Jordi Xaus

University of Granada, Granada, Andalusia, Spain

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Publications (83)320.29 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Previous studies have indicated that colitis increases intestinal permeability to food antigens. This condition also generates an immunoreactive milieu in the gut, which may exacerbate or counteract allergy reactions. This, along with the fact that both colitis and allergy are being codiagnosed more frequently, means the scientific interest on the immune relation between these pathologies is increasing. We evaluated the immune response to an internalized food antigen that was initiated during a concomitant active intestinal inflammatory response. Methods: An ovalbumin (OVA)-induced immune response was analyzed in healthy mice and in mice suffering from colitis induced by the administration of dinitrofluorobenzene/dinitrosulfonic acid (DNFB/DNS) at the moment of OVA challenge. The OVA-induced clinical score and allergy response both in plasma and in splenocyte cultures from these animals were compared. Results: Although no differences were observed in the allergy clinical score, the concomitant active colitis led to an increase in the immune response to OVA antigen, as shown by increased spleen size and OVA-induced splenocyte proliferation, exacerbated expression of total and OVA-specific IgG1 levels, increased colonic IL-4 expression and OVA-induced IL-4 and IL-5 cytokine expression in spleen cells. Conclusions: Our results indicate that animals with active colitis undergo an exacerbated immune response to an internalized antigen. This finding could be relevant for the allergy management of patients presenting simultaneously with chronic colitis. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 09/2013; 162(3):214-224. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is one of the most prevalent human food-borne allergies, particularly in children. Experimental animal models have become critical tools with which to perform research on new therapeutic approaches and on the molecular mechanisms involved. However, oral food allergen sensitization in mice requires several weeks and is usually associated with unspecific immune responses. To overcome these inconveniences, we have developed a new food allergy model that takes only two weeks while retaining the main characters of allergic response to food antigens. The new model is characterized by oral sensitization of weaned Balb/c mice with 5 doses of purified cow's milk protein (CMP) plus cholera toxin (CT) for only two weeks and posterior challenge with an intraperitoneal administration of the allergen at the end of the sensitization period. In parallel, we studied a conventional protocol that lasts for seven weeks, and also the non-specific effects exerted by CT in both protocols. The shorter protocol achieves a similar clinical score as the original food allergy model without macroscopically affecting gut morphology or physiology. Moreover, the shorter protocol caused an increased IL-4 production and a more selective antigen-specific IgG1 response. Finally, the extended CT administration during the sensitization period of the conventional protocol is responsible for the exacerbated immune response observed in that model. Therefore, the new model presented here allows a reduction not only in experimental time but also in the number of animals required per experiment while maintaining the features of conventional allergy models. We propose that the new protocol reported will contribute to advancing allergy research.
    Journal of immunological methods 04/2012; 381(1-2):41-9. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dinitrofluorobenzene/dinitrosulfonic acid (DNFB/DNS) model was originally described as an experimental model of intestinal inflammation resembling human ulcerative colitis (UC). Due to the absence of acceptable UC experimental models for pharmacological preclinical assays, here we examine the immune response induced in this model. Balb/c mice were sensitized by skin application of DNFB on day 1, followed by an intrarectal challenge with DNS on day 5. We further expanded this model by administering a second DNS challenge on day 15. The features of colonic inflammation and immune response were evaluated. The changes observed in colonic tissue corresponded, in comparison to the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis model, to a mild mucosal effect in the colon, which spontaneously resolved in less than 5 days. Furthermore, the second hapten challenge did not exacerbate the inflammatory response. In contrast to other studies, we did not observe any clear involvement of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or other Th1 cytokines during the initial inflammatory response; however, we found that a more Th2-humoral response appeared to mediate the first contact with the hapten. An increased humoral response was detected during the second challenge, although an increased Th1/Th17-cytokine expression profile was also simultaneously observed. On the basis of these results, although the DNFB/DNS model can display some features found in human UC, it should be considered as a model for the study of the intestinal hypersensitivity seen, for example, during food allergy or irritable bowel syndrome but not intestinal inflammation per se.