[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellular senescence implies loss of proliferative and tissue regenerative capability. Also hypoxia, producing Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), can damage cellular components through the oxidation of DNA, proteins and lipids, thus influencing the shortening of telomeres.
Since ribonucleoprotein Telomerase (TERT), catalyzing the replication of the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, promotes cardiac muscle cell proliferation, hypertrophy and survival, here we investigated its role in the events regulating apoptosis occurrence and life span in hearts deriving from young and old rats exposed to hypoxia.
TUNEL (terminal-deoxinucleotidyl -transferase- mediated dUTP nick end-labeling) analysis reveals an increased apoptotic cell number in both samples after hypoxia exposure, mainly in the young with respect to the old. TERT expression lowers either in the hypoxic young, either in the old in both experimental conditions, with respect to the normoxic young. These events are paralleled by p53 and HIF-1 α expression dramatic increase and by p53/ HIF-1 α co-immunoprecipitation in the hypoxic young, evidencing the young subject as the most stressed by such challenge. These effects could be explained by induction of damage to genomic DNA by ROS that accelerates cell senescence through p53 activation. Moreover, by preventing TERT enzyme down-regulation, cell cycle exit and apoptosis occurrence could be delayed and new possibilities for intervention against cell ageing and hypoxia could be opened.
European journal of histochemistry: EJH 12/2009; 53(4):e25. DOI:10.4081/ejh.2009.e25 · 2.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rat myocardial fiber development and formation is a complex event which begins in the early stages of fetal life and continues until the end of the first month of life. In fact, a progressive morphological structure arrangement is observed until the 22nd day of life. These modifications are based on biochemical events which are switched on at plasma membrane level and then transduced into the nucleus. Since the presence of Protein Kinase C (PKC) inside the nucleus could allow the enzyme to phosphorylate also proteins located on chromatin, on nuclear matrix and speckles, in this study attention was paid to the role played by phospho-Protein Kinase C-alpha (p-PKCalpha) in regulating the activation of SC-35 splicing factor which leads to the occurrence of morphological modifications during post-natal rat heart development. Besides the parallel increase of the expression of both proteins up to 4/8 days of life, firstly p-PKCalpha and SC-35 co-localize at nuclear level at day 1 after birth, thus suggesting a main role of p-PKCalpha in modulating the early transcription of components related to post-natal rat heart development.
Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents 01/2009; 23(1):45-54. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined lymphocyte apoptosis, activity of caspases-1, -3, -8 and -9 and the relationship between those two events and inflammation response in septic shock.
Blood samples were obtained within 24 h after diagnosis of septic shock from 16 patients to measure apoptosis, caspases-3, -8, -9 expression, changes in mitochondrial transmembrane potential and expression of Fas/FasL system of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Moreover, serum levels of caspase-1 and blood concentrations of IL-6, IL-12, IL-15 and IL-18 were assessed.
PBMCs from patients with septic shock compared to control individuals exhibited a greatly increased frequency of apoptosis (39.10 +/- 7.33% vs 4.19 +/- 1.13%; p < 0.001), an over expression of caspases-3, -8, and -9 (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, p < 0.001 for caspases-3, -8 and -9, respectively) as well as of Fas/FasL system (p < 0.05) and significant changes in mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Blood levels of caspase-1 (101.5 +/- 18.2 pg/ml vs 9.09 +/- 2.7 pg/ml, p < 0.001) and of IL-6, IL-12, IL-15 and IL-18 were significantly higher in septic patients vs control (p < 0.0001, p < 0.05, p < 0.05 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Furthermore, a correlation linking IL-6 blood level with both the apoptotic rate (r(2) = 0.75; p = 0.001) and caspase-9 expression (r(2) = 0.92; p = 0.0001) of PBMCs was observed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An alteration in production of both interleukin-10 (IL-10) and nitric oxide (NO) has been found following surgical/anaesthesia trauma. It is also suggested that IL-10 could be an important factor in regulating NO metabolism during the postoperative period. Furthermore, NO seems to play a crucial role in the anaesthetic state. The purpose of this study was to investigate plasma levels of IL-10 and NO following surgery, any possible correlation between these two variables and whether anaesthesia technique could influence NO and IL-10 circulating concentrations.
