transport kinetics led to a corresponding increase in xylose utilization, whereas no correlation could be demonstrated at xylose concentrations greater than 15 g/L. The relative contribution of native sugar transporters to the overall xylose transport capacity was also estimated during growth on glucose and xylose. Kinetic characterization and aerobic batch cultivation of strains expressing the Gxf1, Sut1 and At5g59250 transporters showed a direct relationship between transport kinetics and xylose growth. The Gxf1 transporter had the highest transport capacity and the highest xylose growth rate, followed by the Sut1 transporter. The range in which transport controlled the growth rate was determined to between 0 and 15 g/L xylose. The role of catabolite repression in regulation of native transporters was also confirmed by the observation that xylose transport by native S. cerevisiae transporters increased significantly during cultivation in xylose and at low glucose concentration.
    Biotechnology for Biofuels 03/2010; 3:5. · 5.55 Impact Factor
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    Grant Stanley, Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal
    01/2010: pages 261 - 291; , ISBN: 9780470750025
  • B. Hahn-Hägerdal, F. Gorwa-Grauslund
    Journal of Biotechnology - J BIOTECHNOL. 01/2010; 150:10-10.
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    Rosa Garcia Sanchez, Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal, Marie F Gorwa-Grauslund
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    ABSTRACT: Overexpression of the PGM2 gene encoding phosphoglucomutase (Pgm2p) has been shown to improve galactose utilization both under aerobic and under anaerobic conditions. Similarly, xylose utilization has been improved by overexpression of genes encoding xylulokinase (XK), enzymes from the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (non-ox PPP) and deletion of the endogenous aldose reductase GRE3 gene in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains carrying either fungal or bacterial xylose pathways. In the present study, we investigated how the combination of these traits affect xylose and galactose utilization in the presence or absence of glucose in S. cerevisiae strains engineered with the xylose reductase (XR)-xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) pathway. In the absence of PGM2 overexpression, the combined overexpression of XK, the non-ox PPP and deletion of the GRE3 gene significantly delayed aerobic growth on galactose, whereas no difference was observed between the control strain and the xylose-engineered strain when the PGM2 gene was overexpressed. Under anaerobic conditions, the overexpression of the PGM2 gene increased the ethanol yield and the xylose consumption rate in medium containing xylose as the only carbon source. The possibility of Pgm2p acting as a xylose isomerase (XI) could be excluded by measuring the XI activity in both strains. The additional copy of the PGM2 gene also resulted in a shorter fermentation time during the co-consumption of galactose and xylose. However, the effect was lost upon addition of glucose to the growth medium. PGM2 overexpression was shown to benefit xylose and galactose fermentation, alone and in combination. In contrast, galactose fermentation was impaired in the engineered xylose-utilizing strain harbouring extra copies of the non-ox PPP genes and a deletion of the GRE3 gene, unless PGM2 was overexpressed. These cross-reactions are of particular relevance for the fermentation of mixed sugars from lignocellulosic feedstock.
    Biotechnology for Biofuels 01/2010; 3:19. · 5.55 Impact Factor
  • D. Runquist, B. Hahn-Hägerdal, M. Bettiga
    Journal of Biotechnology - J BIOTECHNOL. 01/2010; 150:137-137.
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    ABSTRACT: Cost-effective fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysate to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires efficient mixed sugar utilization. Notably, the rate and yield of xylose and arabinose co-fermentation to ethanol must be enhanced. Evolutionary engineering was used to improve the simultaneous conversion of xylose and arabinose to ethanol in a recombinant industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain carrying the heterologous genes for xylose and arabinose utilization pathways integrated in the genome. The evolved strain TMB3130 displayed an increased consumption rate of xylose and arabinose under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Improved anaerobic ethanol production was achieved at the expense of xylitol and glycerol but arabinose was almost stoichiometrically converted to arabitol. Further characterization of the strain indicated that the selection pressure during prolonged continuous culture in xylose and arabinose medium resulted in the improved transport of xylose and arabinose as well as increased levels of the enzymes from the introduced fungal xylose pathway. No mutation was found in any of the genes from the pentose converting pathways. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that characterizes the molecular mechanisms for improved mixed-pentose utilization obtained by evolutionary engineering of a recombinant S. cerevisiae strain. Increased transport of pentoses and increased activities of xylose converting enzymes contributed to the improved phenotype.
