[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apparently balanced chromosomal rearrangements can be associated with an abnormal phenotype, including intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Genome-wide microarrays reveal cryptic genomic imbalances, related or not to the breakpoints, in 25% to 50% of patients with an abnormal phenotype carrying a microscopically balanced chromosomal rearrangement. Here we performed microarray analysis of 18 patients with ASD carrying balanced chromosomal abnormalities to identify submicroscopic imbalances implicated in abnormal neurodevelopment.
Eighteen patients with ASD carrying apparently balanced chromosomal abnormalities were screened using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Nine rearrangements were de novo, seven inherited, and two of unknown inheritance. Genomic imbalances were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative PCR.
We detected clinically significant de novo copy number variants in four patients (22%), including three with de novo rearrangements and one with an inherited abnormality. The sizes ranged from 3.3 to 4.9 Mb; three were related to the breakpoint regions and one occurred elsewhere. We report a patient with a duplication of the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome critical region, contributing to the delineation of this rare genomic disorder. The patient has a chromosome 4p inverted duplication deletion, with a 0.5 Mb deletion of terminal 4p and a 4.2 Mb duplication of 4p16.2p16.3. The other cases included an apparently balanced de novo translocation t(5;18)(q12;p11.2) with a 4.2 Mb deletion at the 18p breakpoint, a subject with de novo pericentric inversion inv(11)(p14q23.2) in whom the array revealed a de novo 4.9 Mb deletion in 7q21.3q22.1, and a patient with a maternal inv(2)(q14.2q37.3) with a de novo 3.3 Mb terminal 2q deletion and a 4.2 Mb duplication at the proximal breakpoint. In addition, we identified a rare de novo deletion of unknown significance on a chromosome unrelated to the initial rearrangement, disrupting a single gene, RFX3.
These findings underscore the utility of SNP arrays for investigating apparently balanced chromosomal abnormalities in subjects with ASD or related neurodevelopmental disorders in both clinical and research settings.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is commonly used in diagnosing patients with intellectual disability (ID) with or without congenital malformation. Since aCGH interrogates the whole genome, there is a risk of being confronted with incidental findings (IF). In order to anticipate the ethical issues of IF with the generalization of new genome-wide analysis technologies, we questioned French clinicians and cytogeneticists about the situations they have faced regarding IF from aCGH. Sixty-five IF were reported. Forty corresponded to autosomal dominant diseases with incomplete penetrance, 7 to autosomal dominant diseases with complete penetrance, 14 to X-linked diseases, and 4 were heterozygotes for autosomal recessive diseases with a high prevalence of heterozygotes in the population. Therapeutic/preventive measures or genetic counselling could be argued for all cases except 4. These 4 IF were intentionally not returned to the patients. Clinicians reported difficulties in returning the results in 29% of the cases, mainly when the question of IF had not been anticipated. Indeed, at the time of the investigation, only 48% of the clinicians used consents mentioning the risk of IF. With the emergence of new technologies, there is a need to report such national experiences; they show the importance of pre-test information on IF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SHORT syndrome has historically been defined by its acronym: short stature (S), hyperextensibility of joints and/or inguinal hernia (H), ocular depression (O), Rieger abnormality (R) and teething delay (T). More recently several research groups have identified PIK3R1 mutations as responsible for SHORT syndrome. Knowledge of the molecular etiology of SHORT syndrome has permitted a reassessment of the clinical phenotype. The detailed phenotypes of 32 individuals with SHORT syndrome and PIK3R1 mutation, including eight newly ascertained individuals, were studied to fully define the syndrome and the indications for PIK3R1 testing. The major features described in the SHORT acronym were not universally seen and only half (52%) had 4 or more of the classic features. The commonly observed clinical features of SHORT syndrome seen in the cohort included IUGR < 10(th) percentile, postnatal growth restriction, lipoatrophy and the characteristic facial gestalt. Anterior chamber defects and insulin resistance or diabetes were also observed but were not as prevalent. The less specific, or minor features of SHORT syndrome include teething delay, thin wrinkled skin, speech delay, sensorineural deafness, hyperextensibility of joints and inguinal hernia. Given the high risk of diabetes mellitus, regular monitoring of glucose metabolism is warranted. An echocardiogram, ophthalmological and hearing assessments are also recommended.