Jeffrey A Linder

Brigham and Women's Hospital , Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (77)466.59 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Healthcare professionals are rapidly adopting electronic health records (EHRs). Within EHRs, seemingly innocuous menu design configurations can influence provider decisions for better or worse.
    Journal of general internal medicine. 11/2014;
  • JAMA Internal Medicine 10/2014; · 13.25 Impact Factor
  • Daniella Meeker, Mark W Friedberg, Jeffrey A Linder
    JAMA Internal Medicine 08/2014; 174(8):1419. · 13.25 Impact Factor
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    Michael L Barnett, Jeffrey A Linder
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 05/2014; 311(19):2020-2. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals involved with the criminal justice system have increased health needs and poor access to primary care. To examine hospital and emergency department (ED) utilization and related costs by individuals with recent criminal justice involvement. Cross-sectional survey. Non-institutionalized, civilian U.S. adult participants (n = 154,356) of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2008-2011). Estimated proportion of adults who reported past year 1) hospitalization or 2) ED utilization according to past year criminal justice involvement, defined as 1) parole or probation, 2) arrest without subsequent correctional supervision, or 3) no criminal justice involvement; estimated annual expenditures using unlinked data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. An estimated 5.7 million adults reported parole or probation and an additional 3.9 million adults reported an arrest in the past year. Adults with recent parole or probation and those with a recent arrest, compared with the general population, had higher rates of hospitalization (12.3 %, 14.3 %, 10.5 %; P < 0.001) and higher rates of ED utilization (39.3 %, 47.2 %, 26.9 %; P < 0.001). Recent parole or probation was an independent predictor of hospitalization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.21; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.44) and ED utilization (AOR, 1.35; 95 % CI, 1.12-1.63); Recent arrest was an independent predictor of hospitalization (AOR, 1.26; 95 % CI, 1.08-1.47) and ED utilization (AOR, 1.81; 95 % CI, 1.53-2.15). Individuals with recent criminal justice involvement make up 4.2 % of the U.S. adult population, yet account for an estimated 7.2 % of hospital expenditures and 8.5 % of ED expenditures. Recent criminal justice involvement is associated with increased hospital and ED utilization and costs. The criminal justice system may offer an important point of contact for efforts to improve the healthcare utilization patterns of a large and vulnerable population.
    Journal of General Internal Medicine 05/2014; · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    Lipika Samal, Jeffrey A Linder, David W Bates, Adam Wright
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly common and under-recognized in primary care clinics, leading to low rates of stage-appropriate monitoring and treatment. Our objective was to determine whether electronic problem list documentation of CKD is associated with monitoring and treatment.
    BMC Nephrology 05/2014; 15(1):70. · 1.64 Impact Factor
  • JAMA Internal Medicine 04/2014; · 13.25 Impact Factor
  • Rebecca G Mishuris, Jeffrey A Linder
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    ABSTRACT: Health information technology (HIT) can increase preventive care. There are hopes and fears about the impact of HIT on racial disparities in cancer screening. To determine whether electronic health records (EHRs) or electronic preventive care reminders (e-reminders) modify racial differences in cancer screening order rates. Using the 2006-2010 National Ambulatory and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys, we measured (1) visit-based differences in rates of age-appropriate breast, cervical and colon cancer screening orders between white and non-white subjects at primary care visits with and without EHRs, and, at visits with EHRs, with and without e-reminders, and (2) whether EHRs or e-reminders modified these differences. Mammography (N=45 380); Pap smears (N=73 348); and sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy (N=50 955) orders. Among an estimated 2.4 billion US adult primary care visits, orders for screening for breast, cervical or colon cancer did not differ between clinics with and without EHRs or e-reminders. There was no difference in screening orders between non-white and white patients for breast (aOR=1.1; 95% CI 0.9 to 1.4) or cervical cancer (aOR=1.2; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.3). For colon cancer, non-white patients were more likely to receive screening orders than white patients overall (aOR=1.5; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.0), at visits with EHRs (aOR=1.8; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.8) and at visits with e-reminders (aOR=2.1; 95% CI 1.2 to 3.7). EHRs or e-reminders did not modify racial differences in cancer screening rates. In this visit-based analysis, non-white patients had higher colon cancer screening order rates than white patients. Despite hopes and fears about HIT, EHRs and e-reminders did not ameliorate or exacerbate racial differences in cancer screening order rates.
    Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 03/2014; · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE "Nudges" that influence decision making through subtle cognitive mechanisms have been shown to be highly effective in a wide range of applications, but there have been few experiments to improve clinical practice. OBJECTIVE To investigate the use of a behavioral "nudge" based on the principle of public commitment in encouraging the judicious use of antibiotics for acute respiratory infections (ARIs). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Randomized clinical trial in 5 outpatient primary care clinics. A total of 954 adults had ARI visits during the study timeframe: 449 patients were treated by clinicians randomized to the posted commitment letter (335 in the baseline period, 114 in the intervention period); 505 patients were treated by clinicians randomized to standard practice control (384 baseline, 121 intervention). INTERVENTIONS The intervention consisted of displaying poster-sized commitment letters in examination rooms for 12 weeks. These letters, featuring clinician photographs and signatures, stated their commitment to avoid inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Antibiotic prescribing rates for antibiotic-inappropriate ARI diagnoses in baseline and intervention periods, adjusted for patient age, sex, and insurance status. RESULTS Baseline rates were 43.5% and 42.8% for control and poster, respectively. During the intervention period, inappropriate prescribing rates increased to 52.7% for controls but decreased to 33.7% in the posted commitment letter condition. Controlling for baseline prescribing rates, we found that the posted commitment letter resulted in a 19.7 absolute percentage reduction in inappropriate antibiotic prescribing rate relative to control (P = .02). There was no evidence of diagnostic coding shift, and rates of appropriate antibiotic prescriptions did not diminish over time. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Displaying poster-sized commitment letters in examination rooms decreased inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs. The effect of this simple, low-cost intervention is comparable in magnitude to costlier, more intensive quality-improvement efforts. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01767064.
    JAMA Internal Medicine 01/2014; · 13.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To determine whether clinical decision support (CDS) is associated with improved quality indicators and whether disabling CDS negatively affects these. Study Design/Methods Using the 2006-2009 National Ambulatory and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys, we performed logistic regression to analyze adult primary care visits for the association between the use of CDS (problem lists, preventive care reminders, lab results, lab range notifications, and drug-drug interaction warnings) and quality measures (blood pressure control, cancer screening, health education, influenza vaccination, and visits related to adverse drug events). Results There were an estimated 900 million outpatient primary care visits to clinics with EHRs from 2006-2009; 97% involved CDS, 77% were missing at least 1 CDS, and 15% had at least 1 CDS disabled. The presence of CDS was associated with improved blood pressure control (86% vs 82%; OR 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5) and more visits not related to adverse drug events (99.9% vs 99.8%; OR 3.0; 95% CI, 1.3-7.3); these associations were also present when comparing practices with CDS against practices that had disabled CDS. Electronic problem lists were associated with increased odds of having a visit with controlled blood pressure (86% vs 80%; OR 1.4; 95% CI, 1.3-1.6). Lab result notification was associated with increased odds of ordering cancer screening (15% vs 10%; OR 1.5; 95% CI, 1.03-2.2). Conclusions The use of CDS was associated with improvement in some quality indicators. Not having at least 1 CDS was common; disabling CDS was infrequent. This suggests that meaningful use standards may improve national quality indicators and health outcomes, once fully implemented.
    The American journal of managed care. 01/2014; 20(10):e445-52.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Fatigue and stress may deplete clinicians’ capacity to resist prescribing antibiotics for acute respiratory infections (ARIs). We hypothesized that primary care clinicians would be less likely to prescribe antibiotics for ARIs at the beginning and more likely to prescribe antibiotics for ARIs at the end of clinic sessions. Methods: We compared the antibiotic prescribing rates for all ARIs, antibiotic-appropriate diagnoses (e.g., sinusitis or pneumonia), and non-antibiotic-appropriate diagnoses (e.g., acute bronchitis) for the first visit of a half-day clinic session and the last hour of a half-day clinic session (i.e., the 11 am and 4 pm hours) to the remaining visits. We used multivariable generalized estimating equations to identify independent predictors of antibiotic prescribing after adjusting for patient demographics, antibiotic-appropriateness of diagnosis, and clustering by clinician. Results: There were 678,982 total visits and 31,838 ARI visits scheduled from 8 am to 5 pm, Monday to Friday, by patients aged 18 to 64 years old without chronic lung disease to 561 clinicians in 23 Boston-area primary care practices, between May 2011 and September 2012. The antibiotic prescribing rate for the first visit of the session was significantly lower than later visits for all ARIs (55.2% vs. 58.7%; p<0.001), antibiotic-appropriate diagnoses (74.2% vs. 77.4%; p=0.008), and non-antibiotic-appropriate diagnoses (45.1% vs. 48.8%; p<0.001). The antibiotic prescribing rate was significantly higher during the last hour of each session compared to the remainder of the session for all ARIs (60.3% vs. 57.6%; p<0.001), antibiotic-appropriate diagnoses (78.8% vs. 76.4%; p=0.01), and non-antibiotic-appropriate diagnoses (50.6% vs. 47.6%; p<0.001). In multivariable modeling, clinicians were less likely to prescribe antibiotics at the first visit of the session (odds ratio [OR], 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81 to 0.96) and more likely to prescribe antibiotics in the last hour of a clinic session (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.19). Conclusion: Primary care clinicians are slightly, but significantly less likely to prescribe antibiotics at the beginning of a clinic session and more likely to prescribe antibiotics at the end of a clinic session.