Thirty-two patients scheduled to undergo elective major surgery were enrolled in the study and allocated into two groups to receive two different techniques of anaesthesia, total intravenous (i.v.) anaesthesia (Group I) and inhalational anaesthesia (Group II). Blood samples were drawn before (t0), at the end (t1) of operation and after 24 h (t2). Plasma IL-10 and NO levels were measured by using an enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a total NO assay kit, respectively.
In both patient groups there was a significant decrease of plasma NO levels at the end of surgery (30.35 +/- 2.70 mmol L(-1) at t0 to 13.76 +/- 1.51 mmol L(-1) at t1 in Group I, P < 0.0001; 28.23 +/- 2.50 mmol L(-1) at t0 to 11.38 +/- 0.95 mmol L(-1) at t1 in Group II, P < 0.0001). This reduction remained at 24 h postoperatively (14.33 +/- 1.52 mmol L(-1) in Group I, P < 0.0001; 12.52 +/- 1.11 mmol L(-1) in Group II, P < 0.0001, both vs. t0). There was an increase in IL-10 concentrations (26.35 +/- 3.42 pg mL(-1) and 75.39 +/- 8.33 pg mL(-1) at t1 and t2, respectively, vs. 4.93 +/- 0.31 pg mL(-1) at t0, P = 0.03 and P < 0.0001, respectively, in Group I; 26.18 +/- 3.22 pg mL(-1) and 69.91 +/- 7.33 pg mL(-1) at t1 and t2, respectively, vs. 5.50 +/- 0.33 pg mL(-1) at t0, P = 0.02 and P < 0.0001, respectively, in Group II). No relationship was found between circulating IL-10 and NO.
During the postoperative period, IL-10 overproduction does not correlate with the decrease in systemic NO concentration.
European Journal of Anaesthesiology 06/2005; 22(6):462-6. DOI:10.1017/S0265021505000797 · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During heart development, cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy are the main mechanisms by which cardiac mass grows. Both these processes along with programmed cell death lead to complete growth and function. In addition, since the establishment of cardiac function depends on the relationship between oxygen supply and demand, we investigated some of the molecular mechanisms at the basis of rat myocardial cell response to hypoxic stress at different times of neonatal life. In particular, the role played by hypertrophic and survival factors like NF-kB and IAP-1 (Inhibiting Apoptosis Protein) and by death factors ASK-1 (Apoptosis Signal Regulating Kinase), JNK/SAPK (Jun-N-Terminal-Kinase/Stress-Activated Protein Kinase) pathways in regulating caspase-3 expression and activity has been evaluated by immunohistochemical and Western blotting analyses, respectively. Level of phosphorylation of IkBalpha and IAP-1 expression were substantial in 8-day-old hypoxic hearts, suggesting the persistence of NF-kB driven hypertrophic signal along with a rescue attempt against hypoxic stress. In contrast, ASK-1 mediated JNK/SAPK activation, regulating Bcl(2) levels, allows Bax homodimerization and caspase-3 activation in the same experimental conditions. Thus, a regulation carried out by NF-kB and JNK/SAPK pathways on caspase-3 activation at day 8 of neonatal life can be suggested as the main factor for the heart 'adaptive' response to hypoxia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine whether intrathecal sufentanil alone provides an adequate analgesia for patients undergoing transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) and to compare it to standard spinal bupivacaine anesthesia in terms of motor and sensory blockade, discharge time and side effects.