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increasing use of array-CGH in malformation syndromes with intellectual disability could lead to the description of new contiguous gene syndrome by the analysis of the gene content of the microdeletion and reverse phenotyping. Thanks to a national and international call for collaboration by Achropuce and Decipher, we recruited four patients carrying de novo overlapping deletions of chromosome 9q33.3q34.11, including the STXBP1, the LMX1B and the ENG genes. We restrained the selection to these three genes because the effects of their haploinsufficency are well described in the literature and easily recognizable clinically. All deletions were detected by array-CGH and confirmed by FISH. The patients display common clinical features, including intellectual disability with epilepsy, owing to the presence of STXBP1 within the deletion, nail dysplasia and bone malformations, in particular patellar abnormalities attributed to LMX1B deletion, epistaxis and cutaneous-mucous telangiectasias explained by ENG haploinsufficiency and common facial dysmorphism. This systematic analysis of the genes comprised in the deletion allowed us to identify genes whose haploinsufficiency is expected to lead to disease manifestations and complications that require personalized follow-up, in particular for renal, eye, ear, vascular and neurological manifestations.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 23 September 2015; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.202.
European journal of human genetics: EJHG 09/2015; DOI:10.1038/ejhg.2015.202 · 4.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cationic amino acid transporters (CATs) mediate the entry of L-type cationic amino acids (arginine, ornithine and lysine) into the cells including neurons. CAT-3, encoded by the SLC7A3 gene on chromosome X, is one of the three CATs present in the human genome, with selective expression in brain. SLC7A3 is highly intolerant to variation in humans, as attested by the low frequency of deleterious variants in available databases, but the impact on variants in this gene in humans remains undefined. In this study, we identified a missense variant in SLC7A3, encoding the CAT-3 cationic amino acid transporter, on chromosome X by exome sequencing in two brothers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We then sequenced the SLC7A3 coding sequence in 148 male patients with ASD and identified three additional rare missense variants in unrelated patients. Functional analyses of the mutant transporters showed that two of the four identified variants cause severe or moderate loss of CAT-3 function due to altered protein stability or abnormal trafficking to the plasma membrane. The patient with the most deleterious SLC7A3 variant had high-functioning autism and epilepsy, and also carries a de novo 16p11.2 duplication possibly contributing to his phenotype. This study shows that rare hypomorphic variants of SLC7A3 exist in male individuals and suggest that SLC7A3 variants possibly contribute to the etiology of ASD in male subjects in association with other genetic factors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infantile spasms syndrome (ISs) is characterized by clinical spasms with ictal electrodecrement, usually occurring before the age of 1 year and frequently associated with cognitive impairment. Etiology is widely heterogeneous, the cause remaining elusive in 40% of patients. We searched for de novo mutations in 10 probands with ISs and their parents using whole-exome sequencing (WES). Patients had neither consanguinity nor family history of epilepsy. Common causes of ISs were excluded by brain MRI, metabolic screening, array-CGH and testing for mutations in CDKL5, STXBP1, and for ARX duplications. We found a probably pathogenic mutation in four patients. Missense mutations in SCN2A (p.Leu1342Pro) and KCNQ2 (p.Ala306Thr) were found in two patients with no history of epilepsy before the onset of ISs. The p.Asn107Ser missense mutation of ALG13 had been previously reported in four females with ISs. The fourth mutation was an in-frame deletion (p.Phe110del) in NR2F1, a gene whose mutations cause intellectual disability, epilepsy, and optic atrophy. In addition, we found a possibly pathogenic variant in KIF3C that encodes a kinesin expressed during neural development. Our results confirm that WES improves significantly the diagnosis yield in patients with sporadic ISs.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: La dystrophie myotonique de type 1 (DM 1) est une maladie neuromusculaire pouvant s’accompagner de troubles cognitifs et psychiatriques. Les études explorant ces aspects dans la forme infantile de la DM1 sont encore récentes et les données disponibles mettent en avant des résultats contradictoires, notamment en ce qui concerne la présence ou non de troubles du spectre autistique (TSA) dans cette population. La question d’une comorbidité entre la forme infantile de la DM1 et les TSA s’appuiera sur une revue de la littérature organisée selon deux axes : (1) une synthèse des travaux objectivant, d’une part, les troubles psychiatriques et cognitifs observés dans la DM1 mais aussi une analyse critique des études où la présence d’un TSA a été explorée dans cette même population et (2) une comparaison entre les profils cognitifs et le fonctionnement cérébral (données neuro-anatomiques et/ou neuro-fonctionnelles) de chacune de ces deux pathologies. La reconnaissance des signes cognitifs et psychiatriques spécifiques de la forme infanto-juvénile de la DM1, qu’ils comprennent ou non une dimension autistique propre, devrait constituer une étape fondamentale pour mieux guider les professionnels et améliorer la prise en charge.
