Takao Satou

Kinki University, Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan

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Publications (120)267.79 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of synovial joints, ultimately leading to a progressive and irreversible joint destruction. Activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) promotes production of proinflammatory cytokines in various inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis. Mangiferin, 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone-C2-β-D-glucoside (C-glucosyl xanthone), is a naturally occurring polyphenol. Our previous results showed that mangiferin suppressed NF-κB activation. However, it is unclear, whether mangiferin can prevent rheumatoid arthritis through suppression of NF-κB activation and expression of various cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which play a critical role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. In the present study, we found that mangiferin suppressed the progression and incidence of CIA in DBA1/J mice. In CIA mice, mangiferin inhibited the mRNA expression of cytokine genes in thymus and spleen of CIA mie and led to decreased serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and receptor activator NF-κB ligand (RANKL) via inhibition of NF-κB and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). In addition, mangiferin markedly inhibited not only developing but also clinically evident CIA. These findings suggest that mangiferin has potential clinical applications for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
    American Journal of Translational Research 09/2015; 7(8):1371-81. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to explore a cause-oriented therapy for patients with uterine cervical cancer that expresses erythropoietin (Epo) and its receptor (EpoR). Epo, by binding to EpoR, stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells into hemoglobin-containing red blood cells. In this study, we report that the HeLa cells in the xenografts expressed ε, γ, and α globins as well as myoglobin (Mb) to produce tetrameric α2ε2 and α2γ2 and monomeric Mb, most of which were significantly suppressed with an EpoR antagonist EMP9. Western blotting revealed that the EMP9 treatment inhibited the AKT-pAKT, MAPKs-pMAPKs, and STAT5-pSTAT5 signaling pathways. Moreover, the treatment induced apoptosis and suppression of the growth and inhibited the survival through disruption of the harmonized hemoprotein syntheses in the tumor cells concomitant with destruction of vascular nets in the xenografts. Furthermore, macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells with intense HIF-1α expression recruited significantly more in the degenerating foci of the xenografts. These findings were associated with the enhanced expressions of nNOS in the tumor cells and iNOS in macrophages and NK cells in the tumor sites. The treated tumor cells exhibited a substantial number of perforations on the cell surface, which indicates that the tumors were damaged by both the nNOS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in the tumor cells as well as the iNOS-induced NO production in the innate immune cells. Taken together, these data suggest that HeLa cells constitutively acquire ε, γ and Mb synthetic capacity for their survival. Therefore, EMP9 treatment might be a cause-oriented and effective therapy for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
    PLoS ONE 04/2015; 10(4):e0122458. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0122458 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • 03/2015; 25(2). DOI:10.1684/ejd.2014.2486
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    ABSTRACT: The acquisition of anti-cancer drug resistance is a major limitation of chemotherapy for multiple myeloma (MM) and it is thus important to identify the mechanisms by which MM cells develop such drug resistance. In a previous study, we showed that multidrug resistance (MDR) involves the overexpression of MDR1 and survivin in vincristine-resistant RPMI8226/VCR cells. However, the underlying mechanism of MDR remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of MDR in RPMI8226/VCR cells, and found that RPMI8226/VCR cells exhibit increased levels of activated ERK1/2, Akt, and NF-κB, while the levels of activated mTOR, p38MAPK, and JNK do not differ between RPMI8226/VCR cells and their vincristine-susceptible counterparts. In addition, the inhibition of ERK1/2, Akt, or NF-κB by inhibitors reversed the drug-resistance of RPMI8226/VCR cells via the suppression of survivin expression, but did not affect MDR1 expression; RNA silencing of survivin expression completely reversed vincristine resistance, while MDR1 silencing only weakly suppressed vincristine resistance in RPMI8226/VCR cells. These results indicate that enhanced survivin expression via the activation of ERK1/2, Akt, and NF-κB plays a critical role in vincristine resistance in RPMI8226/VCR cells. Our findings suggest that ERK1/2, Akt, and NF-κB inhibitors are potentially useful as anti-MDR agents for the treatment of vincristine-resistant MM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Leukemia Research 02/2015; 39(4). DOI:10.1016/j.leukres.2015.01.016 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteolytic bone disease in multiple myeloma (MM) is associated with upregulated osteoclast activity. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) is crucially involved in the development of osteolytic bone lesions in MM. We previously reported that minodronate inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced MIP-1α secretion in mouse myeloma cells. However, it remains unknown whether bisphosphonates and statins inhibit MIP-1α secretion by human MM cells. In present study, we investigated whether bisphosphonates and statins had any inhibitory effect on MIP-1α secretion by human myeloma cells and the mechanism underlying this effect. In this study, we found that bisphosphonates and statins inhibited MIP-1α mRNA and MIP-1α secretion and suppressed extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Akt phosphorylation by inhibiting Ras prenylation. Moreover, bisphosphonates and statins suppressed the expression of acute myeloid leukemia-1A (AML-1A) mRNA, a MIP-1α transcription factor. These results indicate that bisphosphonates and statins suppress the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/ERK/AML-1A and Ras/phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt/AML-1A pathways, thereby inhibiting MIP-1α secretion by MM cells. Therefore, use of MIP-1α expression inhibitors such as bisphosphonates and statins may provide a new therapeutic approach to inhibiting tumour progression and bone destruction in MM patients.