Sixty-two patients were blindly and randomly assigned to receive either intrathecal bupivacaine (10 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine) or intrathecal sufentanil (15 microg). Motor and sensory blockade was evaluated using a modified Bromage scale as well as cold and pinprick tests. Severity of pain was assessed by means of a 10-point verbal analog scale.
We found that the mean duration of sensory blockade was similar for both sufentanil and bupivacaine patients but the quality of analgesia induced by sufentanil alone was poor as compared with spinal bupivacaine anesthesia.
The subarachnoid administration of sufentanil 15 mg seems to be inadequate for TURB surgery. In addition, the advantage of a faster recovery we observed in sufentanil patients is minimized by the occurrence of a troublesome symptom such as pruritus. On the other hand, spinal bupivacaine produces an undesirable motor blockade exceeding, in our opinion, the requirement for TURB procedure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development and growth of the rat heart implies hyperplasia, which stops at birth, and hypertrophy, allowing cardiac mass to grow in response to programmed genetic events along with to haemodynamic overload. Moreover, hypertrophy is accomplished to apoptosis which controls the final number of myocardial cells, deletes vestigial structures, and takes part in remodelling the organ. Since at the basis of all these processes, which lead to the complete development of the heart, the activation of specific signalling pathways underlies, attention has been addressed to the role played in vivo by Protein Kinase C zeta (PKC zeta) in regulating NF-kB signalling system and intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic route at days 1, 4, 10 and 22 of rat life. In fact, a role has been assigned to PKC zeta in indirectly phosphorylating IKBa, which peaks between 10 and 22 days, through a IKK determining, in turn, NF-kB activation, concomitantly to cytochrome c/Apaf 1 co-localization in the cytoplasm and caspase-9/caspase-3 activation, which leads to the occurrence of apoptosis. Thus a key role for PKC zeta in regulating the hypertrophic and apoptotic events leading to establishment of complete function in rat neonatal heart is here suggested.
International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology 01/2005; 18(1):49-58. · 2.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genomic instability is recognized as a cause of cellular apoptosis and certain drugs that exhibit a proapoptotic effect are also able to induce chromosome damage. Since we found in recent experiments that drugs such as pancuronium and fentanyl exerted an apoptogenic effect on T cells, we studied the capacity of those agents to promote chromosome instability, i.e. chromosome aberrations (CA) and telomeric associations (tas) in peripheral blood lymphocytes.
Lymphocytes from healthy donors were cultured with pancuronium or fentanyl, using two different concentrations for each drug: 20 and 200 ng/ml for pancuronium and 10 and 30 ng/ml for fentanyl, respectively. Cells were exposed to each concentration of these drugs either for 24 or 48 h. The higher concentration chosen was the same at which we detected the proapoptotic effect in our previous works. Cytogenetic analysis was performed by means of a standard technique and chromosome aberrations or telomeric associations were blindly evaluated by two independent observers.
The chromosome aberrations we observed in treated cells were not significantly different from control lymphocytes. However, an unusual rate of telomeric associations (P < 0.001) was detected in cells exposed to both pancuronium and fentanyl, at each concentration tested and at each exposure time of the study.
Fentanyl and pancuronium do not have a direct clastogenic effect on T cultures, but at the same concentrations at which we demonstrated their apoptogenic power, these drugs are able to increase genomic instability through inducing an elevated rate of telomeric associations. Such a capacity could exploit in peripheral T cells the same mitochondrion-mediated signal pathway of apoptosis death.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer (AECK-DD) is a natural sulphur compound present in human plasma and urine and in mammalian brain. Recently, it has been detected in many common dietary vegetables. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of AECK-DD to affect cellular response of U937 human monocytic cells to tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress. AECK-DD was incorporated into cells, as confirmed by GC-MS analyses, without any cytotoxic effect. A 24 h treatment with 50 and 250 microM AECK-DD resulted in the incorporation of 0.10 +/- 0.01 and 0.47 +/- 0.08ng AECK-DD x 10(6) cells, respectively. U937 cells pretreated with AECK-DD (in the range 4-100 microM) showed an increased resistance to tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced necrotic death, as revealed by a higher percent of survival measured at all incubation times with respect to control cells. Moreover, the protective effect exhibited by AECK-DD is significantly stronger with respect to that obtained with other common antioxidants (N-acetyl cysteine and trolox) and comparable, although somewhat higher, to that of vitamin E. This effect seems to be due to the ability of AECK-DD to reduce glutathione depletion and to inhibit lipid peroxidation during tert-butyl hydroperoxide treatment. It can be concluded that AECK-DD protects cultured human monocytic cells against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress and subsequent cell death, likely through an antioxidant action inside the cell. Due to its presence in both human plasma and urine, AECK-DD may play a role in the modulation of oxidative processes in vivo.