Neuropsychiatrie de l Enfance et de l Adolescence 12/2014; 63(2). DOI:10.1016/j.neurenf.2014.11.005
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PMM2-CDG (formerly known as CDG Ia) a deficiency in phosphomannomutase, is the most frequent congenital disorder of glycosylation. The phenotype encompasses a wide range of neurological and non-neurological manifestations comprising cerebellar atrophy and intellectual deficiency. The phenotype of the disorder is well characterized in children but the long term course of the disease is unknown and the phenotype of late onset forms has not been comprehensively described. We thus retrospectively collected the clinical, biological and radiological data of 29 French PMM2-CDG patients aged 15 years or more with a proven molecular diagnosis (16 females and 13 males). In addition, thirteen of these patients were reexamined at the time of the study to obtain detailed information. 27 of the 29 patients had a typical PMM2-CDG phenotype, with infantile hypotonia, strabismus, developmental delay followed by intellectual deficiency, epilepsy, retinitis pigmentosa and/or visceral manifestations. The main health problems for these patients as teenagers and in adulthood were primary ovarian insufficiency, growth retardation, coagulation anomalies and thrombotic events, skeletal deformities and osteopenia/osteoporosis, retinitis pigmentosa, as well as peripheral neuropathy. Three patients had never walked and three lost their ability to walk. The two remaining patients had a late-onset phenotype unreported to date. All patients (n¿=¿29) had stable cerebellar atrophy. Our findings are in line with those of previous adult PMM2-CDG cohorts and points to the need for a multidisciplinary approach to the follow up of PMM2-CDG patients to prevent late complications. Additionally, our findings add weight to the view that PMM2-CDG may be diagnosed in teenage/adult patients with cerebellar atrophy, even in the absence of intellectual deficiency or non-neurological involvement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Homozygous mutations in WWOX were reported in eight individuals of two families with autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia type 12 and in two siblings with infantile epileptic encephalopathy (IEE), including one who deceased prior to DNA sampling.
By combining array comparative genomic hybridisation, targeted Sanger sequencing and next generation sequencing, we identified five further patients from four families with IEE due to biallelic alterations of WWOX.
We identified eight deleterious WWOX alleles consisting in four deletions, a four base-pair frameshifting deletion, one missense and two nonsense mutations. Genotype-phenotype correlation emerges from the seven reported families. The phenotype in four patients carrying two predicted null alleles was characterised by (1) little if any psychomotor acquisitions, poor spontaneous motility and absent eye contact from birth, (2) pharmacoresistant epilepsy starting in the 1st weeks of life, (3) possible retinal degeneration, acquired microcephaly and premature death. This contrasted with the less severe autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia type 12 phenotype due to hypomorphic alleles. In line with this correlation, the phenotype in two siblings carrying a null allele and a missense mutation was intermediate.
Our results obtained by a combination of different molecular techniques undoubtedly incriminate WWOX as a gene for recessive IEE and illustrate the usefulness of high throughput data mining for the identification of genes for rare autosomal recessive disorders. The structure of the WWOX locus encompassing the FRA16D fragile site might explain why constitutive deletions are recurrently reported in genetic databases, suggesting that WWOX-related encephalopathies, although likely rare, may not be exceptional.