    American Journal of Cancer Research 01/2015; 5(1):168-79. · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxaliplatin is a key drug commonly used in colorectal cancer treatment. Despite high clinical efficacy, its therapeutic application is limited by common, dose-limiting occurrence of neuropathy. Since usual symptomatic neuropathy treatments fail to improve the patients' condition, there is an urgent need to advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of neuropathy to propose effective therapy and ensure adequate pain management. Oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy was recently reported to be associated with protein kinase C (PKC) activation. It is unclear, however, whether PKC inhibition can prevent neuropathy. In our current studies, we found that a PKC inhibitor, tamoxifen, inhibited oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy via the PKC/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/c-Fos pathway in lumbar spinal cords (lumbar segments 4–6). Additionally, tamoxifen was shown to act in synergy with oxaliplatin to inhibit growth in tumor cells-implanted mice. Moreover, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor, PD0325901, suppressed oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy and enhanced oxaliplatin efficacy. Our results indicate that oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy is associated with PKC/ERK/c-Fos pathway in lumbar spinal cord. Additionally, we demonstrate that disruption of this pathway by PKC and MEK inhibitors suppresses oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy, thereby suggesting that PKC and MEK inhibitors may be therapeutically useful in preventing oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy and could aid in combination antitumor pharmacotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    International Journal of Cancer 12/2014; 137(1). DOI:10.1002/ijc.29367 · 5.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a fumaric acid ester that is used to treat psoriasis and multiple sclerosis. Recently, DMF was found to exhibit anti-tumor effects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects have not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of DMF-induced apoptosis in different human hematopoietic tumor cell lines. We found that DMF induced apoptosis in different human hematopoietic tumor cell lines but it did not affect the normal human B lymphocyte cell line RPMI 1788. We also observed a concurrent increase in caspase-3 activity and in the number of Annexin-V-positive cells. Furthermore, an examination of the survival signals, which are activated by apoptotic stimuli, revealed that DMF significantly inhibited nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 nuclear translocation. In addition, DMF suppressed B-cell lymphoma extra-large (Bcl-xL) and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) expression whereas Bcl-2, survivin, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and Bim levels did not change. These results indicated that DMF induced apoptosis by suppressing NF-κB activation, and Bcl-xL and XIAP expression. These findings suggested that DMF might have potential as an anticancer agent that could be used in combination therapy with other anticancer drugs for the treatment of human hematopoietic tumors.
    Biomedecine [?] Pharmacotherapy 09/2014; 68(8). DOI:10.1016/j.biopha.2014.09.009 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary emphysema and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), both caused by lifestyle factors, frequently concur. Respectively, the diseases affect lung alveolar and pancreatic islet cells, which express cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), an immunoglobulin superfamily member. Protease-mediated ectodomain shedding of full-length CADM1 produces C-terminal fragments (CTFs) with proapoptotic activity. In emphysematous lungs, the CADM1 shedding rate and thus the level of CTFs in alveolar cells increase. In this study, CADM1 expression in islet cells was examined by western blotting. Protein was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of pancreata isolated from patients with T2DM (n = 12) or from patients without pancreatic disease (n = 8) at autopsy. After adjusting for the number of islet cells present in the adjacent section, we found that full-length CADM1 decreased in T2DM islets, while ectodomain shedding increased. Hemoglobin A1c levels, measured when patients were alive, correlated inversely with full-length CADM1 levels (P = 0.041) and positively with ectodomain shedding rates (P = 0.001). In immunofluorescence images of T2DM islet cells, CADM1 was detected in the cytoplasm, but not on the cell membrane. Consistently, when MIN6-m9 mouse beta cells were treated with phorbol ester and trypsin to induce shedding, CADM1 immunostaining was diffuse in the cytoplasm. When a form of CTFs was exogenously expressed in MIN6-m9 cells, it localized diffusely in the cytoplasm and increased the number of apoptotic cells. These results suggest that increased CADM1 ectodomain shedding contributes to blood glucose dysregulation in T2DM by decreasing full-length CADM1 and producing CTFs that accumulate in the cytoplasm and promote apoptosis of beta cells. Thus, this study has identified a molecular alteration shared by pulmonary emphysema and T2DM.
    PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e100988. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0100988 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Dermatology 05/2014; 41(5):459-61. DOI:10.1111/1346-8138.12477 · 2.25 Impact Factor
  • 02/2014; 24(1). DOI:10.1684/ejd.2013.2248
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphosphonates are an important class of antiresorptive drugs used in the treatment of metabolic bone diseases. Recent studies have shown that nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates induced apoptosis in rabbit osteoclasts and prevented prenylated small GTPase. However, whether bisphosphonates inhibit osteoclast formation has not been determined. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of minodronate and alendronate on the osteoclast formation and clarified the mechanism involved in a mouse macrophage-like cell lines C7 and RAW264.7. It was found that minodronate and alendronate inhibited the osteoclast formation of C7 cells induced by receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand and macrophage colony stimulating factor, which are inhibited by the suppression of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) biosynthesis. It was also found that minodronate and alendronate inhibited the osteoclast formation of RAW264.7 cells induced by receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand. Furthermore, minodronate and alendornate decreased phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Akt; similarly, U0126, a mitogen protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) inhibitor, and LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, inhibited osteoclast formation. This indicates that minodronate and alendronate inhibit GGPP biosynthesis in the mevalonate pathway and then signal transduction in the MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways, thereby inhibiting osteoclast formation. These results suggest a novel effect of bisphosphonates that could be effective in the treatment of bone metabolic diseases, such as osteoporosis.
    Journal of Biomedical Science 02/2014; 21(1):10. DOI:10.1186/1423-0127-21-10 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The calcium channel blocker verapamil inhibits the transport function of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1). Although verapamil acts to reverse MDR in cancer cells, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of reversing MDR by verapamil in anti-cancer drug-resistant multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines. We found that verapamil suppresses MDR1 and survivin expressions and increases Bim expression via suppression of Src activation. Furthermore, dasatinib reversed the drug-resistance of the drug-resistant cell lines. These findings suggest that Src inhibitors are potentially useful as an anti-MDR agent for the treatment of malignant tumor cells.
    Leukemia research 10/2013; 38(1). DOI:10.1016/j.leukres.2013.10.017 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased motility and invasiveness of cancer cells are reminiscent of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which occurs during cancer progression and metastasis. Recent studies have indicated the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-¿B (RANK) in various solid tumors, including breast cancer. Although activation of the RANK ligand (RANKL)/RANK system promotes cell migration, metastasis, and anchorage-independent growth of tumor-initiating cells, it remains to be investigated if RANKL induces EMT in breast cancer cells. In this study, we investigated whether RANKL induces EMT in normal breast mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells, and the mechanism underlying such induction. Expression levels of vimentin, N-cadherin, E-cadherin, Snail, Slug, and Twist were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell migration and invasion were assessed using Boyden chamber and invasion assays, respectively. The effects of RANKL on signal transduction molecules were determined by western blot analyses. We found that stimulation by RANKL altered the cell morphology to the mesenchymal phenotype in normal breast epithelial and breast cancer cells. In addition, RANKL increased the expression levels of vimentin, N-cadherin, Snail, and Twist and decreased the expression of E-cadherin. We also found that RANKL activated nuclear factor-¿B (NF-¿B), but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. Moreover, dimethyl fumarate, a NF-¿B inhibitor, inhibited RANKL-induced EMT, cell migration, and invasion, and upregulated the expressions of Snail, Twist, vimentin, and N-cadherin. The results indicate that RANKL induces EMT by activating the NF-¿B pathway and enhancing Snail and Twist expression. These findings suggest that the RANKL/RANK system promotes tumor cell migration, invasion, and metastasis via the induction of EMT.
    Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 09/2013; 32(1):62. DOI:10.1186/1756-9966-32-62 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several autocrine soluble factors, including macrophage inflammatory protein-1α and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), promote the survival and growth of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. We hypothesised that inhibition of the TNF-α autocrine loop may enhance the cytotoxic effect of anticancer drugs in MM cell lines. In the present study, a TNF-α-neutralizing antibody suppressed cell proliferation and enhanced the cytotoxic effect of anticancer drugs on MM cells. In addition, combination treatment with the TNF-α-neutralizing antibody and the chemotherapy agent melphalan inhibited nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 nuclear translocation and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation and upregulated the expression of Bax and Bim. Treatment of ARH-77 cells with the NF-κB inhibitor dimethyl fumarate or the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin suppressed NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and enhanced the cytotoxic effect of melphalan. Furthermore, infliximab, a monoclonal antibody against TNF-α, also enhanced the cytotoxic effect of anticancer drugs in ARH-77 cells. These results indicated that TNF-α-neutralizing antibodies or infliximab enhanced the cytotoxic effect of anticancer drugs by suppressing the TNF receptor/mTOR/NF-κB pathways. The inhibition of TNF-α may thus provide a new therapeutic approach to control tumour progression and bone destruction in MM patients.
    European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 08/2013; 49(17). DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2013.07.010 · 5.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Patients with scirrhous carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract frequently develop peritoneal carcinomatosis-particularly of the peritoneal extension type (PET), which has a bad prognosis. We developed a novel animal model, suitable for testing treatments for PET. In order to develop the model, we scraped the entire peritoneum of Fischer 344 rats with sterile cotton swabs and injected 1×10(6) cells of the RCN-9 cell type into the peritoneal cavity. In the novel experimental model, RCN-9 cells adhered only to the exposed basement membrane. The submesothelial layer and fibroblasts in the submesothelial layer grew and increased to a maximum at day 7, then decreased during late-phase peritoneal carcinomatosis. At day 14, RCN-9 cells coated the peritoneum in a manner similar to PET. We successfully established a novel animal model of peritoneal carcinomatosis that mimics clinicopathological features of PET. Fibroblasts in the submesothelial layer potentially play an important role in peritoneal carcinomatosis.
    Anticancer research 04/2013; 33(4):1439-46. · 1.83 Impact Factor
  • 01/2013; 52(5):444-447. DOI:10.5795/jjscc.52.444
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    ABSTRACT: High blood levels of inflammatory biomarkers and immune cells in stroke lesions have been recognized as results of stroke. However, recent studies have suggested that inflammation occurs prior to stroke onset. In this study, we aimed to clarify the role of inflammation in stroke onset among stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). At 4 weeks of age (before stroke onset), the plasma level of IL-1β was significantly higher in SHRSP (153.0 ± 49.7 pg/ml) than in Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) (7.7 ± 3.4 pg/ml, P < 0.001 versus SHRSP) or spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) (28.0 ± 9.1 pg/ml, P < 0.001 versus SHRSP) (n = 6 per strain). Stimulated IL-1β signal was also observed in cerebrovascular endothelial cells of SHRSP. Gene expressions of IL-1β, IL-1 receptors, caspase-1, and downstream genes (MCP-1 and ICAM-1), which associated with immune cell recruitment, were significantly greater in SHRSP than in WKY or SHR, coincident with greater NFκB protein levels in SHRSP compared to WKY or SHR. In addition, continuous administration of IL-1β (2 μg/day) using an osmotic pump slightly increased the incidence of stroke in SHR (P = 0.046) and significantly accelerated the onset of stroke in SHRSP (P = 0.006) compared to each control (n = 10 per group). These results suggest that a stimulated IL-1β signal might be a cause of stroke onset when concomitant with severe hypertension.
    Mediators of Inflammation 12/2012; 2012(6):701976. DOI:10.1155/2012/701976 · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our previous study indicated that consuming (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) before or after traumatic brain injury (TBI) eliminated free radical generation in rats, resulting in inhibition of neuronal degeneration and apoptotic death, and improvement of cognitive impairment. Here we investigated the effects of administering EGCG at various times pre- and post-TBI on cerebral function and morphology. Wistar rats were divided into five groups and were allowed access to (1) normal drinking water, (2) EGCG pre-TBI, (3) EGCG pre- and post-TBI, (4) EGCG post-TBI, and (5) sham-operated group with access to normal drinking water. TBI was induced with a pneumatic controlled injury device at 10 weeks of age. Immunohistochemistry and lipid peroxidation studies revealed that at 1, 3, and 7 days post-TBI, the number of 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine-, 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal- and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-positive cells, and levels of malondialdehyde around the damaged area were significantly decreased in all EGCG treatment groups compared with the water group (P < 0.05). Although there was a significant increase in the number of surviving neurons after TBI in each EGCG treatment group compared with the water group (P < 0.05), significant improvement of cognitive impairment after TBI was only observed in the groups with continuous and post-TBI access to EGCG (P < 0.05). These results indicate that EGCG inhibits free radical-induced neuronal degeneration and apoptotic death around the area damaged by TBI. Importantly, continuous and post-TBI access to EGCG improved cerebral function following TBI. In summary, consumption of green tea may be an effective therapy for TBI patients.
    Journal of Neural Transmission 11/2012; 120(5). DOI:10.1007/s00702-012-0918-4 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intraperitoneally administrated epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (EpCAM) monoclonal antibody is a therapeutic agent in patients with malignant effusion in several types of carcinoma. However, the role of EpCAM in peritoneal metastasis (PM) lesions and primary lesions of gastric cancer (GC) is still unclear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated EpCAM expression in GC patients with PM. We investigated the expression of EpCAM in 35PM lesions and 104 biopsy samples as primary lesions. Immunohistochemical staining was performed using the Ventana Benchmark XT (Roche Diagnostics) system. EpCAM expression was evaluated by calculating the total immunostaining score, which is the product of the proportion score and the intensity score. Overexpression was defined as a total score greater than 4. All PM specimens showed overexpression of EpCAM, and GC cells in both the surface layer and the deep layer of the PM showed a high expression of EpCAM. Meanwhile, in the biopsy sample, the expression of EpCAM ranged from none to strong. The EpCAM score results for PM specimens and biopsy samples were 11.0 ± 2.0 and 6.9 ± 3.9, respectively. The difference between the scores was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The intraperitoneally administrated EpCAM antibody might have a anti-cancer effect in PM lesions of GC. Additionally, it can be assumed that only GC cells which express a high level of EpCAM might metastasize to the peritoneum.
    Targeted Oncology 11/2012; 8(4). DOI:10.1007/s11523-012-0239-4 · 4.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: We conducted a phase II study involving a single administration of intraperitoneal chemotherapy with paclitaxel followed by sequential systemic chemotherapy with S-1+ paclitaxel for advanced gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis. Methods: Gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis were enrolled. Paclitaxel (80 mg/m(2)) was administered intraperitoneally at staging laparoscopy. Within 7 days, patients received systemic chemotherapy with S-1 (80 mg/m(2)/day on days 1-14) plus paclitaxel (50 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8), followed by 7-days rest. The responders to this chemotherapy underwent second-look laparoscopy, and gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection was performed in patients when the disappearance of peritoneal metastasis had been confirmed. The primary endpoint of the study was overall survival rate. Results: Thirty-five patients were enrolled. All patients were confirmed as having localized peritoneal metastasis by staging laparoscopy. Eventually, gastrectomy was performed in 22 patients. The median survival time of the total patient population and those patients in which gastrectomy was performed was 21.3 and 29.8 months, respectively. The overall response rate was 65.7 % for all patients. The frequent grade 3/4 toxic effects included neutropenia and leukopenia. Conclusions: Sequential intraperitoneal and intravenous paclitaxel plus S-1 was well tolerated in gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 10/2012; 16(12). DOI:10.1007/s11605-012-2059-3 · 2.80 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
267.79 Total Impact Points


  • 1986–2014
    • Kinki University
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Life Science Research Institute
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 1995–1997
    • University of California, Irvine
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Radiological Sciences
      Irvine, California, United States