Free Radical Research 08/2004; 38(7):705-14. DOI:10.1080/10715760410001705159 · 2.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer (2) is a natural sulfur compound with antioxidant properties. 2 Inhibits some reactions mediated by peroxynitrite, a strong oxidizing and nitrating agent that reacts with several biomolecules. This work aims to elucidate the structure of the product resulting from the interaction of 2 with peroxynitrite using 1D and 2D NMR experiments and ion trap mass spectrometry. This product is a dimerized form of 2 and is hereafter referred to as 3. During the reactions leading to 2 and during the formation of 3, no chiral selection is operated; all optical isomers are present in D2O and have been evidenced by H-1 NMR methods in D2O plus beta- or gamma-cyclodextrin. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several compounds used in anesthesia practice have demonstrated to impair immune function and to influence the process of apoptotic death in T cell population following surgical trauma. We designed this study to test in vitro the impact of neuromuscular blocker, such as pancuronium, at clinically relevant concentration on lymphocyte apoptosis, death factor expression and mitochondrial function.
Following isolation, lymphocytes were incubated with pancuronium bromide at a clinically relevant concentration (0.136 micro mol l-1) for 3 h at 37 C in a 5% carbon-dioxide-humidified atmosphere and the frequency of apoptotic lymphocytes was then measured. We also investigated crucial steps in the apoptotic process, including Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) phenotype, intracellular expression of the interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme (ICE) p20, mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim), generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, and glutathione (GSH) levels. Control experiments were performed incubating cells in the complete culture medium added with the dilution medium of the drug without addition of the drug.
Expression of Fas, FasL and ICEp20 was six-fold, four-fold, and five-fold increased, respectively, among pancuronium-treated lymphocytes with respect to control cultures (P = 0.0001). The percentage of cells exhibiting either dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential or increased production of reactive oxygen species was seven-fold increased following exposure to pancuronium compared with untreated lymphocytes (P = 0.0001). These findings were associated with a decrease in GSH level. In addition, the frequency of apoptotic cells was 10-fold greater among lymphocytes cultured in the presence of the drug with respect to control cultures. (P = 0.0001).
Our data suggest an apoptogenic effect of pancuronium in vitro at clinically relevant concentration on peripheral blood lymphocytes. This could be implicated in the transient immune suppression following a surgical operation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From birth to aging the heart undergoes functional changes reflecting biochemical and ultrastructural modifications which imply apoptosis. This is a physiological process resulting from genetic programs closely associated with development and aging. During development apoptosis eliminates redundant cells leading to heart remodeling, while during aging it eliminates damaged or exhausted cells. In the present paper we analyze some molecular mechanisms involved with heart morphological modifications, especially in the neonatal heart which displays different features in the subendocardial and myocardial area. The high number of subendocardial apoptotic cells and the inverted ratio of Bcl-2/Bax molecule expression in the two heart compartments led us to hypothesize a different metabolism in the myocardium as compared with subendocardium. Moreover, we propose that PKC zeta may mediate this different response by activating Nf-kB pathway and by maintaining the balance between hypertrophic growth and apoptosis involved with remodeling of neonatal heart. Further, we underline that in the aged heart, where this pathway is not activated, such balance is not maintained.
