[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The renal collecting duct adapts to changes in acid-base metabolism by remodelling and altering the relative number of acid or alkali secreting cells, a phenomenon termed plasticity. Acid secretory A intercalated cells (A-IC) express apical H(+)-ATPases and basolateral bicarbonate exchanger AE1 whereas bicarbonate secretory B intercalated cells (B-IC) express basolateral (and apical) H(+)-ATPases and the apical bicarbonate exchanger pendrin. Intercalated cells were thought to be terminally differentiated and unable to proliferate. However, a recent report in mouse kidney suggested that intercalated cells may proliferate and that this process is in part dependent on GDF-15. Here we extend these observations to rat kidney and provide a detailed analysis of regional differences and demonstrate that differentiated A-IC proliferate massively during adaptation to systemic acidosis. We used markers of proliferation (PCNA, Ki67, BrdU incorporation) and cell-specific markers for A-IC (AE1) and B-IC (pendrin). Induction of remodelling in rats with metabolic acidosis (with NH(4)Cl for 12 hrs, 4 and 7 days) or treatment with acetazolamide for 10 days resulted in a larger fraction of AE1 positive cells in the cortical collecting duct. A large number of AE1 expressing A-IC was labelled with proliferative markers in the cortical and outer medullary collecting duct whereas no labeling was found in B-IC. In addition, chronic acidosis also increased the rate of proliferation of principal collecting duct cells. The fact that both NH(4)Cl as well as acetazolamide stimulated proliferation suggests that systemic but not urinary pH triggers this response. Thus, during chronic acidosis proliferation of AE1 containing acid-secretory cells occurs and may contribute to the remodelling of the collecting duct or replace A-IC due to a shortened life span under these conditions.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(10):e25240. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ammonium chloride addition to drinking water is often used to induce metabolic acidosis (MA) in rodents but may also cause mild dehydration. Previous microarray screening of acidotic mouse kidneys showed upregulation of genes involved in renal water handling. Thus, we compared two protocols to induce metabolic acidosis in mice and rats: standard 0.28M NH(4)Cl in drinking water or an equivalent amount of NH(4)Cl in food. Both treatments induced MA in mice and rats. In rats, NH (4)Cl in water caused signs of dehydration, reduced mRNA abundance of the vasopression receptor 2 (V2R), increased protein abundance of the aquaporin water channels AQP2 and AQP3 and stimulated phosphorylation of AQP2 at residues Ser256 and Ser261. In contrast, NH(4)Cl in food induced massive diuresis, decreased mRNA levels of V2R, AQP2, and AQP3, did not affect protein abundance of AQP2 and AQP3, and stimulated phosphorylation at Ser261 but not pSer256 of AQP2. In mice, NH(4)Cl in drinking water stimulated urine concentration, increased AQP2 and V2R mRNA levels, and enhanced AQP2 and AQP3 protein expression with higher levels of AQP2 pSer256 and pSer261. Addition of NH(4)Cl to food, stimulated diuresis, had no effect on mRNA levels of AQP2, AQP3, and V2R, and enhanced only AQP3 protein abundance whereas pSer256-AQP2 and pSer261-AQP2 remained unaltered. Similarly, AQP2 staining was more intense and luminal in kidney from mice with NH(4)Cl in water but not in food. Pendrin, SNAT3 and PEPCK mRNA expression in mouse kidney were not affected by the route of N(4)Cl application. Thus, addition of NH(4)Cl to water or food causes MA but has differential effects on diuresis and expression of mRNAs and proteins related to renal water handling. Moreover, mice and rats respond differently to NH(4)Cl loading, and increased water intake and diuresis may be a compensatory mechanism during MA. It may be necessary to consider these effects in planning and interpreting experiments of NH(4)Cl supplementation to animals.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 01/2010; 26(6):1059-72. · 3.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypercalciuria increases the risk for urolithiasis, but renal adaptive mechanisms reduce this risk. For example, transient receptor potential vanilloid 5 knockout (TPRV5(-/-)) mice lack kidney stones despite urinary calcium (Ca(2+)) wasting and hyperphosphaturia, perhaps as a result of their significant polyuria and urinary acidification. Here, we investigated the mechanisms linking hypercalciuria with these adaptive mechanisms. Exposure of dissected mouse outer medullary collecting ducts to high (5.0 mM) extracellular Ca(2+) stimulated H(+)-ATPase activity. In TRPV5(-/-) mice, activation of the renal Ca(2+)-sensing receptor promoted H(+)-ATPase-mediated H(+) excretion and downregulation of aquaporin 2, leading to urinary acidification and polyuria, respectively. Gene ablation of the collecting duct-specific B1 subunit of H(+)-ATPase in TRPV5(-/-) mice abolished the enhanced urinary acidification, which resulted in severe tubular precipitations of Ca(2+)-phosphate in the renal medulla. In conclusion, activation of Ca(2+)-sensing receptor by increased luminal Ca(2+) leads to urinary acidification and polyuria. These beneficial adaptations facilitate the excretion of large amounts of soluble Ca(2+), which is crucial to prevent the formation of kidney stones.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 06/2009; 20(8):1705-13. · 8.