[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Foamy urine is widely regarded as a sign of proteinuria. However, there is no objective definition of foamy urine and there are no reports on the proportion of involved patients who have overt proteinuria or microalbuminuria. We performed this study to investigate this proportion and to identify possible risk factors for these two conditions. We reviewed all new outpatients from 1 November 2011 to 30 April 2012 and identified patients complaining of foamy urine. Their demographic data and medical records were examined. In particular, we tabulated the patients' spot urinary protein to creatinine ratio, spot urinary microalbumin to creatinine ratio (ACR), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum levels of creatinine (Cr), uric acid, calcium, phosphate, and glucose. In addition, we calculated estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) by using the CKD-EPI equation. We also performed risk factor analysis with the Chi-squared test and by logistic regression. Seventy-two patients (6.3% of total new outpatients) complained of foamy urine; of these, there were 59 males with a median age of 65.5 years (range, 36-87 years). Of the 72 patients, 16 (22.2%) had overt proteinuria. We found that diabetes, poor renal function (high Cr, BUN, low eGFR), increased serum phosphate, and increased serum glucose were associated with overt proteinuria. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that serum Cr and serum phosphate were associated with overt proteinuria. The ACR was available for 38 patients, and in this subgroup, 12 (31.6%) showed microalbuminuria or overt proteinuria. In this subgroup, a high serum Cr was the only statistically significant risk factor. Among patients who complained of foamy urine, approximately 20% had overt proteinuria, and increased serum Cr and phosphate were statistically significant risk factors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Necrotizing fasciitis usually occurs after dermal injury or through hematogenous spread. To date, few cases have been reported as necrotizing fasciitis of the thigh secondary to rectal perforation in rectal cancer patients. A 66-year-old male complained of pelvic and thigh pain and subsequently developed necrotizing fasciitis in his right thigh. Four years earlier, he had undergone a low anterior resection and radiotherapy due to of rectal cancer. An ulcerative lesion had been observed around the anastomosis site during the colonoscopy that had been performed two months earlier. Pelvic computed tomography and sigmoidoscopy showed rectal perforation and presacral abscess extending to buttock and the right posterior thigh fascia. Thus, the necrotizing fasciitis was believed to have occurred because of ulcer perforation, one of the complications of chronic radiation colitis, at the anastomosis site. When a rectal-cancer patient complains of pelvic and thigh pain, the possibility of a rectal perforation should be considered.
Journal of the Korean Society of Coloproctology 12/2012; 28(6):325-9.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors are important for glutamate synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA receptor 1 gene (GRIA1) belongs to the family of AMPA receptors. There is increasing evidence that AMPA receptors dysfunction may be related to an increased susceptibility to schizophrenia. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms of GRIA1 are associated with schizophrenia and their clinical symptoms (hallucinations and delusions) in Korean population. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1428920, rs1552834, rs1422889, rs10035143, and rs2926835) of the GRIA1 were genotyped in 218 schizophrenia patients and 380 healthy controls, using a direct sequencing. All patients were evaluated by the Operational Criteria Checklist for Psychotic Illness. The genotype and allelic frequencies of rs1428920 and rs2926835 showed significant association between schizophrenia and controls (rs1428920, permutation p = 0.008, 0.008; rs2926835, permutation p = 0.038, 0.041, respectively). A significantly increased risk of schizophrenia was associated with the A allele of rs1428920 and rs2926835 of GRIA1. Furthermore, we found that rs1428920 was weakly associated with hallucinations of schizophrenia, but this significance disappeared after multiple testing (permutation p = 0.119). These results suggest that GRIA1 polymorphism may have influence upon the risk of developing schizophrenia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of solute carrier family 6 member 11 (SLC6A11) (rs2304725, rs2272400, and rs2245532), SLC6A12 (rs216250 and rs557881) and SLC6A13 (rs2289954) with schizophrenia and its clinical symptoms. We found that rs216250 of SLC6A12 was correlated with the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) scores.
