M L Sandvold

VU University Medical Center, Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (28)68.8 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Aim: The objective of the present study was to determine the in vivo antitumor activity of elacytarabine, the 5'-elaidic acid ester of arabinofuranosyl cytidine, alone and in combination with bevacizumab, cetuximab and trastuzumab in Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)- and Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-expressing non-small cell lung cancer xenografts. The antitumor activity of elacytarabine, was tested at the maximal tolerable dose (MTD; 50 mg/kg) and half MTD (25 mg/kg), alone and in combination with the antibodies bevacizumab (5 mg/kg), cetuximab (20 mg/kg) and trastuzumab (4 mg/kg) in two human non-small cell lung cancer xenografts. Elacytarabine exhibited very high activity in the EKVX xenograft at both dose levels, but was inactive in MAKSAX. Neither of the two xenografts were sensitive to bevacizumab or trastuzumab, but the MAKSAX xenograft showed intermediate response to cetuximab. The high sensitivity of EKVX to elacytarabine precluded the assessment of a potential benefit of the combinations with the antibodies. In the elacytarabine-, bevacizumab- and trastuzumab-insensitive MAKSAX xenograft, the combination of either bevacizumab or trastuzumab with elacytarabine at the MTD or half MTD resulted in intermediate activity, suggesting a beneficial effect of the combinations, whereas for cetuximab, the effect was enhanced when combined with elacytarabine given at the MTD, but not half-MTD. The results suggest that elacytarabine could be active in some cases of non-small cell lung cancer, and that the combination of elacytarabine and tyrosine kinase inhibitors may exert important additive or possibly synergistic effects of potential clinical benefit.
    Anticancer research 09/2013; 33(9):3615-21. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nucleoside analog 5-azacytidine is an archetypical drug for epigenetic cancer therapy and its clinical effectiveness has been demonstrated in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). However, therapy resistance in patients with MDS/AML remains a challenging issue. Membrane proteins that are involved in drug uptake are potential mediators of drug resistance. The responsible proteins for the transport of 5-azacytidine into MDS/AML cells are unknown. We have now systematically analyzed the expression and activity of various nucleoside transporters. We identified the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) as the most abundant nucleoside transporter in leukemia cell lines and in AML patient samples. Transport assays using [(14)C]5-azacytidine demonstrated Na(+)-independent uptake of the drug into the cells, which was inhibited by S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBTI), a hENT1 inhibitor. The cellular toxicity of 5-azacytidine and its DNA demethylating activity were strongly reduced after hENT1 inhibition. In contrast, the cellular activity of the 5-azacytidine derivative CP-4200, a nucleoside transporter independent drug, persisted after hENT1 inhibition. A strong dependence of 5-azacytidine-induced DNA demethylation on hENT1 activity was also confirmed by array-based DNA methylation profiling, which uncovered hundreds of loci that became demethylated only when hENT1-mediated transport was active. Our data establish hENT1 as a key transporter for the cellular uptake of 5-azacytidine in leukemia cells and raise the possibility that hENT1 expression might be a useful biomarker to predict the efficiency of 5-azacytidine treatments. Furthermore, our data suggest that CP-4200 may represent a valuable compound for the modulation of transporter related 5-azacytidine resistances.
    Molecular pharmacology 06/2013; · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many drugs that are currently used for the treatment of cancer have limitations, such as induction of resistance and/or poor biological half-life, which reduce their clinical efficacy. To overcome these limitations, several strategies have been explored. Chemical modification by the attachment of lipophilic moieties to (deoxy)nucleoside analogs should enhance the plasma half-life, change the biodistribution, and improve cellular uptake of the drug. Attachment of a lipophilic moiety to a phosphorylated (deoxy)nucleoside analog will improve the activity of the drugs by circumventing the rate-limiting activation step of (deoxy)nucleoside analogs. Encapsulating drugs in nanoparticles or liposomes protects the drug against enzymatic breakdown in the plasma and makes it possible to get lipophilic compounds to the tumor site. In this review, we discuss the considerable progress that has been made in increasing the efficacy of classic (deoxy)nucleoside and fluoropyrimidine compounds by chemical modifications and alternative delivery systems.