    Biotechnology for Biofuels 01/2010; 3:13. · 5.55 Impact Factor
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    Rosa Garcia Sanchez, Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal, Marie F Gorwa-Grauslund
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    ABSTRACT: In Saccharomyces cerevisiae galactose is initially metabolized through the Leloir pathway after which glucose 6-phosphate enters glycolysis. Galactose is controlled both by glucose repression and by galactose induction. The gene PGM2 encodes the last enzyme of the Leloir pathway, phosphoglucomutase 2 (Pgm2p), which catalyses the reversible conversion of glucose 1-phosphate to glucose 6-phosphate. Overexpression of PGM2 has previously been shown to enhance aerobic growth of S. cerevisiae in galactose medium. In the present study we show that overexpression of PGM2 under control of the HXT7'promoter from an integrative plasmid increased the PGM activity 5 to 6 times, which significantly reduced the lag phase of glucose-pregrown cells in an anaerobic galactose culture. PGM2 overexpression also increased the anaerobic specific growth rate whereas ethanol production was less influenced. When PGM2 was overexpressed from a multicopy plasmid instead, the PGM activity increased almost 32 times. However, this increase of PGM activity did not further improve aerobic galactose fermentation as compared to the strain carrying PGM2 on the integrative plasmid. PGM2 overexpression in S. cerevisiae from an integrative plasmid is sufficient to reduce the lag phase and to enhance the growth rate in anaerobic galactose fermentation, which results in an overall decrease in fermentation duration. This observation is of particular importance for the future development of stable industrial strains with enhanced PGM activity.
    Microbial Cell Factories 01/2010; 9:40. · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sugarcane bagasse is a lignocellulosic residue obtained from sugarcane milling, and a potentially interesting raw material that can be used for fuel ethanol production. In the present study, bagasse was steam pretreated at temperatures between 180 and 205 °C, with holding times of 5–10 min using SO2 as a catalyst to determine conditions that provide a good recovery of pentoses and a suitable material for enzymatic hydrolysis. Pretreatment conducted at 190 °C for 5 min gave a pentose yield of 57%, with only minor amounts of degradation compounds formed. Commercial cellulolytic enzymes were used to hydrolyze the obtained fiber fractions after pretreatment at different water-insoluble solid contents (2%, 5% and 8% WIS). The overall highest sugar yield achieved from bagasse was 87% at 2% WIS. Fermentation tests were made on both the pentose-rich hemicellulose hydrolysate obtained from the pretreatment, and the enzymatic hydrolysates obtained from the fiber fractions using the xylose-fermenting strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TMB3400, as well as the natural xylose-utilizing yeast Pichia stipitis CBS 6054. The pretreatment hydrolysates produced at 2% WIS as well as the enzymatic hydrolysates showed a complete glucose fermentability indicating a low toxicity to the yeasts. The best xylose conversion (more than 60%) was achieved by the strain TMB3400 at 2% WIS.
    Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 01/2010;
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    David Runquist, Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal, Maurizio Bettiga
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    ABSTRACT: Fermentation of xylose to ethanol has been achieved in S. cerevisiae by genetic engineering. Xylose utilization is however slow compared to glucose, and during anaerobic conditions addition of glucose has been necessary for cellular growth. In the current study, the xylose-utilizing strain TMB 3415 was employed to investigate differences between anaerobic utilization of glucose and xylose. This strain carried a xylose reductase (XYL1 K270R) engineered for increased NADH utilization and was capable of sustained anaerobic growth on xylose as sole carbon source. Metabolic and transcriptional characterization could thus for the first time be performed without addition of a co-substrate or oxygen. Analysis of metabolic fluxes showed that although the specific ethanol productivity was an order of magnitude lower on xylose than on glucose, product yields were similar for the two substrates. In addition, transcription analysis identified clear regulatory differences between glucose and xylose. Respiro-fermentative metabolism on glucose during aerobic conditions caused repression of cellular respiration, while metabolism on xylose under the same conditions was fully respiratory. During anaerobic conditions, xylose repressed respiratory pathways, although notably more weakly than glucose. It was also observed that anaerobic xylose growth caused up-regulation of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and gluconeogenesis, which may be driven by an increased demand for NADPH during anaerobic xylose catabolism. Co-factor imbalance in the initial two steps of xylose utilization may reduce ethanol productivity by increasing the need for NADP+ reduction and consequently increase reverse flux in glycolysis.