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 10/2011; 17(10):2087-101. · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dersalazine sodium (DS) is a new chemical entity formed by combining, through an azo bond, a potent platelet activating factor (PAF) antagonist (UR-12715) with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). DS has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory effects on trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats and recently in UC patients in phase II PoC. There is Increasing evidence that Th17 cells have an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to further characterize the anti-inflammatory effects of DS. Effect of DS (10 or 30 mg·kg(-1) b.i.d.) on TNBS-induced colitis in rats was studied after 2 and 7 days with special focus on inflammatory mediators. Additionally, its anti-inflammatory properties were analysed in two different models of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis, BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, the latter being dependent on IL-17. DS, when administered for 7 days, showed intestinal anti-inflammatory effects in TNBS-induced colitis; these effects were observed both macroscopically and through the profile of inflammatory mediators (TNF, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-17). Although the 2 day treatment with DS did not induce intestinal anti-inflammatory effects, it was sufficient to reduce the enhanced IL-17 expression. DS showed beneficial effects on DSS-induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice and reduced colonic pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-17. In contrast, it did not exert intestinal anti-inflammatory effects on DSS-induced colitis in BALB/c mice. DS exerts intestinal anti-inflammatory activity in different rodent models of colitis through down-regulation of IL-17 expression.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 07/2011; 165(3):729-40. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to better characterise the biological effects of Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salivarius CECT5713, a probiotic with immunomodulatory properties. Live or dead probiotic was assayed in the TNBS model of rat colitis to determine whether viability was a requisite to exert the beneficial effects. In vitro studies were also performed in Caco-2 cells to evaluate its effects on epithelial cell recovery and IL-8 production. Finally, the probiotic was assayed in the LPS model of septic shock in mice to establish its effects when there is an altered systemic immune response. The viability of the probiotic was required for its anti-inflammatory activity. The probiotic inhibited IL-8 production in stimulated Caco-2 cells and facilitated the recovery of damaged intestinal epithelium. In LPS-treated mice, the probiotic inhibited the production of TNFα in plasma and lungs and increased the hepatic glutathione content. These effects were associated with an improvement in the altered production of the T-cell cytokines in splenocytes, by reducing IL-2 and IL-5 and by increasing IL-10. Finally, it reduced the increased plasma IgG production in LPS-treated mice. The anti-inflammatory effects of viable L. salivarius ssp. salivarius CECT5713 are not restricted to the gastrointestinal tract.
    European Journal of Nutrition 06/2011; 51(3):365-74. · 3.84 Impact Factor
  • Journal of leukocyte biology 12/2010; 88(6):1063-4; author reply 1065-6. · 4.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Survival and proliferation signals are two processes closely interrelated and finely controlled in most cell types, whose deregulation may lead to carcinogenesis. In the last decade, different studies have suggested that both cellular functions are also intimately associated with other cellular activities such as differentiation and cellular activation, especially in immune cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate on the proliferation and activation state of different cell types involved in inflammatory bowel disease. We focused on intestinal epithelial cells, macrophages and T-lymphocytes, using both primary non-transformed cultures and established cell lines. The results showed that low concentrations of butyrate inhibited the proliferation of all the immune cell types tested in this work, whereas it only induced apoptosis in activated T-lymphocytes, non-differentiated epithelial cells and macrophage cell lines, but not in differentiated epithelial cells or primary macrophages. Butyrate apoptosis induction was mediated by caspase-3/7 activation. This SCFA was only able to modify cell activation, measured as expression of inflammatory cytokines, in those cell types in which apoptosis was induced. In conclusion, our results suggest a cell type-specificity of the immune-modulatory effects of butyrate based on the proliferation/activation characteristic physiology of these processes in different cells types.
    Immunobiology 11/2010; 215(11):863-73. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is an increasing interest in the intestinal and immunological effects of probiotics. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the tolerance and beneficial effects in healthy adults of the strain, Lactobacillus salivarius CECT5713 isolated from breast milk. A phase II, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled human clinical trial was carried out in 40 healthy adults. The Probiotic group received a daily dose of 2 x 10(8) CFU of L. salivarius CECT5713 in capsules during 4 weeks while volunteers of the control received only a placebo. Gastrointestinal and immunological parameters were analyzed. Results showed that L. salivarius CECT5713 was well tolerated and no adverse effects were detected. Consumption of the probiotic strain increased fecal lactobacilli counts (7.9+/-0.1 vs. 7.05+/-0.2 CFU/g feces, P=0.001). Also, an improvement in the frequency of defecation (P=0.04) was observed. Probiotic treatment induced significantly the percentage of NK cells and monocytes, as well as the plasmatic levels of immunoglobulins M, A and G, and the regulatory cytokine IL-10 (72.3+/-11.7 in probiotic group vs. 27.3+/-6.4 pg/mL in control group, P<0.01). Thus, it can be concluded that daily administration of L. salivarius CECT5713 to healthy adults is safe and improve gut microbiota and different parameters related to immune response.