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 12/2011; 30(12):1168-80. · 0.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytarabine (ara-C) and gemcitabine (dFdC) are commonly used anticancer drugs, which depend on the equilibrative (ENT) and concentrative-nucleoside-transporters to enter the cell. To bypass transport-related drug resistance, lipophilic derivatives elacytarabine (CP-4055), ara-C-5'elaidic-acid-ester, and CP-4126, (CO 1.01) gemcitabine-5'elaidic-acid-ester, were investigated for the entry into the cell, distribution, metabolism and retention. The leukemic CEM-cell-line and its deoxycytidine-kinase deficient variant (CEM/dCK-) were exposed for 30 and 60 min to the radiolabeled drugs; followed by culture in drug-free medium in order to determine drug retention in the cell. The cellular fractions were analyzed with thin-layer-chromatography and HPLC. Elacytarabine and CP-4126 were converted to the parent compounds both inside and outside the cell (35-45%). The ENT-inhibitor dipyridamole did not affect their uptake or retention. Inside the cell Elacytarabine and CP-4126 predominantly localized in the membrane and cytosolic fraction, leading to a long retention after removal of the medium. In contrast, in cells exposed to the parent drugs ara-C and dFdC, intracellular drug concentration increased during exposure but decreased to undetectable levels after drug removal. In the dCK- cell line, no metabolism was observed. The concentrations of ara-CTP and dFdCTP reached a peak at the end of the incubation with the drugs, and decreased after drug removal; peak levels of dFdCTP were 35 times higher than ara-CTP and was retained better. In contrast, after exposure to elacytarabine or CP-4126, ara-CTP and dFdCTP levels continued to increase not only during exposure but also during 120 min after removal of the elacytarabine and CP-4126. Levels of ara-CTP and dFdCTP were higher than after exposure to the parent drugs. In conclusion, the lipophilic derivatives elacytarabine and CP-4126 showed a nucleoside-transporter independent uptake, with long retention of the active nucleotides. These lipophilic nucleoside analogues are new chemical entities suitable for novel clinical applications.
    Investigational New Drugs 10/2011; 30(5):1908-16. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gemcitabine is a deoxycytidine (dCyd) analog with activity in leukemia and solid tumors, which requires phosphorylation by deoxycytidine kinase (dCK). Decreased membrane transport is a mechanism of resistance to gemcitabine. In order to facilitate gemcitabine uptake and prolong retention in the cell, a lipophilic pro-drug was synthesized (CP-4126), with an elaidic fatty acid esterified at the 5'position. CP-4126 was tested in cell lines resistant to cytarabine, another dCyd analog or gemcitabine. Activity of gemcitabine and the derivative was comparable in the parent cell lines, while in dCK deficient cells all compounds were inactive. However, inhibition of nucleoside transport increased the IC(50) for gemcitabine up to 200-fold, but not for CP-4126, underlining the independence of a nucleoside transporter. For in vivo evaluation, nude mice bearing a human xenograft were treated intraperitoneally every third day for five doses at the maximal tolerated dose. In melanoma, sarcoma, lung, prostate, pancreatic and breast cancer xenografts, gemcitabine and CP-4126 were equally and highly effective; in four other xenografts moderately but equally active. In contrast to gemcitabine, CP-4126 could be administered orally, with a schedule and dose dependent toxicity and antitumor activity. In a colon cancer xenograft, antitumor activity of orally administered CP-4126 was equal to the intraperitoneally administered drug. In conclusion, CP-4126 is membrane transporter independent. Intraperitoneally administered CP-4126 was as effective as gemcitabine in several xenografts and CP-4126 is tolerated when orally administered. CP-4126 seems to be a promising new anticancer drug.