    Microbial Cell Factories 09/2009; 8:49. · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains able to utilize xylose have been constructed by overexpression of XYL1 and XYL2 genes encoding the NADPH-preferring xylose reductase (XR) and the NAD(+)-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, from Pichia stipitis. However, the use of different co-factors by XR and XDH leads to NAD(+) deficiency followed by xylitol excretion and reduced product yield. The furaldehydes 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural (HMF) and furfural inhibit yeast metabolism, prolong the lag phase, and reduce the ethanol productivity. Recently, genes encoding furaldehyde reductases were identified and their overexpression was shown to improve S. cerevisiae growth and fermentation rate in HMF containing media and in lignocellulosic hydrolysate. In the current study, we constructed a xylose-consuming S. cerevisiae strain using the XR/XDH pathway from P. stipitis. Then, the genes encoding the NADH- and the NADPH-dependent HMF reductases, ADH1-S110P-Y295C and ADH6, respectively, were individually overexpressed in this background. The performance of these strains, which differed in their co-factor usage for HMF reduction, was evaluated under anaerobic conditions in batch fermentation in absence or in presence of HMF. In anaerobic continuous culture, carbon fluxes were obtained for simultaneous xylose consumption and HMF reduction. Our results show that the co-factor used for HMF reduction primarily influenced formation of products other than ethanol, and that NADH-dependent HMF reduction influenced product formation more than NADPH-dependent HMF reduction. In particular, NADH-dependent HMF reduction contributed to carbon conservation so that biomass was produced at the expense of xylitol and glycerol formation.
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 07/2009; 84(4):751-61. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    Oskar Bengtsson, Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal, Marie F Gorwa-Grauslund
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    ABSTRACT: Xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) from Pichia stipitis are the two enzymes most commonly used in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains engineered for xylose utilization. The availability of NAD+ for XDH is limited during anaerobic xylose fermentation because of the preference of XR for NADPH. This in turn results in xylitol formation and reduced ethanol yield. The coenzyme preference of P. stipitis XR was changed by site-directed mutagenesis with the aim to engineer it towards NADH-preference. XR variants were evaluated in S. cerevisiae strains with the following genetic modifications: overexpressed native P. stipitis XDH, overexpressed xylulokinase, overexpressed non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and deleted GRE3 gene encoding an NADPH dependent aldose reductase. All overexpressed genes were chromosomally integrated to ensure stable expression. Crude extracts of four different strains overexpressing genes encoding native P. stipitis XR, K270M and K270R mutants, as well as Candida parapsilosis XR, were enzymatically characterized. The physiological effects of the mutations were investigated in anaerobic xylose fermentation. The strain overexpressing P. stipitis XR with the K270R mutation gave an ethanol yield of 0.39 g (g consumed sugars)-1, a xylitol yield of 0.05 g (g consumed xylose)-1 and a xylose consumption rate of 0.28 g (g biomass)-1 h-1 in continuous fermentation at a dilution rate of 0.12 h-1, with 10 g l-1 glucose and 10 g l-1 xylose as carbon sources. The cofactor preference of P. stipitis XR was altered by site-directed mutagenesis. When the K270R XR was combined with a metabolic engineering strategy that ensures high xylose utilization capabilities, a recombinant S. cerevisiae strain was created that provides a unique combination of high xylose consumption rate, high ethanol yield and low xylitol yield during ethanolic xylose fermentation.