    IDWeek 2013 Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America; 10/2013
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    Michael L Barnett, Jeffrey A Linder
    JAMA Internal Medicine 10/2013; · 13.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Guidelines and performance measures recommend avoiding antibiotics for acute cough/acute bronchitis and presume visits are straightforward with simple diagnostic decision-making. We evaluated clinician-assigned diagnoses, diagnostic uncertainty, and antibiotic prescribing for acute cough visits in primary care. We conducted a retrospective analysis of acute cough visits -- cough lasting <=21 days in adults 18--64 years old without chronic lung disease -- in a primary care practice from March 2011 through June 2012. Of 56,301 visits, 962 (2%) were for acute cough. Clinicians diagnosed patients with 1, 2, or >= 3 cough-related diagnoses in 54%, 35%, and 11% of visits, respectively. The most common principal diagnoses were upper respiratory infection (46%), sinusitis (10%), acute bronchitis (9%), and pneumonia (8%). Clinicians prescribed antibiotics in 22% of all visits: 65% of visits with antibiotic-appropriate diagnoses and 4% of visits with non-antibiotic-appropriate diagnoses. Clinicians expressed diagnostic uncertainty in 16% of all visits: 43% of visits with antibiotic-appropriate diagnoses and 5% of visits with non-antibiotic-appropriate diagnoses. Clinicians expressed uncertainty more often when prescribing antibiotics than when not prescribing antibiotics (30% vs. 12%; p < 0.001). As the number of visit diagnoses increased from 1 to 2 to >= 3, clinicians were more likely to express diagnostic uncertainty (5%, 25%, 40%, respectively; p < 0.001) and prescribe antibiotics (16%, 25%, 41%, respectively; p < 0.001). Acute cough may be more complex and have more diagnostic uncertainty than guidelines and performance measures presume. Efforts to reduce antibiotic prescribing for acute cough should address diagnostic complexity and uncertainty that clinicians face.
    BMC Family Practice 08/2013; 14(1):120. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate the impact on smoking status documentation of a payer-sponsored pay-for-performance (P4P) incentive that targeted a minority of an integrated healthcare delivery system's patients. Study Design: Three commercial insurers simultaneously adopted P4P incentives to document smoking status of their members with 3 chronic diseases. The healthcare system responded by adding a smoking status reminder to all patients' electronic health records (EHRs). We measured change in smoking status documentation before (2008-2009) and after (2010-2011) P4P implementation by patient P4P eligibility. Methods: The P4P-eligible patients were compared primarily with a subset of non-P4P-eligible patients who resembled P4P-eligible patients and also with all non-P4P-eligible patients. Multivariate models adjusted for patient and provider characteristics and accounted for provider-level clustering and preimplementation trends. Results: Documentation increased from 48% of 207,471 patients before P4P to 71% of 227,574 patients after P4P. Improvement from 56% to 83% occurred among P4P-eligible patients (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-4.5) and from 56% to 80% among the comparable subset of non-P4P-eligible patients (AOR, 3.0; 95% CI, 2.3-3.9). The difference in improvement between groups was significant (AOR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.4; P = .009). Conclusions: A P4P incentive targeting a minority of a healthcare system's patients stimulated adoption of a systemwide EHR reminder and improved smoking status documentation overall. Combining a P4P incentive with an EHR reminder might help healthcare systems improve treatment delivery for smokers and meet "meaningful use" standards for EHRs.