    Investigational New Drugs 06/2011; 29(3):456-66. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The deoxynucleoside analogs cytarabine (Ara-C) and gemcitabine (dFdC) are widely used in the treatment of cancer. Due to their hydrophilic nature they need the equilibrative (hENT) and concentrative (hCNT) nucleoside transporters to enter the cell. To bypass drug resistance due to decreased uptake, lipophilic 5'elaidic acid esters were synthesized, elacytarabine (CP-4055, from ara-C) and CP-4126 (from gemcitabine), which are currently in clinical development for solid and hematological tumors. We investigated whether resistance can be induced in vitro, and treated the CEM leukemic cell line with weekly increasing elacytarabine concentrations, up to 0.28 microM (10 times IC(50)). The IC(50) of the resistant CEM/CP-4055 was 35 microM, about 1,000 times that of the wildtype CEM, and comparable to that of CEM/dCK- (deoxycytidine kinase deficient) (22 microM). CEM/CP-4055 was also cross-resistant to Ara-C, gemcitabine and CP-4126 (28 and 33 microM, respectively). A low level of mRNA dCK was observed, and similar to CEM/dCK-, CEM/CP-4055 did not accumulate Ara-CTP after exposure to Ara-C or elacytarabine, which is consistent with a deficiency in dCK. In conclusion, elacytarabine induced resistance similar to Ara-C. This resistance was caused by downregulation of dCK.
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 06/2010; 29(4-6):394-9. · 0.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Azacytidine is an established nucleoside drug that is well known for its ability to modulate epigenetic gene regulation by inhibition of DNA methylation. Despite recent advances in the clinical development of azacytidine, the use of the drug is limited by its low bioavailability and dependency on variably expressed nucleoside transporters for cellular uptake. We show here that CP-4200, an elaidic acid derivative of azacytidine, has strong epigenetic modulatory potency in human cancer cell lines, as evidenced by efficient depletion of DNA methyltransferase protein, genome-wide DNA demethylation, and robust reactivation of epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor genes. Importantly, however, the cellular uptake of CP-4200 was substantially less dependent on the nucleoside transporters that are known to be involved in azacytidine uptake. In agreement with this notion, CP-4200 showed a significantly higher antitumoral activity than azacytidine in an orthotopic mouse tumor model for acute lymphocytic leukemia. Together, these data represent a detailed characterization of the CP-4200 mode of action and suggest that elaidic acid modification improves the therapeutic efficacy of azacytidine.
    Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 05/2010; 9(5):1256-64. · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To bypass resistance due to limited entry into the cell derivatives of cytarabine (CP-4055, elacytarabine) and gemcitabine (CP-4126) containing a fatty acid chain at the 5' position of the nucleoside were developed. CP-4055 showed an increased retention of the active metabolite, the triphosphate. This characteristic was supposed to favor combinations, such as with the tubulin antagonist docetaxel, the platinum oxaliplatin and the antifolate pemetrexed. The role of the cell cycle effects of CP-4055 and CP-4126 on the efficacy of the combination with docetaxel or pemetrexed was determined. The combination of CP-4055 with oxaliplatin and docetaxel was also evaluated in a mouse xenograft model. CP-4055 induced a G2/M and S phase accumulation and CP-4126 an S phase accumulation. Both analogs induced a dose-dependent cell kill (apoptosis and necrosis). None of the docetaxel combinations induced a synergistic effect. The combination of docetaxel with CP-4055 or CP-4126 induced a G2/M accumulation in the A549 (lung cancer) cell line, but a G0/G1 accumulation in the WiDR (colon cancer) cell line. Preincubation with docetaxel induced an increased cell kill in both cell lines. The combination with oxaliplatin showed a synergistic effect in both cell lines. Combinations with pemetrexed were antagonistic in both cell lines. In the A549 cell line pemetrexed with CP-4055 led to an increase of the G0/G1 phase and the S phase. In WiDR the combination of pemetrexed with CP-4055 increased the G0/G1 phase and increased the cell kill. Pemetrexed with CP-4126 induced an increase in the G0/G1 phase and the S phase in the A549 cell line. In the xenograft study, on a colon cancer and a lung metastasis model, the combination of CP-4055 with docetaxel showed the best results. Treatment with CP-4055 followed by docetaxel after 4 h resulted in a reduction in metastasis in a lung metastasis model, and a favorable toxicity profile was observed. In conclusion, the combinations with oxaliplatin showed a synergistic effect in the combination studies. Although the combinations with docetaxel did not show an enhanced effect in the in vitro studies, this combination revealed an increased effect in the xenograft model.