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 08/2003; 124(8-9):957-66. DOI:10.1016/S0047-6374(03)00168-4 · 3.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In our previous study on the hypotaurine (HTAU) oxidation by methylene blue (MB) photochemically generated singlet oxygen (1O2) we found that azide, usually used as 1O2 quencher, produced, instead, an evident enhancing effect on the oxidation rate [L. Pecci, M. Costa, G. Montefoschi, A. Antonucci, D. Cavallini, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 254 (1999) 661-665]. We show here that this effect is strongly dependent on pH, with a maximum at approximately pH 5.7. When the MB photochemical system containing HTAU and azide was performed in the presence of tyrosine, 3-nitrotyrosine was produced with maximum yield at pH 5.7, suggesting that azide, by the combined action of HTAU and singlet oxygen, generates nitrogen species which contribute to tyrosine nitration. In addition to HTAU, cysteine sulfinic acid, and sulfite were found to induce the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine. No detectable tyrosine nitration was observed using taurine, the oxidation product of HTAU, or thiol compounds such as cysteine and glutathione. It is shown that during the MB photooxidation of HTAU in the presence of azide, nitrite, and nitrate are produced. Evidences are presented, indicating that nitrite represents the nitrogen species involved in the production of 3-nitrotyrosine. A possible mechanism accounting for the enhancing effect of azide on the photochemical oxidation of HTAU and the production of nitrogen species is proposed.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2003; 301(2):411-6. DOI:10.1016/S0006-291X(02)03063-2 · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer (simply named dimer) is a natural sulfur-containing tricyclic compound detected, until now, in human urine, bovine cerebellum, and human plasma. Recently, the antioxidant properties of this compound have been demonstrated. In this investigation, the presence of aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer was identified in garlic, spinach, tomato, asparagus, aubergine, onion, pepper, and courgette. Identification of this compound in dietary vegetables was performed using gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results from GC analysis range in the order of 10(-4) micromol of dimer/g for all the tested vegetables. These results and the lack of a demonstrated biosynthetic pathway in humans might account for a dietary supply of this molecule.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 04/2002; 50(7):2169-72. DOI:10.1021/jf0113934 · 3.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methylene blue photosensitized oxidation of tyrosine in the presence of nitrite produces 3-nitrotyrosine, with maximum yield at pH 6. The formation of 3-nitrotyrosine requires oxygen and increases using deuterium oxide as solvent, suggesting the involvement of singlet oxygen in the reaction. The detection of dityrosine as an additional reaction product suggests that the first step in the interaction of tyrosine with singlet oxygen generates tyrosyl radicals which can dimerize to form dityrosine or react with a nitrite-derived species to produce 3-nitrotyrosine. Although the chemical identity of the nitrating species has not been established, the possible generation of nitrogen dioxide (•NO2) by indirect oxidation of nitrite by intermediately produced tyrosyl radical, via electron transfer, is proposed. One important implication of the results of this study is that the oxidation of tyrosine by singlet oxygen in the presence of nitrite may represent an alternative or additional pathway of 3-nitrotyrosine formation of potential importance in oxidative injures such as during inflammatory processes.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2001; DOI:10.1006/bbrc.2001.5971 · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that a profound suppression of immune function transiently occurs in patients who undergo surgery under general anesthesia. The decline in the absolute counts of peripheral blood lymphocytes constitutes a major factor accounting for this immune defect, and recent evidence indicates that apoptosis plays a crucial role in determining postsurgical lymphocytopenia.
An altered oxidation-reduction status of mitochondria may contribute through apoptosis to the loss of lymphocytes following surgical trauma and general anesthesia.
We studied 16 patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists' physical status I or II who underwent elective surgery under general anesthesia. The data were collected prospectively.