    The American journal of managed care 07/2013; 19(7):554-61. · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    Rebecca G Mishuris, Jeffrey A Linder
    Journal of General Internal Medicine 06/2013; · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for nonbacterial infections leads to increases in the costs of care, antibiotic resistance among bacteria, and adverse drug events. Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are the most common reason for inappropriate antibiotic use. Most prior efforts to decrease inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs (e.g., educational or informational interventions) have relied on the implicit assumption that clinicians inappropriately prescribe antibiotics because they are unaware of guideline recommendations for ARIs. If lack of guideline awareness is not the reason for inappropriate prescribing, educational interventions may have limited impact on prescribing rates. Instead, interventions that apply social psychological and behavioral economic principles may be more effective in deterring inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs by well-informed clinicians.Methods/design: The Application of Behavioral Economics to Improve the Treatment of Acute Respiratory Infections (BEARI) Trial is a multisite, cluster-randomized controlled trial with practice as the unit of randomization. The primary aim is to test the ability of three interventions based on behavioral economic principles to reduce the rate of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs. We randomized practices in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design to receive up to three interventions for non-antibiotic-appropriate diagnoses: 1) Accountable Justifications: When prescribing an antibiotic for an ARI, clinicians are prompted to record an explicit justification that appears in the patient electronic health record ; 2) Suggested Alternatives: Through computerized clinical decision support, clinicians prescribing an antibiotic for an ARI receive a list of non-antibiotic treatment choices (including prescription options) prior to completing the antibiotic prescription; and 3) Peer Comparison: Each provider's rate of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing relative to top-performing peers is reported back to the provider periodically by email. We enrolled 269 clinicians (practicing attending physicians or advanced practice nurses) in 49 participating clinic sites and collected baseline data. The primary outcome is the antibiotic prescribing rate for office visits with non-antibiotic-appropriate ARI diagnoses. Secondary outcomes will examine antibiotic prescribing more broadly. The 18-month intervention period will be followed by a one year follow-up period to measure persistence of effects after interventions cease. The ongoing BEARI Trial will evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral economic strategies in reducing inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics.Trials registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01454947.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 06/2013; 13(1):290. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Practice-Based Research Networks (PBRNs) and health systems may provide timely, reliable data to guide the development and distribution of public health resources to promote healthy behaviors, such as quitting smoking. The objective of this study was to determine if PBRN data could be used to make neighborhood-level estimates of smoking prevalence. METHODS: We estimated the smoking prevalence in 32 greater Boston neighborhoods (population = 877,943 adults) by using the electronic health record data of adults who in 2009 visited one of 26 Partners Primary Care PBRN practices (n = 77,529). We compared PBRN-derived estimates to population-based estimates derived from 1999-2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data (n = 20,475). RESULTS: The PBRN estimates of neighborhood smoking status ranged from 5% to 22% and averaged 11%. The 2009 neighborhood-level smoking prevalence estimates derived from the BRFSS ranged from 5% to 26% and averaged 13%. The difference in smoking prevalence between the PBRN and the BRFSS averaged -2 percentage points (standard deviation, 3 percentage points). CONCLUSION: Health behavior data collected during routine clinical care by PBRNs and health systems could supplement or be an alternative to using traditional sources of public health data.
    Preventing chronic disease 01/2013; 10:E84. · 1.82 Impact Factor
  • Rebecca G Mishuris, Jeffrey A Linder
    Journal of General Internal Medicine 12/2012; · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Joseph W Frank, John Z Ayanian, Jeffrey A Linder
    Archives of internal medicine 10/2012; · 11.46 Impact Factor
  • Lipika Samal, Jeffrey A Linder
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    ABSTRACT: Proponents of routine urine dipstick screening to identify patients at risk for ESRD in the primary care setting have argued that urine dipsticks are inexpensive, low risk, acceptable to patients, and now, more accurate. Proponents believe that urine dipstick screening has the potential to improve outcomes for people with early disease and increase awareness of CKD. Most primary care physicians agree that populations who are at high risk for CKD should be tested and appropriately treated to decrease complications of ESRD. However, proponents of mass screening may not appreciate the challenges, limitations, and potential harms of screening. Urine dipstick testing does not meet all of the criteria for a good screening test. Screening the general population with urine dipsticks will generate many false positives-between 50% and 90% of positive tests-that will require follow-up, increase costs, and cause patient anxiety. Routine screening with urine dipsticks is not cost-effective on the order of $200,000 per quality-adjusted life year. Most importantly, there is little evidence that early identification of microalbuminuria in unselected patients influences outcomes of CKD. Without proof of effectiveness, overdiagnosis, a problem for even well established screening tests, is risked. Finally, no specialty society or preventive services group currently recommends general screening. Instead of screening, primary care physicians and nephrologists should work together to identify patients at high risk for ESRD and optimize management to improve outcomes for patients with CKD.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 08/2012; · 5.07 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
466.59 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2014
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • • Division of General Internal Medicine and Primary Care
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Center for Brain Mind Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2004–2010
    • Partners HealthCare
      • Clinical Informatics Research and Development
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2001–2003
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States