    International Journal of Oncology 01/2010; 36(1):285-94. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical activity of pyrimidine analogues (araC and gemcitabine) is impaired by different mechanisms of resistance and several efforts to overcome this problem have been undertaken. Elacytarabine (CP-4055, araC-5′elaidic acid ester) and CP-4126 (gemcitabine-5′elaidic acid ester) are lipophilic fatty acid derivatives of the nucleoside analogues araC and gemcitabine, respectively, that are currently investigated in clinical trials in solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Here, we present results on the activity of elacytarabine and CP-4126 in a panel of tumor cell lines that are resistant to araC and gemcitabine and we discuss the potential use of these agents in the treatment of patients with drug resistance phenotypes. We conclude that elacytarabine and CP-4126 are active in cells with deficient nucleoside membrane transport and altered mismatch repair. These results should be taking into consideration for future clinical development of elacyatrabine and CP-4126.
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 01/2010; 29:386-393. · 0.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many drugs that are currently used for the treatment of cancer have limitations, such as induction of resistance and/or poor biological half-life, which reduce their clinical efficacy. To overcome these limitations several strategies have been explored. Chemical modification by the attachment of lipophilic moieties to (deoxy)nucleoside analogs should enhance the plasma half live, change the biodistribution and improve cellular uptake of the drug. Attachment of a lipophilic moiety to a phosphorylated (deoxy)nucleoside analog will improve the activity of the drugs by circumventing the rate-limiting activation step of (deoxy)nucleoside analogs. Duplex and multiplex drugs consist of distinct active drugs with different mechanisms of action, which are linked to each other with either a lipid or a phosphodiester. Enzymatic cleavage of such a prodrug inside the cell releases the drug or the phosphorylated form of the drug. Antitumor activity of cytotoxic drugs can also be enhanced by the use of nanoparticles as carriers. Nanoparticles have the advantage of high stability, high carrier capacity, incorporation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds and variable routes of administration. Encapsulating drugs in liposomes protects the drug against enzymatic breakdown in the plasma and makes it possible to get lipophilic compounds to the tumor site. Nanoparticles and liposomes can be used to target drugs either actively or passively to the tumor. In this review we discuss the considerable progress that has been made in increasing the efficacy of classic (deoxy)nucleoside and fluoropyrimidine compounds by chemical modifications and alternative delivery systems. We expect that combining different strategies could further increase the efficacy of these compounds.
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 11/2009; 16(35):4632-43. · 3.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma is associated with a very poor prognosis and most patients are given palliative care. Chemotherapy in the form of gemcitabine has been found to reduce disease-related pain, and the otherwise frequently occurring weight changes, to increase Karnofsky performance status and quality of life and has also resulted in a modest improvement in survival time. The intracellular uptake of gemcitabine is dependent on nucleoside transporters, predominantly human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (hENT-1), which is over-expressed in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. Cellular resistance to gemcitabine can be intrinsic or acquired during gemcitabine treatment. One of the mechanisms is a decrease in hENT-1 expression. Modifications of gemcitabine not rendering it dependent on the nucleoside transporter may be a successful future mode of chemotherapy treatment, and determination of the nucleoside receptor status at the time of diagnosis could potentially also contribute to a more targeted therapy in the future.
    Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2009; 44(7):782-786. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    Carlos M Galmarini, Finn Myhren, Marit L Sandvold
    British Journal of Haematology 12/2008; 144(2):273-5. · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytarabine (ara-C) has limited activity in solid tumours. CP-4055 (ELACYT) is a novel ara-C-5'-elaidic acid ester that may circumvent this limitation. CP-4055 maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity have been investigated in patients with solid tumours. Thirty-four patients (19 malignant melanoma, 8 ovarian cancers and 7 NSCLC) received CP-4055 as a 30 min, or 2 hr intravenous (IV) infusion daily for 5 consecutive days every 3 or 4 weeks (D1-5 q3w or D1-5 q4w) in a dose escalation designed study with doses ranging from 30 to 240 mg/m(2)/day. The most frequent CTC grade 1-2 adverse events (AEs) were nausea, fatigue, vomiting, anorexia and pyrexia. Most of the grade 3-4 AEs were neutropenia. The MTD was 200 mg/m(2)/day and 240 mg/m(2)/day for D1-5 q3w and D1-5 q4w, respectively. The MTD was independent of infusion time in the 4 week schedule. CP-4055 was maintained in plasma for up to 5-10 hr at dose levels >150 mg/m(2)/day. One objective partial response (PR) with time to progression (TTP) of 22 months was reported in an advanced malignant melanoma patient. CP-4055 was well tolerated; the majority of the AEs were of CTC grade 1. The 3 week schedule was not recommended due to neutropenic nadir between days 18-26. The recommended dose was 200 mg/m(2)/day in a D1-5 q4w schedule. Efficacy data suggest that CP-4055 might be active in treatment of solid tumours.
    Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden) 07/2008; 48(1):137-45. · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated combination drug partners for CP-4055, the C18:1(Delta9,trans) unsaturated fatty acid ester of cytarabine in HL-60 and U937 cells. Growth inhibition was assessed by ATP assay and drug interaction by the combination index and three dimensional methods. Synergy was observed in HL-60 cells for simultaneous combinations of CP-4055 with gemcitabine, irinotecan and topotecan, while combinations with cloretazine (VNP40101M) and idarubicin were additive. In U937 cells, synergy was observed with gemcitabine and additivity for the other drugs. In HL-60, the IC50 concentration of CP-4055 could be reduced 10-fold and that of gemcitabine 3-fold in combination versus the agents alone, an interaction that was independent of drug sequence, ratio and exposure time. In contrast, interactions of CP-4055 with the topoisomerase inhibitors became antagonistic when the drugs were administered 24 h prior to CP-4055 and at certain drug ratios, particularly in U937 cells. In summary, CP-4055 produced additive to synergistic anti proliferative activity when combined simultaneously with drugs from four mechanistic classes in cell culture models of human leukemia and lymphoma. The impact of drug sequence and ratio on the interactions argues for incorporation of these parameters into the design of combination chemotherapy regimens.
    Leukemia & lymphoma 05/2008; 49(4):786-97. · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • Ejc Supplements - EJC SUPPL. 01/2008; 6(12):150-151.
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    ABSTRACT: Gemcitabine is a deoxycytidine analog, which can be inactivated by deamination catalyzed by deoxycytidine deaminase (dCDA). Altered transport over the cell membrane is a mechanism of resistance to gemcitabine. To facilitate accumulation, the fatty acid derivative CP-4125 was synthesized. Since, the fatty acid is acylated at the site of action of dCDA, a decreased deamination was expected. CP-4125 was equally active as gemcitabine in a panel of rodent and human cell lines and in human melanoma xenografts bearing mice. In contrast to gemcitabine, CP-4125 was not deaminated but inhibited deamination of deoxycytidine and gemcitabine. Pools of the active triphosphate of gemcitabine increased for over 20 hr after CP-4125 exposure, while these pools decreased directly after removal of gemcitabine. In conclusion: CP-4125 is an interesting new gemcitabine derivative.
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 11/2004; 23(8-9):1329-33. · 0.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Resistance to, the hydrophilic drug ara-C, might be meditated by decreased membrane transport. Lipophilic prodrugs were synthesized to facilitate uptake. These compounds were equally active as ara-C, while the compounds with the shortest fatty-acid group and highest number of double bonds were the more active. These compounds also show a better retention profile, their effect is retained longer than for ara-C.
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 11/2004; 23(8-9):1523-6. · 0.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C) is a deoxycytidine analog with activity in leukemia, which requires phosphorylation by deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) to allow formation of its active phosphate 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine triphosphate, but can be deaminated by deoxycytidine deaminase. Altered membrane transport is also a mechanism of drug resistance. In order to facilitate ara-C uptake and prolong retention in the cell, lipophilic prodrugs were synthesized. Fatty acid groups with a varying acyl chain length and number of double bonds were esterified at the 5' position on the sugar moiety of ara-C. The compounds were tested in two pairs of ara-C resistant leukemic cell lines (murine L1210 and rat BCLO and their resistant variants L4A6 and Bara-C, respectively) and two pairs of cell lines with a resistance to gemcitabine, another deoxycytidine analog (human ovarian cancer A2780 and murine colon cancer C26-A and their resistant variants AG6000 and C26-G, respectively). L4A6, Bara-C and AG6000 have varying degrees of decreased dCK activity, while the mechanism for C26-G is not yet clear. In the parent cell lines, ara-C was more active, but in the resistant variants several of the analogs were more active, while the degree of cross-resistance varied. In AG6000 with a total dCK deficiency, all compounds were inactive. Structure-activity relation analysis showed that ara-C derivatives with shorter acyl chains and more double bonds were more active in the parental and drug resistant cells. Further mechanistic studies were performed with the elaidic acid derivative of ara-C (CP-4055). CP-4055 inhibited deamination of dCyd partly and induced DNA synthesis inhibition effectively in C26-A and C26-G cells, but the retention of inhibition was much longer for CP-4055 than for ara-C. In contrast to ara-C, CP-4055 inhibited RNA synthesis for 60% after drug exposure. In conclusion, CP-4055 seems to be a promising prodrug, whose effects were different and longer lasting than for the parent drug.