    Anaerobe 02/2010; 16(3):195-200. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the prevention of certain diseases during the pediatric years. Thus, there is an increasing interest in the addition of probiotics to infant formulas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of a follow-on formula with Lactobacillus salivarius CECT5713 in 6-mo-old children. The antibiotic susceptibility of L. salivarius CECT5713 was analyzed by a dilution method. A double-blinded, randomized, placebo controlled study was performed. Children (n = 80) were distributed in two groups and consumed the formula supplemented or not with probiotics (2 × 10(6) colony-forming units [cfu]/g) during 6 mo. Fecal samples were collected at enrollment, at 3 mo, and at the end of trial. Clinical and anthropometric evaluations were performed. Depending on the variable, one-way or two-way repeated measures analysis of variance were used for the statistical analysis. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of the strain resulted as safe. No adverse effects associated with the consumption of the probiotic formula were reported. In addition, clinical parameters did not differ between groups. Consumption of the probiotic supplemented formula led to an increase in the fecal lactobacilli content (7.6 ± 0.2 versus 7.9 ± 0.1 log cfu/g, P < 0.05). Lactobacillus salivarius CECT5713 was detected in the feces of volunteers from the probiotic group. Probiotic consumption induced a significant increase in the fecal concentration of butyric acid at 6 mo. Thus, a follow-on formula with L. salivarius CECT5713 is safe and well tolerated in 6-mo-old infants.
    Nutrition 12/2009; 26(11-12):1082-7. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases in children has been attributed to an unbalanced immune response probably due to environmental factors. The immunoregulatory properties of probiotic bacteria could balance the disequilibrium in the immune response causing the allergic response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunological effects of the consumption of a dairy product containing two probiotic strains in children suffering from allergy. A double-blinded, randomized, control comparative study was performed with 44 allergic children. Children were randomly distributed in two groups, a control Yogurt and a Probiotic group. Both groups daily consumed 200 ml of a dairy fermented product for 3 months. The Yogurt group consumed a conventional yogurt, whereas the Probiotic group consumed a similar dairy product where Lactobacillus bulgaricus was substituted by a mixture of Lactobacillus gasseri CECT5714 and Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT5711 (at least 10(6) cfu/g each strain). Intestinal and immunological parameters were measured in fecal and blood samples. The consumption of the probiotic product induced a significant decrease in the level of IgE in plasma (p = 0.03) and an increase in CD4(+)/CD25(+) T regulatory cells (p = 0.01). The decrease in IgE was accompanied by a significant increase in mucosal IgA (p = 0.01). However, changes in other effector cells potentially involved in allergic reactions such as eosinophiles, basophiles or other IgE+ cells were not detected. The consumption of the probiotic product also induced significant changes in innate response as a significant increase in natural killer cells was detected (p = 0.03). The daily consumption of a probiotic product containing L. gasseri CECT5714 and L. coryniformis CECT5711 for 3 months induces, in allergic children, beneficial effects on immune parameters involved in the allergic response such as a reduction of IgE in plasma and an increase in regulatory T cells. The probiotic product also enhanced innate and specific immune parameters that may improve the general health status of children.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 07/2009; 20(6):592-600. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Canine milk protects puppies against infectious diseases through a variety of mechanisms. In this study, the presence of potentially probiotic lactic acid bacteria grown on MRS-Cys agar plates from milk of nine bitches was investigated. The Gram positive catalase negative bacilli identified in this study belonged to four Lactobacillus species (Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus murinus, Lactobacillus animalis), as well as one isolate that was identified as Weissella viridescens. Random amplified polymorphic DNA profiling revealed 28 different genetic profiles among the lactobacilli isolates. Their probiotic potential was evaluated through different assays, including survival in conditions that resemble those existing in the gastrointestinal tract, production of antimicrobial compounds, adherence to intestinal mucin, degradation of mucin and pattern of antibiotic sensitivity. Some strains showed potential for future applications as canine probiotics.