    Biotechnology for Biofuels 06/2009; 2:9. · 5.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Xylose fermentation in yeast has been a target of research for years, yet not all the factors that may affect xylose fermentation performance of yeast strains are known. In this study, the mutant S. cerevisiae strain TMB 3400, which has good xylose fermentation properties, was compared with its parental strain to examine the factors behind the improved xylose utilization at protein level. The proteome of the parental and the mutant strains were characterized by difference in gel electrophoresis (DiGE) to quantitatively identify proteins that are expressed at altered levels in the mutant. The most significant changes detected by proteome analysis were the 6-10-fold increased levels of xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase and transketolase (Tkl1) in the mutant, which is in accordance with previous knowledge about xylose metabolism in yeast. The level of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (Ald6) was also significantly increased. In addition, several proteins homologous to proteins from yeast species other than S. cerevisiae were identified in both strains, demonstrating the genetic heterogeneity of industrial yeast strains. The results were also compared with a previously reported transcription analysis performed with identical experimental set-up; however, very little correlation between the two datasets was observed. The results of the proteome analysis were in good agreement with a parallel study in which rationally designed overexpression of XR, XDH and the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway resulted in similar improvement in xylose utilization, which demonstrates the usefulness of proteome analysis for the identification of target genes for further metabolic engineering strategies in industrial yeast strains.
    Yeast 06/2009; 26(7):371-82. · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sustainable and economically viable manufacturing of bioethanol from lignocellulose raw material is dependent on the availability of a robust ethanol producing microorganism, able to ferment all sugars present in the feedstock, including the pentose sugars L-arabinose and D-xylose. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a robust ethanol producer, but needs to be engineered to achieve pentose sugar fermentation. A new recombinant S. cerevisiae strain expressing an improved fungal pathway for the utilization of L-arabinose and D-xylose was constructed and characterized. The new strain grew aerobically on L-arabinose and D-xylose as sole carbon sources. The activities of the enzymes constituting the pentose utilization pathway(s) and product formation during anaerobic mixed sugar fermentation were characterized. Pentose fermenting recombinant S. cerevisiae strains were obtained by the expression of a pentose utilization pathway of entirely fungal origin. During anaerobic fermentation the strain produced biomass and ethanol. L-arabitol yield was 0.48 g per gram of consumed pentose sugar, which is considerably less than previously reported for D-xylose reductase expressing strains co-fermenting L-arabinose and D-xylose, and the xylitol yield was 0.07 g per gram of consumed pentose sugar.
    Microbial Cell Factories 02/2009; 8:40. · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Four recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with enhanced xylose growth (TMB3400, C1, C5 and BH42) were compared with two control strains (TMB3399, TMB3001) through genome-wide transcription analysis in order to identify novel targets for inverse metabolic engineering. A subset of 13 genes with changed expression levels in all improved strains was selected for further analysis. Thirteen validation strains and two reference strains were constructed to investigate the effect of overexpressing or deleting these genes in xylose-utilizing S. cerevisiae. Improved aerobic growth rates on xylose were observed in five cases. The strains overexpressing SOL3 and TAL1 grew 19% and 24% faster than their reference strain, and the strains carrying deletions of YLR042C, MNI1 or RPA49 grew 173%, 62% and 90% faster than their reference strain.
    Yeast 01/2009; 25(11):835-47. · 1.96 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
621.35 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2011
    • New University of Lisbon
      • • Department of Life Sciences
      • • Faculty of Sciences and Technology
      Caparica, Distrito de Setubal, Portugal
  • 1981–2011
    • Lund University
      • • Department of Chemical Engineering
      • • Division of Applied Microbiology
      • • Department of Plant Biochemistry
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Department of Pure and Applied Biochemistry
      Lund, Skane, Sweden
  • 2007
    • Universitat Rovira i Virgili
      Tarraco, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2006
    • Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
      • Institute of Molecular Biosciences
      Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany
  • 2004
    • University of Minho
      • Departamento de Biologia (DB)
      Braga, Distrito de Braga, Portugal
  • 1999
    • Wageningen University
      • Laboratory of Microbiology
      Wageningen, Provincie Gelderland, Netherlands
    • Stellenbosch University
      • Department of Microbiology
      Stellenbosch, Province of the Western Cape, South Africa
  • 1997
    • University of Latvia
      • Institute of Microbiology and Biotechnology
      Riga, Riga, Latvia
  • 1996
    • Chalmers University of Technology
      • Research Area of Chemical Reaction Engineering
      Göteborg, Vaestra Goetaland, Sweden
    • Nanjing Forestry University
      • College of Chemical Engineering
      Nan-ching, Jiangsu Sheng, China
    • University of Santiago de Compostela
      • Departamento de Ingeniería Química
      Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain
  • 1990–1994
    • University of Alcalá
      • Facultad de Farmacia
      Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain
  • 1989
    • The University of Calgary
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada