Alexander I Archakov

Orekhovich Institute of Biomedical Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Moscow, Russia

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Publications (74)217.52 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Human hepatoma HepG2 cells are used as an in vitro model of the human liver. High-throughput transcriptomic sequencing is an advanced approach for assessing the functional state of a tissue or cell type. However, the influence of experimental factors, such as the sample preparation method and inter-laboratory variation, on the transcriptomic profile has not been evaluated. The whole-transcriptome sequencing of HepG2 cells was performed using the SOLiD platform and validated using droplet digital PCR. The gene expression profile was compared to the results obtained with the same sequencing method in another laboratory and using another sample preparation method. We also compared the transcriptomic profile HepG2 cells with that of liver tissue. Comparison of the gene expression profiles between the HepG2 cell line and liver tissue revealed the highest variation, followed by HepG2 cells submitted to two different sample preparation protocols. The lowest variation was observed between HepG2 cells prepared by two different laboratories using the same protocol. The enrichment analysis of the genes that were differentially expressed between HepG2 cells and liver tissue mainly revealed the cancer-associated gene signature of HepG2 cells and the activation of the response to chemical stimuli in the liver tissue. The HepG2 transcriptome obtained with the SOLiD platform was highly correlated with the published transcriptome obtained with the Illumina and Helicos platforms, with moderate correspondence to microarrays. In the present study, we assessed the influence of experimental factors on the HepG2 transcriptome and identified differences in gene expression between the HepG2 cell line and liver cells. These findings will facilitate robust experimental design in the fields of pharmacology and toxicology. Our results were supported by a comparative analysis with previous HepG2 gene expression studies.
    BMC genomics. 12/2014; 15(1):1108.
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer genome deviates significantly from the reference human genome, and thus a search against standard genome databases in cancer cell proteomics fails to identify cancer-specific protein variants. The goal of this Article is to combine high-throughput exome data [Abaan et al. Cancer Res. 2013] and shotgun proteomics analysis [Modhaddas Gholami et al. Cell Rep. 2013] for cancer cell lines from NCI-60 panel to demonstrate further that the cell lines can be effectively recognized using identified variant peptides. To achieve this goal, we generated a database containing mutant protein sequences of NCI-60 panel of cell lines. The proteome data were searched using Mascot and X!Tandem search engines against databases of both reference and mutant protein sequences. The identification quality was further controlled by calculating a fraction of variant peptides encoded by the own exome sequence for each cell line. We found that up to 92.2% peptides identified by both search engines are encoded by the own exome. Further, we used the identified variant peptides for cell line recognition. The results of the study demonstrate that proteome data supported by exome sequence information can be effectively used for distinguishing between different types of cancer cell lines.
    Journal of Proteome Research 10/2014; · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Post-translational modifications of proteins play a key role in the regulation of various cellular processes. The analysis and identification of post-translational modifications are probably the most versatile and difficult, but also most frequently studied area of interest in proteomics research. This review focuses on the electroactivity of amino acids as a tool for analysis of post-translational modifications of proteins. The most attention is paid to the electrochemical detection of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation and glycosylation of proteins, to the best-studied and functionally-significant modifications, and, also, to the electrochemical analysis of activity of enzymes responsible for carrying out phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of proteins. Recent advances in electrochemistry with special references to proteomics are outlined and innovative technologies for protein detection are highlighted.
    Biosensors & bioelectronics. 05/2014; 61C:131-139.
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    ABSTRACT: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was applied to carry out direct and label-free detection of gp120 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein as a target protein. This approach was based on the AFM fishing of gp120 from the analyte solution using anti-gp120 aptamers immobilized on the AFM chip to count gp120/aptamer complexes that were formed on the chip surface. The comparison of image contrasts of fished gp120 against the background of immobilized aptamers and anti-gp120 antibodies on the AFM images was conducted. It was shown that an image contrast of the protein/aptamer complexes was two-fold higher than the contrast of the protein/antibody complexes. Mass spectrometry identification provided an additional confirmation of the target protein presence on the AFM chips after biospecific fishing to avoid any artifacts.
    International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2014; 9:4659-70. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Post-translational modifications of proteins play a key role in the regulation of various cellular processes. The analysis and identification of post-translational modifications are probably the most versatile and difficult, but also most frequently studied area of interest in proteomics research. This review focuses on the electroactivity of amino acids as a tool for analysis of post-translational modifications of proteins. The most attention is paid to the electrochemical detection of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation and glycosylation of proteins, to the best-studied and functionally-significant modifications, and, also, to the electrochemical analysis of activity of enzymes responsible for carrying out phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of proteins. Recent advances in electrochemistry with special references to proteomics are outlined and innovative technologies for protein detection are highlighted.
    Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 01/2014; 61:131–139.
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to evaluate the capacity for mass spectrometry of blood plasma to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). For this study, blood plasma samples from control subjects (n = 30) and patients with IGT (n = 20) were treated with methanol and low molecular weight fraction were then analyzed by direct infusion mass spectrometry. A total of 51 metabolite ions strongly associated with IGT were detected. The area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for diagnosing IGT that was based on an analysis of all these metabolites was 0.93 (accuracy 90%, specificity 90%, and sensitivity 90%). The associated reproducibility was 85%. The metabolites identified were also consistent with risk factors previously associated with the development of diabetes. Thus, direct infusion mass spectrometry of blood plasma metabolites represents a rapid, single-step, and reproducible method for the analysis of metabolites. Moreover, this method has the potential to serve as a prototype for clinical analyses that could replace the currently used glucose tolerance test with a more patient-friendly assay.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(9):e105343. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The review describes a new method of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) based on direct infusion of low-molecular fraction of blood into an electrospray ionization source of mass spectrometer. This technique allows performing TDM of almost all drugs used in clinical practice. Universality and a high-throughput mode of the method significantly simplify wide application of this method. Moreover, the possibility of method application in most cases of drug therapy has been argued as a tool for control of drug doses, rationality of drug therapy, and quality of drugs used. In conclusion, prospects for application of the method as primary means of improving the quality and personalization of drug therapy have been discussed.
    Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplement Series B Biomedical Chemistry 01/2014; 8(1):1-10.
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    Dataset: elps4957
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    ABSTRACT: We report the results obtained in 2012-2013 by the Russian Consortium for the Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP). The main scope of this work was the transcriptome profiling of genes on human chromosome 18 (Chr 18), as well as their encoded proteome, from three types of biomaterials: liver tissue, the hepatocellular carcinoma-derived cell line HepG2, and blood plasma. The transcriptome profiling for liver tissue was independently performed using two RNaseq platforms (SOLiD and Illumina) and also by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) and quantitative RT-PCR. The proteome profiling of Chr 18 was accomplished by quantitatively measuring protein copy numbers in the three types of biomaterial (at a sensitivity of 10(-13) M) using selected reaction monitoring (SRM). In total, protein copy numbers were estimated for 228 master proteins, including quantitative data on 164 proteins in plasma, 171 in the HepG2 cell line, and 186 in liver tissue. Most proteins were present in plasma at 10(8) copies/μL, while the median abundance was 10(4) and 10(5) protein copies per cell in HepG2 cells and liver tissue, respectively. In summary, for liver tissue and HepG2 cells a "transcriptoproteome" was produced that reflects the relationship between transcript and protein copy numbers of the genes on Chr 18. The quantitative data acquired by RNaseq, PCR, and SRM were uploaded into the "Update_2013" data set of our knowledgebase ( www.kb18.ru ) and investigated for linear correlations.
    Journal of Proteome Research 12/2013; · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP) is aimed to identify the variety of protein products and transcripts of the number of chromosomes. The Russian part of C-HPP is devoted to the study of the human chromosome 18. Using widely accepted Tophat and SpliceGrapher, a tool for accurate splice sites and alternative mRNA isoforms prediction, we performed the extensive mining of the splice variants of chromosome 18 transcripts and encoded protein products in liver, brain, lung, kidney, blood, testis, derma, and skeletal muscles. About 6.1 billion of the reads represented by 450 billion of the bases have been analyzed. The relative frequencies of splice events as well as gene expression profiles in normal tissues are evaluated. Using ExPASy PROSITE, the novel features and possible functional sites of previously unknown splice variants were highlighted. A set of unique proteotypic peptides enabling the identification of novel alternative protein species using mass-spectrometry is constructed. The revealed data will be integrated into the gene-centric knowledgebase of the Russian part of C-HPP available at http://kb18.ru and http://www.splicing.zz.mu/ .
    Journal of Proteome Research 12/2013; · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insufficient sensitivity of methods for detection of proteins at a single molecule level does not yet allow obtaining the whole image of human proteome. But to go further, we need at least to know the proteome size, or how many different protein species compose this proteome. This is the task that could be at least partially realized by the method described in this paper. The approach used in our study is based on detection of protein spots in 2DE after staining by protein dyes with various sensitivities. As the different protein spots contain different protein species, counting spots open way for estimation of number of protein species. The function representing the dependence of the number of protein spots on sensitivity or limit of detection (LOD) of protein dyes was generated. And extrapolation of this function curve to theoretical point of the maximum sensitivity (detection of a single smallest polypeptide) allowed to counting the number of different molecules (polypeptide species) at the concentration level of a single polypeptide per proteome. Using this approach, it was estimated that the minimal numbers of protein species for model objects, E.coli and P.furiosus, are 6200 and 3400, respectively. A single human cell (HepG2) we expect to contain minimum 70,000 protein species.
    Electrophoresis 11/2013; · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Direct redox activity of different proteins was investigated on the surface of carbon screen printed electrodes (SPE). The signal attributed to the electrochemical oxidation of amino acid residues (cysteine (Cys), tryptophan (Trp) and tyrosine (Tyr)) was registered at Emax from 0.6 to 0.7 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). Based on the difference in the redox behavior of L-tyrosine and 3-nitro-L-tyrosine, the selective electrochemical detection of native and nitrated albumins was demonstrated. It was shown that the electrochemical signal correlated with the surface density of electroactive amino acid residues on the protein molecule. A simple electrochemical method for the total protein analysis was proposed.
    Electroanalysis 09/2013; 25(9). · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Human Proteome Project (HPP) was started two years ago and theinternational consortia have elaborated a number of informational resources to harbor the HPP data. Selected informational resources are currently used to elaborate the HPP baseline metrics, which were introduced to estimate future contribution of HPP to the knowledge domain. We developed a Web-based tool Gene-centric Content Management System (GenoCMS) for comparing public resources to proprietary results by using the representation of proteins as color-coded catalog. Within our CMS, the features of protein-coding genes are uploaded from the public domain and then appended by additional features derived from original experimental workflows. We describe the heat-map/traffic light representation of our proteomic experiments as the background of data taken from NextProt, MS/MS repositories, the Human Protein Atlas and the RNAseqAtlas. The system presented at www.kb18.ru comprises a collaborative knowledge base for annotating the gene sets and disseminating these annotations through the Web.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 08/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    Oxana P Trifonova, Petr G Lokhov, Alexander I Archakov
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolomics, the youngest branch of “omics” sciences, intended for studying a comprehensive set of low molecular weight substances (metabolites) of various biological objects. Metabolite profiles represent a molecular phenotype of biological systems and reflect information encoded at the genome level and realized at the transcriptome and proteome levels. Analysis of the human blood metabolic profile is a universal and promising tool for clinical applications because it is a sensitive measure of both endogenous and exogenous (environmental) factors influencing the human body. In this review we discuss technical implementation of blood metabolic profiling methods and statistic analysis of metabolite profiles for effective diagnostics and risk assessments of diseases.
    Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplement Series B Biomedical Chemistry 07/2013; 7(3):179-186.
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    ABSTRACT: Cytochromes P450 comprise a large superfamily and several of their isoforms play a crucial role in metabolism of xenobiotics, including drugs. Although these enzymes demonstrate broad and cross-substrate specificity, different cytochrome P450 subfamilies exhibit certain selectivity for some types of substrates. Analysis of amino acid residues of the active sites of six cytochrome subfamilies (CYP1А, CYP2А, CYP2С, CYP2D, CYP2E and CYP3А) enables to define subfamily-specific patterns that consist of four residues. These residues are located on the periphery of the active sites of these cytochromes. We suggest that they can form a primary binding site at the entrance to the active site, defining cytochrome substrate recognition. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Molecular Recognition 02/2013; 26(2):86-91. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A highly sensitive reverse sandwich immunoassay for the detection of human cardiac myoglobin (cMb) in serum was designed utilizing a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-enhanced surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor. First, a monoclonal anti-cMb antibody (Mab1) was covalently immobilized on the sensor surface. AuNPs were covalently conjugated to the second monoclonal anti-cMb antibody (Mab2) to form an immuno-gold reagent (Mab2-AuNP). The reverse sandwich immunoassay consists of two steps: (1) mixing the serum sample with Mab2-AuNP and incubation for the formation of cMb/Mab2-AuNP complexes and (2) sample injection over the sensor surface and evaluation of the Mab1/cMb/Mab2-AuNP complex formation, with the subsequent calculation of the cMb concentration in the serum. The biosensor signal was amplified approximately 30-fold compared with the direct reaction of cMb with Mab1 on the sensor surface. The limit of detection of cMb in a human blood serum sample was found to be as low as 10pM (approx. 0.18ngmL(-1)), and the inter-assay coefficient of variation was less than 3%. Thus, the developed SPR-based reverse sandwich immunoassay has a sensitivity that is sufficient to measure cMb across a wide range of normal and pathological concentrations, allowing an adequate estimation of the disease severity and the monitoring of treatment.
    Analytica chimica acta 01/2013; 759C:105-109. · 4.31 Impact Factor