Samples of peripheral blood were drawn on the day before surgery and at 24 and 96 hours after the operation. Following lymphocyte isolation, the mitochondrial transmembrane potential was assessed by flow cytometry using 3,3'-dihexylocarbo-cyanine iodide, and stains with hydroethidine and 2'-7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate were used to determine the generation of reactive oxygen species. The labeling of lymphocytes with monobromobimane was used to assess the presence of reduced glutathione.
At 24 hours after surgery, we detected a significantly elevated frequency of peripheral blood lymphocytes (P =.002), which incorporated low levels of 3,3'-dihexylocarbo-cyanine iodide, compared with the preoperative period. At this same time point, the frequency of lymphocytes with the hydroethidine- and 2'-7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate-positive phenotype was elevated compared with baseline levels. Conversely, at 24 hours after surgery, the frequency of cells that stained positive for glutathione was strongly decreased compared with preoperative values. Overall measurements returned to the baseline levels at 96 hours after surgery.
The strict association we observed between the overproduction of reactive oxygen species and the disruption of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential supports the view that alterations in mitochondrial energy metabolism, paralleled by the presence of a pro-oxidant oxidation-reduction status, could be involved in the accelerated apoptotic loss of lymphocytes following surgical trauma and general anesthesia.
Archives of Surgery 11/2001; 136(10):1190-6. · 4.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The expression, cellular distribution, and activity of PIP(2)-specific phospholipase C (PLC) in healthy human gastric-mucosa cells have been recently studied in our laboratories and a direct evidence for an almost exclusive expression of PLC beta isoforms, with the exception of PLC beta4, has been provided. These results addressed our attention to possible modification of PLC expression and activity during neoplastic transformation of the human gastric mucosa. In the present article we present results indicating that PLC delta2 is markedly expressed in type II intestinal metaplasia and in the adenocarcinoma whereas traces of other PLC isoforms were sometime detected. Interestingly, we found that type I intestinal metaplasia was in the majority of the cases PLC delta2-negative, but when expressed, this type of metaplasia generally considered as benignant, always evolved toward neoplastic transformation. These results therefore readdress the question of surveillance of the patients with type I intestinal metaplasia and suggest that PLC delta2 expression might be a possible marker of gastric malignant transformation.
American Journal Of Pathology 10/2001; 159(3):803-8. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the relationship between circulating interleukin-10 (IL-10) and the occurrence of lymphocyte apoptosis after surgical/anesthesia trauma.
Data were collected prospectively on 18 adult patients undergoing elective major surgery. Blood sampling for assessment of lymphocyte apoptosis and IL-10 levels was performed on the day before surgery (t(0)) and at 24 and 96 hours after operation (t(1) and t(2), respectively). After lymphocyte isolation, quantification of apoptosis was made by staining apoptotic cells with 7-amino-actinomycin D. Plasma IL-10 concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
A significantly increased frequency of apoptotic CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells (p < 0.05) was observed at t1 measurement (8.10% +/- 0.58% and 12.21% +/- 1.47% for CD4(+) and CD8(+), respectively) compared with preoperative values (1.53% +/- 0.38% and 1.32% +/- 0.45% for CD4(+) and CD8(+), respectively). Plasma IL-10 levels showed a significant elevation at both t(1) and t(2) times, peaking at t(1). At t(1), IL-10 levels were correlated with the frequency of CD4(+) and CD8(+) apoptotic lymphocytes (r = 0.78, p = 0.0005 for IL-10 vs. apoptotic CD4(+); r = 0.71, p = 0.003 for IL-10 vs. apoptotic CD8(+)).
Surgical trauma is associated with a significant but transient increase in lymphocyte commitment to apoptosis and IL-10 production. The exact relationship linking the overproduction of IL-10 with lymphocyte apoptosis after a surgical operation is still elusive and requires further investigation.
The Journal of trauma 08/2001; 51(1):92-7. · 2.96 Impact Factor