    The Veterinary Journal 06/2009; 185(2):193-8. · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716, a probiotic strain isolated from human milk, was characterized in a previous study. The objective of this study was to evaluate its sensitivity to antibiotics and its potential toxicity and translocation ability after oral administration to mice. For this purpose, 40 Balb/C mice were divided in two groups (n=20 per group). One group was treated orally with 10(10) colony forming units (cfu)/mouse/day of Lb. fermentum CECT5716 during 28 d. The other group only received the excipient and was used as control. Food intake, body weight, bacterial translocation and different biochemical and haematological parameters were analysed. Oral administration of Lb. fermentum CECT5716 to mice had no adverse effects on mice. There were no significant differences in body weight or food intake between control and probiotic-treated mice. No bacteraemia was observed and there was no treatment-associated bacterial translocation to liver or spleen. Stress oxidative markers were not different in control and probiotic-treated mice. These results suggest that the strain Lb. fermentum CECT5716 is non-pathogenic for mice even in doses 10,000 times higher (expressed per kg of body weight) than those normally consumed by humans.
    Journal of Dairy Research 06/2009; 76(2):216-21. · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Probiotics attenuate gut inflammation when administered before experimental colitis, but data on their effect after colitis induction are scarce. We aimed to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus fermentum CECT 5716 on gut injury when administered either before or after trinitrobencene sulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis in Balb/c mice. In a preventive study, probiotic or vehicle was administered for 2 weeks before colitis. Then mice were allocated to: probiotic + TNBS, probiotic + sham, vehicle + TNBS, or vehicle + sham, and sacrificed 72 hours later. In a therapeutic study, mice were allocated into the same groups as before. Probiotic or vehicle were administered for 3 weeks. Mice were sacrificed at weeks 1, 2, and 3 after TNBS. Histological score, myeloperoxidase activity, and eicosanoid and cytokine production in colonic explant cultures were measured. Immunohistochemistry for nitrotyrosine and MyD88 was also performed. In the preventive study, colitis was milder with probiotic than with vehicle (P = 0.041). This was associated with increased PGE(2), IL-2, and IL-4 production, as well as attenuated nitrotyrosine staining in the former. In the therapeutic study, histological score at week 1 post-TNBS was higher in probiotic than in vehicle fed mice (P = 0.018). However, at weeks 2 and 3 the histological score was significantly lower-with decreased IL-6 production and increased MyD88 staining-in mice receiving the probiotic. Pretreatment with L. fermentum CECT 5716 attenuates TNBS colitis, an effect that seems to be due to its antioxidant abilities. When administered after TNBS, this probiotic is also effective in accelerating colitis recovery, and this is associated with an enhanced Toll-like receptor function.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 04/2009; 15(8):1155-63. · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophages have the capacity to proliferate in response to specific growth factors, such as macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF). In the presence of several cytokines and activating factors, macrophages undergo growth arrest, become activated, and participate in the development of an immune response. We have previously observed that activation of extracellularly regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK-1/2) is required for macrophage proliferation in response to growth factors. A short and early pattern of ERK activity correlated with the proliferative response. In contrast, slightly prolonged patterns of activity of these kinases were induced by signals that lead to macrophage activation and growth arrest. IFN-gamma is the main endogenous Th1-type macrophage activator. Here we report that stimulation with IFN-gamma prolongs the pattern of ERK activity induced by M-CSF in macrophages. These effects correlate with IFN-gamma-mediated inhibition of the expression of several members of the MAPK phosphatase family, namely MKP-1, -2, and -4. Moreover, inhibition of MKP-1 expression using siRNA technology or synthetic inhibitors also led to elongated ERK activity and significant blockage of M-CSF-dependent proliferation. These data suggest that subtle changes in the time course of activity of members of the MAPK family contribute to the antiproliferative effects of IFN-gamma in macrophages.