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Journal of Medical Genetics 11/2014; 52(1). DOI:10.1136/jmedgenet-2014-102748 · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein like 1 (IL1RAPL1) gene have been associated with non-syndromic intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. This protein interacts with synaptic partners like PSD-95 and PTPδ, regulating the formation and function of excitatory synapses. The aim of this work is to characterize the synaptic consequences of three IL1RAPL1 mutations, two novel causing the deletion of exon 6 (Δex6) and one point mutation (C31R), identified in patients with intellectual disability. Using immunofluorescence and electrophysiological recordings we examined the effects of IL1RAPL1 mutants over-expression on synapse formation and function in cultured rodent hippocampal neurons. Δex6 but not C31R mutation leads to IL1RAPL1 protein instability and mislocalization within dendrites. Analysis of different markers of excitatory synapses and sEPSC recording revealed that both mutants fail to induce pre- and post-synaptic differentiation, contrary to WT IL1RAPL1 protein. Cell aggregation and immunoprecipitation assays in HEK293 cells showed a reduction of the interaction between IL1RAPL1 mutants and PTPδ that could explain the observed synaptogenic defect in neurons. However, these mutants do not affect all cellular signaling since their over-expression still activates JNK pathway. We conclude that both mutations described in this study lead to a partial loss of function of the IL1RAPL1 protein through different mechanisms. Our work highlights the important function of the trans-synaptic PTPδ/ IL1RAPL1 interaction in synaptogenesis and as such, in intellectual disability in the patients.
Human Molecular Genetics 10/2014; 24(4). DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddu523 · 6.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SHANK genes code for scaffold proteins located at the post-synaptic density of glutamatergic synapses. In neurons, SHANK2 and SHANK3 have a positive effect on the induction and maturation of dendritic spines, whereas SHANK1 induces the enlargement of spine heads. Mutations in SHANK genes have been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but their prevalence and clinical relevance remain to be determined. Here, we performed a new screen and a meta-analysis of SHANK copy-number and coding-sequence variants in ASD. Copy-number variants were analyzed in 5,657 patients and 19,163 controls, coding-sequence variants were ascertained in 760 to 2,147 patients and 492 to 1,090 controls (depending on the gene), and, individuals carrying de novo or truncating SHANK mutations underwent an extensive clinical investigation. Copy-number variants and truncating mutations in SHANK genes were present in ∼1% of patients with ASD: mutations in SHANK1 were rare (0.04%) and present in males with normal IQ and autism; mutations in SHANK2 were present in 0.17% of patients with ASD and mild intellectual disability; mutations in SHANK3 were present in 0.69% of patients with ASD and up to 2.12% of the cases with moderate to profound intellectual disability. In summary, mutations of the SHANK genes were detected in the whole spectrum of autism with a gradient of severity in cognitive impairment. Given the rare frequency of SHANK1 and SHANK2 deleterious mutations, the clinical relevance of these genes remains to be ascertained. In contrast, the frequency and the penetrance of SHANK3 mutations in individuals with ASD and intellectual disability-more than 1 in 50-warrant its consideration for mutation screening in clinical practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epileptic encephalopathy (EE) refers to a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of severe disorders characterized by seizures, abnormal interictal electro-encephalogram, psychomotor delay, and/or cognitive deterioration. We ascertained two multiplex families (including one consanguineous family) consistent with an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern of EE. All seven affected individuals developed subclinical seizures as early as the first day of life, severe epileptic disease, and profound developmental delay with no facial dysmorphism. Given the similarity in clinical presentation in the two families, we hypothesized that the observed phenotype was due to mutations in the same gene, and we performed exome sequencing in three affected individuals. Analysis of rare variants in genes consistent with an autosomal-recessive mode of inheritance led to identification of mutations in SLC13A5, which encodes the cytoplasmic sodium-dependent citrate carrier, notably expressed in neurons. Disease association was confirmed by cosegregation analysis in additional family members. Screening of 68 additional unrelated individuals with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy for SLC13A5 mutations led to identification of one additional subject with compound heterozygous mutations of SLC13A5 and a similar clinical presentation as the index subjects. Mutations affected key residues for sodium binding, which is critical for citrate transport. These findings underline the value of careful clinical characterization for genetic investigations in highly heterogeneous conditions such as EE and further highlight the role of citrate metabolism in epilepsy.