[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study describes the molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing invasive disease in Gambian children
One hundred and thirty-two S. pneumoniae isolates were recovered from children aged 2-29 months during the course of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine trial conducted in The Gambia of which 131 were characterized by serotyping, antibiotic susceptibility, BOX-PCR and MLST.
Twenty-nine different serotypes were identified; serotypes 14, 19A, 12F, 5, 23F, and 1 were common and accounted for 58.3% of all serotypes overall. MLST analysis showed 72 sequence types (STs) of which 46 are novel. eBURST analysis using the stringent 6/7 identical loci definition, grouped the isolates into 17 clonal complexes and 32 singletons. The population structure of the 8 serotype 1 isolates obtained from 4 vaccinated and 2 unvaccinated children were the same (ST 618) except that one (ST3336) of the isolates from an unvaccinated child had a novel ST which is a single locus variant of ST 618.
We provide the first background data on the genetic structure of S. pneumoniae causing IPD prior to PC7V use in The Gambia. This data will be important for assessing the impact of PC7V in post-vaccine surveillance from The Gambia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sixty-two invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolates from children aged 2-29 months in rural Gambia were examined for serovar prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility, and characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of seven genes, aroC, dnaN, hemD, hisD, purE, sucA and thrA. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis was the most common serovar (80.6 %), followed by S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (8.0 %). Thirty-three per cent of the isolates were resistant to all eight antimicrobials tested, including ampicillin (74.2 %), cotrimoxazole (64.5 %) and tetracycline (63 %). A total of 40.3 % of the NTS cases had an initial clinical diagnosis of malaria, whilst 27.3 % had a diagnosis of clinical pneumonia and 18 % had a diagnosis of septicaemia. MLST of NTS resulted in ten different sequence types (STs), of which five were novel, representing five different NTS serovars. In general, STs were restricted to the same serovar. One type (ST11) encompassed 80.6 % of the NTSs. A new NTS serovar named S. enterica serovar Dingiri was discovered. S. Dingiri was isolated from a 6-month-old male with an initial clinical diagnosis of malaria but a final clinical diagnosis of anaemia and septicaemia. S. Dingiri, which possesses an antigenic formula of 17:z:1,6, was sensitive to ampicillin, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole and tetracycline but resistant to gentamicin, and was ST338.
Journal of Medical Microbiology 12/2007; 56(Pt 11):1479-84. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the effect of vaccines against pneumonia in Gambian children.
Data from a randomized, controlled trial of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) were used. Radiographic findings, interpreted using WHO definitions, were classified as primary end point pneumonia, 'other infiltrates/abnormalities' pneumonia and pneumonia with no abnormality. We calculated the incidence of the different types of radiological pneumonia, and compared clinical and laboratory features between these groups.
Among children who did not receive PCV, the incidence of pneumonia with no radiographic abnormality was about twice that of 'other infiltrates' pneumonia and three times that of primary endpoint pneumonia. Most respiratory symptoms, reduced feeding and vomiting occurred most frequently in children with primary endpoint pneumonia. These children were more likely to be malnourished, to have bronchial breath sounds or invasive bacterial diseases, and to die within 28 days of consultation than children in the other groups. Conversely, a history of convulsion, diarrhoea or fast breathing, malaria parasitaemia and isolation of salmonellae were commoner in children with pneumonia with no radiographic abnormality. Lower chest wall indrawing and rhonchi on auscultation were seen most frequently in children with 'other infiltrates/abnormalities' pneumonia.
Primary endpoint pneumonia is strongly associated with bacterial aetiology and severe pneumonia. Since this category of pneumonia is significantly reduced after vaccination with Hib and pneumococcal vaccines, the risk-benefit of antimicrobial prescription for clinical pneumonia for children with increased respiratory rate may warrant re-examination once these vaccines are in widespread use.
Tropical Medicine & International Health 12/2007; 12(11):1377-85. · 2.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of community-acquired bacteremia (CAB) in Africa is several-fold higher than in industrialized countries. We report here the incidence of invasive bacterial infections in rural Gambia and compare the clinical characteristics of children with pneumococcal infection with those of children with extraintestinal nontyphoidal salmonella infection (NTS) or other bacterial infections.
As part of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine trial, we investigated children aged 2-29 months who presented with signs suggestive of invasive bacterial infections.
The incidence of invasive bacterial infections in all subjects was 1009 (95% CI, 903-1124) cases per 100,000 person-years. It was 1108 (95% CI, 953-1282) among children who had not received pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Incidence decreased with increasing age but remained relatively high in 24- to 29-month-olds for pneumococcal infections. Pneumococcal infection was more frequent than NTS infections in the hot dry season. Respiratory symptoms and signs, consolidation on chest radiograph, and a primary diagnosis of pneumonia were more frequent in children with pneumococcal infection than in those with NTS or other infections. Diarrhea, laboratory evidence of malaria infection, and a primary diagnosis of malaria were more common in children with NTS infections.
Bacterial infections continue to cause significant morbidity in rural Africa. Although vaccines could greatly reduce the pneumococcal burden, a high index of suspicion and appropriate use of antimicrobials are needed to manage other causes of invasive bacterial infections.