    Blood 09/2008; 112(8):3274-82. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, 20 women with staphylococcal mastitis were randomly divided in two groups. Those in the probiotic group daily ingested 10 log(10) CFU of Lactobacillus salivarius CECT5713 and the same quantity of Lactobacillus gasseri CECT5714 for 4 weeks, while those in the control one only ingested the excipient. Both lactobacillus strains were originally isolated from breast milk. On day 0, the mean staphylococcal counts in the probiotic and control groups were similar (4.74 and 4.81 log(10) CFU/ml, respectively), but lactobacilli could not be detected. On day 30, the mean staphylococcal count in the probiotic group (2.96 log(10) CFU/ml) was lower than that of the control group (4.79 log(10) CFU/ml). L. salivarius CECT5713 and L. gasseri CECT5714 were isolated from the milk samples of 6 of the 10 women of the probiotic group. At day 14, no clinical signs of mastitis were observed in the women assigned to the probiotic group, but mastitis persisted throughout the study period in the control group women. In conclusion, L. salivarius CECT5713 and L. gasseri CECT5714 appear to be an efficient alternative for the treatment of lactational infectious mastitis during lactation.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 07/2008; 74(15):4650-5. · 3.95 Impact Factor
  • Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 06/2008; 67(OCE):E40. · 4.94 Impact Factor
  • Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 06/2008; 67(OCE):E66. · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a previous study, bacteria were able to be isolated from umbilical cord blood of healthy neonates and from murine amniotic fluid obtained by caesarean section. This suggested that term fetuses are not completely sterile and that a prenatal mother-to-child efflux of commensal bacteria may exist. Therefore, the presence of such bacteria in meconium of 21 healthy neonates was investigated. The identified isolates belonged predominantly to the genuses Enterococcus and Staphylococcus. Later, a group of pregnant mice were orally inoculated with a genetically labelled E. fecium strain previously isolated from breast milk of a healthy woman. The labelled strain could be isolated and PCR-detected from meconium of the inoculated animals obtained by caesarean section one day before the predicted date of labor. In contrast, it could not be detected in samples obtained from a non-inoculated control group.
    Research in Microbiology 05/2008; 159(3):187-93. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The preventative effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 were evaluated in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) model of septic shock in mice. The probiotic was administered suspended in drinking water at the final concentration of 108 colony-forming units/ml for 2 weeks before the induction of an endotoxic shock by an intraperitoneal injection of LPS (400 microg/200 microl per mouse). Blood and different organs were collected after 24 h to evaluate the severity of the endotoxic shock and the preventative effects of the probiotic. L. fermentum reduced TNF-alpha levels in blood, which promotes the major alterations observed during septic shock, as well as the infiltration of activated neutrophils into the lungs. Furthermore, free radical overproduction and oxidative stress were associated with a significant decrease in hepatic glutathione levels in septic mice, and with an excessive NO production attributed to the induction of the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS). In fact, hepatic glutathione levels were significantly increased in the group of mice receiving the probiotic, and the increased iNOS expression both in the colon and lungs was down-regulated in those mice treated with L. fermentum. Finally, pre-treatment with L. fermentum may also exert its protective action modulating the expression of different cytokines in splenocyte-derived T cells such us IL-2, IL-5, IL-6 or IL-10. In conclusion, pre-treatment with L. fermentum may exert its protective action against LPS-induced organ damage in mice by a combination of several actions including its antioxidant properties and by reduction of the synthesis of the pro-inflammatory TNF-alpha and IL-6.
    The British journal of nutrition 05/2008; 101(1):51-8. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are involved in the modulation of the immune response. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) produced from dietary precursors may not be sufficient to match nutritional requirements and thus should be included in our diet. In this sense, the administration of higher amounts of DHA than of EPA in infant formulations is recommended. The aims of this work were to demonstrate that dietary administration of EPA or DHA to mice allows reaching similar tissue DHA levels and to compare their anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of action. Balb/c mice were fed diets enriched with EPA or DHA for 3 wk. Twelve hours before sacrifice, a contact dermatitis was induced in the ears of the animals. Tissue fatty acid contents were determined. Cytokine and immunoglobulin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and ears were collected to analyze local inflammatory effects. The DHA concentrations attained in tissues were similar to the two diets, whereas the EPA concentration increased only when the diet was enriched with this polyunsaturated fatty acid. Although EPA and DHA reduced ear inflammation, EPA reduced neutrophil infiltration in the ears more efficiently. EPA was associated with a greater reduction in the systemic macrophage inflammatory response and T-helper type 2 response and with increased interleukin-10 production. Similar levels of DHA in tissues are reached in mice fed an EPA- or a DHA-enriched diet. Dietary EPA and DHA show anti-inflammatory properties, but EPA appears to be more potent.
    Nutrition 04/2008; 24(3):245-54. · 3.05 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
320.29 Total Impact Points


  • 2005–2013
    • University of Granada
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Granada, Andalusia, Spain
  • 2004–2008
    • Complutense University of Madrid
      • Department of Nutrition and Bromatology II (Bromatology)
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1999–2008
    • University of Barcelona
      • Departament de Fisiologia
      Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2003
    • Parc de recerca biomedica de barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain