[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Measurement of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) can provide important information about the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis. Performing the ABI in the overall population is not feasible, but it can be used in a selected population. A simple prediction rule could be of much use to estimate the risk of an abnormal ABI. This was designed as an observational study in the setting of 955 general practices in The Netherlands. A total of 7454 patients aged > or = 55 years presenting with at least one vascular risk factor (smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia) and no complaints of intermittent claudication were included. Patients were selected by the general practitioner during visiting hours and from medical records. Main outcome measures included the prevalence of PAD, defined as an ABI below 0.9, which was related to vascular risk factors using regression analyses on which the PREVALENT clinical prediction model was developed. The overall prevalence of PAD was 18.4%. Since the treatment of individuals with a history of coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease will not be influenced by the finding of asymptomatic PAD, these individuals were not taken into account for the development of the clinical prediction model. Analyses showed a significantly increased risk for PAD with increasing age, smoking, and hypertension. The clinical prediction model giving risk factor points per factor (age: 1 point per 5 years starting at 55 years; ever smoked: 2 points; currently smoking: 7 points; and hypertension: 3 points), showed a proportional increase of the PAD prevalence with each increasing risk profile (range: 7.0-40.6%). In conclusion, based on the PREVALENT clinical prediction model, the general practitioner is able to identify a high-risk population in which measurement of ABI is useful.
Vascular Medicine 02/2007; 12(1):5-11. · 1.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: If a validated questionnaire, when applied to patients reporting with symptoms of intermittent claudication, could adequately discriminate between those with and without peripheral arterial disease, GPs could avoid the diagnostic measurement of the ankle brachial index.
To investigate the Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire (ECQ) in general practice and to develop a clinical decision rule based on risk factors to enable GPs to easily assess the likelihood of peripheral arterial disease.
An observational study.
General practice in The Netherlands.
This observational study included patients of > or =55 years visiting their GP for symptoms suggestive of intermittent claudication or with one risk factor. The ECQ and the ankle brachial index were performed. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease, defined as an ankle brachial index <0.9, was related to risk factors using logistic regression analyses, on which a clinical decision rule was developed and related to the presence of peripheral arterial disease.
Of the 4790 included patients visiting their GP with symptoms suggestive of intermittent claudication, 4527 were eligible for analyses. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in this group was 48.3%. The sensitivity of the ECQ was only 56.2%. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in a clinical decision rule that included age, male sex, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and a positive ECQ, increased from 14% in the lowest to 76% in the highest category.
This study indicates that the ECQ alone has an inadequate diagnostic value in detecting patients with peripheral arterial disease. The ankle brachial index should be performed to diagnose peripheral arterial disease in patients with complaints suggestive of intermittent claudication, although our clinical decision rule could help to differentiate between extremely high and lower prevalence of peripheral arterial disease.
British Journal of General Practice 01/2007; 56(533):932-7. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many studies have been published regarding the influence of smoking on the incidence and prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). A systematic review was performed to establish the magnitude of the effect of smoking on the development of PAD, and a possible dose-response relationship.
English-language articles were reviewed by 2 observers using a standardized form, and were summarized in tabular form. Data were extracted by 2 independent observers. Where possible, outcome data, expressed in terms of prevalence or incidence, were recalculated as odds ratio or relative risk, with never-smokers as the reference group, or if this was not available the nonsmoker group. Most studies did not provide primary data. Therefore the weighted means were reported as a summary estimate, provided that a funnel plot between sample size and observed effect size made publication bias unlikely.
Sixteen articles describing 17 studies were included in the analysis. Four of the studies were prospective, and 13 were cross-sectional. The prevalence of symptomatic PAD was increased 2.3-fold in current smokers. Even in former smokers the prevalence was substantially increased by a factor of 2.6. A clear dose-response relationship, with a strong increase in risk for PAD in heavy smokers was observed. In countries where approximately 30% of the population are smokers, 50% of PAD can be attributed to smoking.
Smoking is a potent risk factor for symptomatic PAD, with an important and consistent dose-response relationship. With the persistence of high risk for PAD in former smokers, tobacco control programs should continue to advocate smoking cessation, but focus even more on preventing future generations from ever starting to smoke.
Journal of Vascular Surgery 01/2005; 40(6):1158-65. · 2.88 Impact Factor