    Biochemical Pharmacology 03/2004; 67(3):503-11. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A fatty acid derivative of ganciclovir (GCV), elaidic acid ganciclovir (E-GCV), has been evaluated for its inhibitory activity against laboratory and clinical strains of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in human embryonic lung fibroblasts. GCV, cidofovir, acyclovir (ACV), brivudin (BVDU) and foscarnet (PFA) were included as reference compounds. The viruses studied were wild-type, thymidine kinase-deficient (TK(-)) and PFA-resistant (PFA(r)) HSV strains. The IC(50) values obtained for E-GCV were 5- to 30-fold lower than those observed for GCV, the IC(50) value of E-GCV for HSV-1 strain KOS being 0.07 nM. A similarly increased activity of E-GCV (as compared to GCV) was noted for TK(-) and PFA(r) HSV-1 or HSV-2 strains. However, E-GCV did not exhibit superior activity over GCV to VZV or HCMV in vitro. The antiviral efficacy of E-GCV was also evaluated in vivo against intracerebral HSV-2 infection in NMRI mice. Animals were treated intraperitoneally or perorally with E-GCV, GCV or placebo once daily for 10 days, starting the day of infection. E-GCV compared to GCV at equimolar doses, proved markedly more efficacious than GCV in terms of reduction of mortality rate and delay of mean time of death. The elaidic acid ester of GCV should therefore be considered as a novel approach towards the treatment of HSV infections.
    Antiviral Research 04/2000; 45(3):157-67. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The antineoplastic efficacy of P-4055, a 5'-elaidic acid (C18:1, unsaturated fatty acid) ester of cytarabine, a nucleoside antimetabolite frequently used in the treatment of hematological malignancies, was examined in several in vivo models for human cancer. In initial dose-finding studies in nude mice, the efficacy of P-4055 was highest when using schedules with repeated daily doses. In a Raji Burkitt's lymphoma leptomeningeal carcinomatosis model in nude rats, the control cytarabine- and saline-treated animals (five in each group) had a mean survival time of 13.2 days, whereas treatment with P-4055 resulted in three of five long-time survivors (>70 days). In a systemic Raji leukemia model in nude mice, 8 of 10 of the P-4055-treated animals survived (>80 days), compared with none of the cytarabine-treated animals (mean survival time, 34.2 days). In s.c. xenograft models, the effects of maximum tolerated doses of P-4055 and cytarabine, given in four weekly cycles of daily bolus i.v. injections for 5 subsequent days, against seven tumors (three melanomas, one lung adenocarcinoma, one breast cancer, and two osteogenic sarcomas) were investigated. P-4055 induced partial or complete tumor regression of the lung carcinoma, as well as of all three malignant melanomas. In two of the melanomas the activity was highly superior to that of cytarabine, and both P-4055 and cytarabine were, in general, more effective than several clinically established drugs previously tested in the same tumor models. In in vitro studies, inhibitors of nucleoside carrier-dependent transport, nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside and dipyridamol, reduced strongly the cellular sensitivity to cytarabine, but not to P-4055, indicating that P-4055 uses an alternative/additional mechanism of internalization into the cell compared with cytarabine. The results explain, at least in part, the observed differences between the two compounds in in vivo efficacy, and together the data strongly support the evaluation of P-4055 in clinical studies.
    Cancer Research 07/1999; 59(12):2944-9. · 8.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

274 Citations
68.80 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2010
    • VU University Medical Center
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2009
    • Lund University
      • Department of Surgery
      Lund, Skane, Sweden
  • 1999
    • The University of Sheffield
      Sheffield, England, United Kingdom