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The kidney has an important role in the regulation of acid–base homeostasis. Renal ammonium production and excretion are essential for net acid excretion under basal conditions and during metabolic acidosis. Ammonium is secreted into the urine by the collecting duct, a distal nephron segment where ammonium transport is believed to occur by non-ionic NH3 diffusion coupled to H+ secretion. Here we show that this process is largely dependent on the Rhesus factor Rhcg. Mice lacking Rhcg have abnormal urinary acidification due to impaired ammonium excretion on acid loading—a feature of distal renal tubular acidosis. In vitro microperfused collecting ducts of Rhcg-/- acid-loaded mice show reduced apical permeability to NH3 and impaired transepithelial NH3 transport. Furthermore, Rhcg is localized in epididymal epithelial cells and is required for normal fertility and epididymal fluid pH. We anticipate a critical role for Rhcg in ammonium handling and pH homeostasis both in the kidney and the male reproductive tract.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During metabolic acidosis (MA), urinary phosphate excretion increases and contributes to acid removal. Two Na(+)-dependent phosphate transporters, NaPi-IIa (Slc34a1) and NaPi-IIc (Slc34a3), are located in the brush border membrane (BBM) of the proximal tubule and mediate renal phosphate reabsorption. Transcriptome analysis of kidneys from acid-loaded mice revealed a large decrease in NaPi-IIc messenger RNA (mRNA) and a smaller reduction in NaPi-IIa mRNA abundance. To investigate the contribution of transporter regulation to phosphaturia during MA, we examined renal phosphate transporters in normal and Slc34a1-gene ablated (NaPi-IIa KO) mice acid-loaded for 2 and 7 days. In normal mice, urinary phosphate excretion was transiently increased after 2 days of acid loading, whereas no change was found in Slc34a1-/- mice. BBM Na/Pi cotransport activity was progressively and significantly decreased in acid-loaded KO mice, whereas in WT animals, a small increase after 2 days of treatment was seen. Acidosis increased BBM NaPi-IIa abundance in WT mice and NaPi-IIc abundance in WT and KO animals. mRNA abundance of NaPi-IIa and NaPi-IIc decreased during MA. Immunohistochemistry did not indicate any change in the localization of NaPi-IIa and NaPi-IIc along the nephron. Interestingly, mRNA abundance of both Slc20 phosphate transporters, Pit1 and Pit2, was elevated after 7 days of MA in normal and KO mice. These data demonstrate that phosphaturia during acidosis is not caused by reduced protein expression of the major Na/Pi cotransporters NaPi-IIa and NaPi-IIc and suggest a direct inhibitory effect of low pH mainly on NaPi-IIa. Our data also suggest that Pit1 and Pit2 transporters may play a compensatory role.
Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 07/2008; 457(2):539-49. · 4.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Production and excretion of acids are balanced to maintain systemic acid-base homeostasis. During metabolic acidosis (MA) excess acid accumulates and is removed from the body, a process achieved, at least in part, by increasing renal acid excretion. This acid-secretory process requires the concerted regulation of metabolic and transport pathways, which are only partially understood. Chronic MA causes also morphological remodeling of the kidney. Therefore, we characterized transcriptional changes in mammalian kidney during MA to gain insights into adaptive pathways. Total kidney RNA from control and 2- and 7-days NH(4)Cl treated mice was subjected to microarray gene profiling. We identified 4,075 transcripts significantly (P < 0.05) regulated after 2 and/or 7 days of treatment. Microarray results were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Analysis of candidate genes revealed that a large group of regulated transcripts was represented by different solute carrier transporters, genes involved in cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis, water homeostasis, and ammoniagenesis. Pathway analysis revealed that oxidative phosphorylation was the most affected pathway. Interestingly, the majority of acutely regulated genes after 2 days, returned to normal values after 7 days suggesting that adaptation had occurred. Besides these temporal changes, we detected also differential regulation of selected genes (SNAT3, PEPCK, PDG) between early and late proximal tubule. In conclusion, the mammalian kidney responds to MA by temporally and spatially altering the expression of a large number of genes. Our analysis suggests that many of these genes may participate in various processes leading to adaptation and restoration of normal systemic acid-base and electrolyte homeostasis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypothyroidism in humans is associated with incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis, presenting as the inability to respond appropriately to an acid challenge by excreting less acid. Here, we induced hypothyroidism in rats with methimazole (HYPO) and in one group substituted with l-thyroxine (EU). After 4 wk, acid-base status was similar in both groups. However, after 24 h acid loading with NH(4)Cl HYPO rats displayed a more pronounced metabolic acidosis. The expression of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE3, the Na(+)-phosphate cotransporter NaPi-IIa, and the B2 subunit of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase was reduced in the brush-border membrane of the proximal tubule of the HYPO group, paralleled by a lower abundance of the Na(+)/HCO(3)(-) cotransporter NBCe1 and a higher expression of the acid-secretory type A intercalated cell-specific Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger AE1. In contrast to control conditions, the expression of NBCe1 was increased in the HYPO group during metabolic acidosis. In addition, net acid excretion was similar in both groups. The relative number of type A intercalated cells was increased in the connecting tubule and cortical collecting duct of the HYPO group during acidosis. Thus thyroid hormones modulate the renal response to an acid challenge and alter the expression of several key acid-base transporters. Mild hypothyroidism is associated only with a very mild defect in renal acid handling, which appears to be mainly located in the proximal tubule and is compensated by the distal nephron.
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 08/2007; 293(1):F416-27. · 3.61 Impact Factor