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 07/2014; 95(1):113-20. DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.06.006 · 10.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although considerable evidence suggests that the chemical synapse is a lynchpin underlying affective disorders, how molecular insults differentially affect specific synaptic connections remains poorly understood. For instance, Neurexin 1a and 2 (NRXN1 and NRXN2) and CNTNAP2 (also known as CASPR2), all members of the neurexin superfamily of transmembrane molecules, have been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders. However, their loss leads to deficits that have been best characterized with regard to their effect on excitatory cells. Notably, other disease-associated genes such as BDNF and ERBB4 implicate specific interneuron synapses in psychiatric disorders. Consistent with this, cortical interneuron dysfunction has been linked to epilepsy, schizophrenia and autism. Using a microarray screen that focused upon synapse-associated molecules, we identified Cntnap4 (contactin associated protein-like 4, also known as Caspr4) as highly enriched in developing murine interneurons. In this study we show that Cntnap4 is localized presynaptically and its loss leads to a reduction in the output of cortical parvalbumin (PV)-positive GABAergic (γ-aminobutyric acid producing) basket cells. Paradoxically, the loss of Cntnap4 augments midbrain dopaminergic release in the nucleus accumbens. In Cntnap4 mutant mice, synaptic defects in these disease-relevant neuronal populations are mirrored by sensory-motor gating and grooming endophenotypes; these symptoms could be pharmacologically reversed, providing promise for therapeutic intervention in psychiatric disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe four patients from three independent families with the m.1644G > A in the MT-TV gene, previously reported without demonstration of its deleterious impact.
Very high mutation proportion co-segregated with cytochrome oxidase defect in single muscle fibers and respiratory defect and in cybrids as shown by spectrophotometric assays and polarography.
The mutation appeared to have a very steep threshold effect with asymptomatic life with proportions up to 70% mutation, progressive encephalopathy above 80% and severe Leigh-like syndrome above 95% mutation. One patient did not fit within that frame but presented with characteristics suggesting the presence of an additional disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myhre syndrome is characterized by short stature, brachydactyly, facial features, pseudomuscular hypertrophy, joint limitation and hearing loss. We identified SMAD4 mutations as the cause of Myhre syndrome. SMAD4 mutations have also been identified in laryngotracheal stenosis, arthropathy, prognathism and short stature syndrome (LAPS). This study aimed to review the features of Myhre and LAPS patients to define the clinical spectrum of SMAD4 mutations. We included 17 females and 15 males ranging in age from 8 to 48 years. Thirty were diagnosed with Myhre syndrome and two with LAPS. SMAD4 coding sequence was analyzed by Sanger sequencing. Clinical and radiological features were collected from a questionnaire completed by the referring physicians. All patients displayed a typical facial gestalt, thickened skin, joint limitation and muscular pseudohypertrophy. Growth retardation was common (68.7%) and was variable in severity (from -5.5 to -2 SD), as was mild-to-moderate intellectual deficiency (87.5%) with additional behavioral problems in 56.2% of the patients. Significant health concerns like obesity, arterial hypertension, bronchopulmonary insufficiency, laryngotracheal stenosis, pericarditis and early death occurred in four. Twenty-nine patients had a de novo heterozygous SMAD4 mutation, including both patients with LAPS. In 27 cases mutation affected Ile500 and in two cases Arg496. The three patients without SMAD4 mutations had typical findings of Myhre syndrome. Myhre-LAPS syndrome is a clinically homogenous condition with life threatening complications in the course of the disease. Our identification of SMAD4 mutations in 29/32 cases confirms that SMAD4 is the major gene responsible for Myhre syndrome.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 15 January 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.288.
European journal of human genetics: EJHG 01/2014; 22(11). DOI:10.1038/ejhg.2013.288 · 4.35 Impact Factor