[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the correlation between fecal bacteria composition in early infancy and the prevalence of allergic diseases in late infancy. The fecal microbiota in the first 2 months was profiled using the 16S rRNA V6 short-tag sequences in the community and statistically compared between two groups of subjects who did and did not show allergic symptoms in the first 2 years (n = 11 vs. 11). In the allergic group, genus Bacteroides at 1 month and genera Propionibacterium and Klebsiella at 2 months were more abundant, and genera Acinetobacter and Clostridium at 1 month were less abundant than in the nonallergic group. Allergic infants who showed high colonization of Bacteroides and/or Klebsiella showed less colonization of Clostridium perfringens/butyricum, suggesting antagonism between these bacterial groups in the gastrointestinal tract. It was also remarkable that the relative abundance of total Proteobacteria, excluding genus Klebsiella, was significantly lower in the allergic than in the nonallergic group at the age of 1 month. These results indicate that pyrosequence-based 16S rRNA gene profiling is valid to find the intestinal microbiotal disorder that correlates with allergy development in later life.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nukadoko is a naturally fermented rice bran mash traditionally used for pickling vegetables in Japan; its refreshment and fermentation cycles sometimes continue for many years. Here, we investigated the structure and dynamics of the bacterial community in nukadoko by conducting pyrosequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses of 16S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA). Of the 16 different samples studied, 13 showed Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota, suggesting that aged nukadoko samples tend to realize a niche, favorable Lactobacillus species. The lactic acid bacterial community of each of the 16 samples was classified into 3 types according to the presence or absence of 2 predominant species, Lactobacillus namurensis and Lactobacillus acetotolerans. The dynamics of the bacterial community during fermentation and the subsequent ripening process were examined using a laboratory model of nukadoko inoculated with an aged nukadoko sample (inoculated model). Lb. namurensis grew rapidly in the first 2 days, accompanied with a rapid decrease in pH and an increase in lactate levels, while Lb. acetotolerans grew with a longer doubling time and slow acidification during the 20 days after inoculation. On the other hand, spontaneous fermentation of the nukadoko model prepared from fresh rice bran without the nukadoko inoculation (inoculant-free model), showed the growth of some non-Lactobacillus species such as staphylococci and bacilli within the first 10 days; thereafter, Lb. namurensis was dominant, while Lb. acetotolerans was not detected during the 20-day experimental period. These results suggest that the naturally established Lactobacillus community in aged nukadoko is effectively involved in the biocontrol of the microbial community of nukadoko during the refreshment and fermentation cycles.
International journal of food microbiology 11/2010; 144(3):352-9. DOI:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.10.017 · 3.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of antibiotic exposure in the early postnatal period on the development of intestinal microbiota was monitored in 26 infants including five antibiotic-treated (AT) subjects orally administered a broad-spectrum antibiotic for the first 4 days of life and three caesarean-delivered (CD) subjects whose mothers were intravenously injected by the similar type of antibiotics in the same period. The faecal bacterial composition was analysed daily for the first 5 days and monthly for the first 2 months. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the AT subjects showed less diversity with the attenuation of the colonization of some bacterial groups, especially in Bifidobacterium and unusual colonization of Enterococcus in the first week than the control antibiotic-free infants (AF, n=18). Quantitative real-time PCR showed overgrowth of enterococci (day 3, P=0.01; day 5, P=0.003; month 1, P=0.01) and arrested growth of Bifidobacterium (day 3, P=0.03) in the AT group. Furthermore, after 1 month, the Enterobacteriaceae population was markedly higher in the AT group than in the AF group (month 1, P=0.02; month 2, P=0.02). CD infants sustained similar, although relatively weaker, alteration in the developing microbiota. These results indicate that antibiotic exposure at the beginning of life greatly influences the development of neonatal intestinal microbiota.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nukadoko is the fermented rice bran bed traditionally used for pickling vegetables in Japan. Here, we investigate the bacterial community structure of nukadoko using several culture-independent methods. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequence analysis of V2-V3 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA) fragments amplified from a long-aged nukadoko bacterial community indicated seven predominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) closely related to known Lactobacillus species. Phylogenetic analysis of these OTUs indicated a major cluster consisting of six OTUs including a dominant OTU closely related to Lactobacillus acidifarinae and one distinct OTU corresponding to Lactobacillus acetotolerans. L. acetotolerans was commonly detected as a dominant species in samples from different seasons. The succession of microbial community structure in the fermentation and ripening processes was investigated using a laboratory model nukadoko. The L. acidifarinae-like bacteria grew rapidly with a pH decrease in the first few days after inoculation, whereas L. acetotolerans grew slowly and became dominant after one week. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) showed that the doubling time of L. acetotolerans was 12 h, while that of total bacteria was 4 h. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) targeting 16S rRNA showed a low metabolic activity of L. acetotolerans throughout the fermentation and ripening processes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that L. acetotolerans was a dominant bacterium in the ripening period and had a low metabolic activity. These results indicate that the slow-growing L. acetotolerans stably dominated nukadoko microbiota after the L. acidifarinae-like bacteria mainly contributed to the lactic acid fermentation of the rice bran.
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 01/2008; 104(6):481-9. DOI:10.1263/jbb.104.481 · 1.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bacterial compositions of feces were monitored in the first 2 months for 15 infants born in Japan, including eight subjects who developed allergy by the age of 2 years. Primer sets targeting six predominant bacterial groups in the infant intestine, Bacteroidaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, bifidobacteria, enterococci, lactobacilli, and the Clostridium perfringens group, were used for real-time PCR to quantitate each population in the feces. The population of Bacteroidaceae was significantly higher in the allergic group at the ages of 1 month (P=0.03) and 2 months (P=0.05) than in the non-allergic group, while no statistically significant difference was observed for the other bacterial populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dynamics of the developmental bacterial community in the Japanese neonatal gastrointestinal tract were examined by monitoring 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) diversity in fecal samples by PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results showed a certain pattern common in infants without antibiotic treatment, in which aerobes, e.g., Pseudomonas, appeared first and were then immediately replaced by facultative anaerobe, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterobacteriaceae through the first month, and finally strictly anaerobic Bifidobactrerium appeared.