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Publications (6)54.38 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the immunogenicity of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-9) in a subgroup of Gambian children enrolled in a large vaccine efficacy trial. To place the antibody results in context, in this paper we also report previously unpublished data on serotype-specific clinical vaccine efficacy from the main trial. In the sub-study, a single 2-4 ml venous blood specimen was collected from 212 Gambian children 4-6 weeks after the administration of a third dose of PCV-9 or placebo. IgG antibodies to pneumococcal serotype 1, 4, 5, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F and 23F polysaccharides were measured by ELISA. The proportions of infants with antibody concentrations above 0.2, 0.35 and 1.0 microg/ml, and the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide antibodies were substantially higher for each serotype in children who received three doses of PCV-9 than those in the placebo group. Among PCV-9 recipients, GMCs ranged between 2.61 and 11.09 microg/ml with the highest being against serotype 14 and the lowest against 9V polysaccharide. The estimated overall protective antibody level for all nine serotypes, based on the vaccine efficacy against vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) of 77% (95% CI: 51, 90) observed in the trial, was 2.3 microg/ml (95% CI: 1.0, 5.0). The PCV-9 studied was immunogenic in a Gambian population where it was also found to be efficacious.
    Vaccine 08/2008; 26(29-30):3719-26. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study describes the molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing invasive disease in Gambian children One hundred and thirty-two S. pneumoniae isolates were recovered from children aged 2-29 months during the course of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine trial conducted in The Gambia of which 131 were characterized by serotyping, antibiotic susceptibility, BOX-PCR and MLST. Twenty-nine different serotypes were identified; serotypes 14, 19A, 12F, 5, 23F, and 1 were common and accounted for 58.3% of all serotypes overall. MLST analysis showed 72 sequence types (STs) of which 46 are novel. eBURST analysis using the stringent 6/7 identical loci definition, grouped the isolates into 17 clonal complexes and 32 singletons. The population structure of the 8 serotype 1 isolates obtained from 4 vaccinated and 2 unvaccinated children were the same (ST 618) except that one (ST3336) of the isolates from an unvaccinated child had a novel ST which is a single locus variant of ST 618. We provide the first background data on the genetic structure of S. pneumoniae causing IPD prior to PC7V use in The Gambia. This data will be important for assessing the impact of PC7V in post-vaccine surveillance from The Gambia.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 02/2008; 8:81. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the effect of vaccines against pneumonia in Gambian children. Data from a randomized, controlled trial of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) were used. Radiographic findings, interpreted using WHO definitions, were classified as primary end point pneumonia, 'other infiltrates/abnormalities' pneumonia and pneumonia with no abnormality. We calculated the incidence of the different types of radiological pneumonia, and compared clinical and laboratory features between these groups. Among children who did not receive PCV, the incidence of pneumonia with no radiographic abnormality was about twice that of 'other infiltrates' pneumonia and three times that of primary endpoint pneumonia. Most respiratory symptoms, reduced feeding and vomiting occurred most frequently in children with primary endpoint pneumonia. These children were more likely to be malnourished, to have bronchial breath sounds or invasive bacterial diseases, and to die within 28 days of consultation than children in the other groups. Conversely, a history of convulsion, diarrhoea or fast breathing, malaria parasitaemia and isolation of salmonellae were commoner in children with pneumonia with no radiographic abnormality. Lower chest wall indrawing and rhonchi on auscultation were seen most frequently in children with 'other infiltrates/abnormalities' pneumonia. Primary endpoint pneumonia is strongly associated with bacterial aetiology and severe pneumonia. Since this category of pneumonia is significantly reduced after vaccination with Hib and pneumococcal vaccines, the risk-benefit of antimicrobial prescription for clinical pneumonia for children with increased respiratory rate may warrant re-examination once these vaccines are in widespread use.