Psychiatry Research 03/2011; 189(3):478-9. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-loaded core/shell nanoparticles were prepared and their gelation behavior in response to temperature was characterized for the regeneration of ischemic heart. The core is composed of lecithin containing VEGF and the shell is composed of Pluronic F-127 (poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer). When Capryol 90 (propylene glycol monocaprylate) was added to an aqueous solution of the core/shell nanoparticles, a temperature-induced gel composed of core/shell nanoparticles was observed to form at body temperature. This phenomenon was utilized for the stable localization of core/shell nanoparticles at the ischemic area. For an in vivo assessment, VEGF-loaded core/shell nanoparticles with and without inducement of the gel formation were applied to a subacute myocardial infarction model in rats and functional analysis of the heart was monitored by means of a PV catheter four weeks later. The results showed that the VEGF-loaded core/shell nanoparticles and their gel improved the heart functions, particularly with regard to the ejection fraction and cardiac output.
Journal of Controlled Release 09/2010; 146(2):207-11. · 7.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 2 (WNT2) has a potentially important role in neuronal development; however, there has yet to be an investigation into the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of WNT2 and schizophrenia. This study aimed to determine whether certain SNPs of WNT2 were associated with schizophrenia in a Korean population.
e genotyped 7 selected SNPs in the WNT2 gene region (approximately 46 Kb) using direct sequencing in 288 patients with schizophrenia and 305 healthy controls.
Of the SNPs examined, one SNP showed a weak association with schizophrenia (p = 0.017 in the recessive model). However, this association did not remain statistically significant after Bonferroni correction.
The present study does not support a major role for WNT2 in schizophrenia. This could be due to the size of the population. Therefore, additional studies would be needed to definitively rule out the gene's minor effects.
BMC Medical Genetics 01/2010; 11:78. · 2.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The occurrence of aberrant functional connectivity in the neuronal circuit is one of the integrative theories of the etiology of schizophrenia. Previous studies have reported that the protein and mRNA levels of the synapsin 2 (SYN2) and complexin 2 (CPLX2) genes were decreased in patients with schizophrenia. Synapsin 2 and complexin 2 are involved in synaptogenesis and the modulation of neurotransmitter release. This report presents a study of the association of polymorphisms of SYN2 and CPLX2 with schizophrenia in the Korean population.
Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one 5-bp insertion/deletion in SYN2 and five SNPs in CPLX2 were genotyped in 154 Korean patients with schizophrenia and 133 control patients using direct sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. An intermarker linkage disequilibrium map was constructed for each gene.
Although there was no significant difference in the genotypic distributions and allelic frequencies of either SYN2 or CPLX2 polymorphisms between the schizophrenia and control groups, the two-way haplotype analyses revealed significant associations with the disease (P < 0.05 after Bonferroni correction). The three-way haplotype analyses also revealed a significant association of SYN2 with schizophrenia (P < 0.001 after Bonferroni correction).
These results suggest that both SYN2 and CPLX2 may confer susceptibility to schizophrenia in the Korean population.
Behavioral and Brain Functions 08/2005; 1:15. · 2.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low incidence of cancer in schizophrenia is one of the interesting puzzles in psychiatric field over decades. Analysis of genetic difference between schizophrenia and lung cancer might provide us with possible clues to understand molecular mechanisms of pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), one of the potent growth promoting factors, has been studied for its roles in cancer development. EGF is also known to be involved in cognitive function. In order to analyze the genetic difference between schizophrenia and lung cancer, polymorphism of EGF gene was studied from 174 schizophrenia patients, 122 lung cancer patients and 132 controls in Korean population. Genotype frequency analysis of EGF gene (AluI restriction site, 5'-UTR, rs4444903) in the EGF gene was studied. The genotype and allele frequencies of the AluI polymorphism showed significant differences between schizophrenia and lung cancer patients [p<0.0001; p<0.0001, odds ratio (95% CI), 0.3690 (0.2600-0.5236)]. When compared with controls, schizophrenia patients showed no significant differences from controls in genotype and allele frequencies [p=0.5151; p=0.3516, odds ratio (95% CI), 0.8589 (0.6235-1.1830)]. However, lung cancer patients showed significant differences from controls in genotype and allele frequencies [p<0.0001; p<0.0001, odds ratio (95% CI), 2.3275 (1.6082-3.3687)]. These results indicate that schizophrenia is not associated with AluI polymorphism of EGF gene and EGF gene polymorphism is different between schizophrenia and lung cancer patients.