    Tropical Medicine & International Health 12/2007; 12(11):1377-85. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sixty-two invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolates from children aged 2-29 months in rural Gambia were examined for serovar prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility, and characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of seven genes, aroC, dnaN, hemD, hisD, purE, sucA and thrA. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis was the most common serovar (80.6 %), followed by S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (8.0 %). Thirty-three per cent of the isolates were resistant to all eight antimicrobials tested, including ampicillin (74.2 %), cotrimoxazole (64.5 %) and tetracycline (63 %). A total of 40.3 % of the NTS cases had an initial clinical diagnosis of malaria, whilst 27.3 % had a diagnosis of clinical pneumonia and 18 % had a diagnosis of septicaemia. MLST of NTS resulted in ten different sequence types (STs), of which five were novel, representing five different NTS serovars. In general, STs were restricted to the same serovar. One type (ST11) encompassed 80.6 % of the NTSs. A new NTS serovar named S. enterica serovar Dingiri was discovered. S. Dingiri was isolated from a 6-month-old male with an initial clinical diagnosis of malaria but a final clinical diagnosis of anaemia and septicaemia. S. Dingiri, which possesses an antigenic formula of 17:z:1,6, was sensitive to ampicillin, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole and tetracycline but resistant to gentamicin, and was ST338.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 12/2007; 56(Pt 11):1479-84. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of community-acquired bacteremia (CAB) in Africa is several-fold higher than in industrialized countries. We report here the incidence of invasive bacterial infections in rural Gambia and compare the clinical characteristics of children with pneumococcal infection with those of children with extraintestinal nontyphoidal salmonella infection (NTS) or other bacterial infections. As part of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine trial, we investigated children aged 2-29 months who presented with signs suggestive of invasive bacterial infections. The incidence of invasive bacterial infections in all subjects was 1009 (95% CI, 903-1124) cases per 100,000 person-years. It was 1108 (95% CI, 953-1282) among children who had not received pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Incidence decreased with increasing age but remained relatively high in 24- to 29-month-olds for pneumococcal infections. Pneumococcal infection was more frequent than NTS infections in the hot dry season. Respiratory symptoms and signs, consolidation on chest radiograph, and a primary diagnosis of pneumonia were more frequent in children with pneumococcal infection than in those with NTS or other infections. Diarrhea, laboratory evidence of malaria infection, and a primary diagnosis of malaria were more common in children with NTS infections. Bacterial infections continue to cause significant morbidity in rural Africa. Although vaccines could greatly reduce the pneumococcal burden, a high index of suspicion and appropriate use of antimicrobials are needed to manage other causes of invasive bacterial infections.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 09/2006; 25(8):700-5. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pneumonia is estimated to cause 2 million deaths every year in children. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most important cause of severe pneumonia. We aimed to assess the efficacy of a nine-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children. We undertook a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in eastern Gambia. Children age 6-51 weeks were randomly allocated three doses of either pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (n=8718) or placebo (8719), with intervals of at least 25 days between doses. Our primary outcome was first episode of radiological pneumonia. Secondary endpoints were clinical or severe clinical pneumonia, invasive pneumococcal disease, and all-cause admissions. Analyses were per protocol and intention to treat. 529 children assigned vaccine and 568 allocated placebo were not included in the per-protocol analysis. Results of per-protocol and intention-to-treat analyses were similar. By per-protocol analysis, 333 of 8189 children given vaccine had an episode of radiological pneumonia compared with 513 of 8151 who received placebo. Pneumococcal vaccine efficacy was 37% (95% CI 27-45) against first episode of radiological pneumonia. First episodes of clinical pneumonia were reduced overall by 7% (95% CI 1-12). Efficacy of the conjugate vaccine was 77% (51-90) against invasive pneumococcal disease caused by vaccine serotypes, 50% (21-69) against disease caused by all serotypes, and 15% (7-21) against all-cause admissions. We also found an efficacy of 16% (3-28) against mortality. 110 serious adverse events arose in children given the pneumococcal vaccine compared with 131 in those who received placebo. In this rural African setting, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has high efficacy against radiological pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease, and can substantially reduce admissions and improve child survival. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines should be made available to African infants.
    The Lancet 01/2005; 365(9465):1139-46. · 39.06 Impact Factor