[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The analysis of individuals with ciliary chondrodysplasias can shed light on sensitive mechanisms controlling ciliogenesis and cell signalling that are essential to embryonic development and survival. Here we identify TCTEX1D2 mutations causing Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with partially penetrant inheritance. Loss of TCTEX1D2 impairs retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) in humans and the protist Chlamydomonas, accompanied by destabilization of the retrograde IFT dynein motor. We thus define TCTEX1D2 as an integral component of the evolutionarily conserved retrograde IFT machinery. In complex with several IFT dynein light chains, it is required for correct vertebrate skeletal formation but may be functionally redundant under certain conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P < 5 × 10(-8)), 56 of which are novel. Five loci demonstrate clear evidence of several independent association signals, and many loci have significant effects on other metabolic phenotypes. The 97 loci account for ∼2.7% of BMI variation, and genome-wide estimates suggest that common variation accounts for >20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 x 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Normal thyroid function is essential for health, but its genetic architecture remains poorly understood. Here, for the heritable thyroid traits thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4), we analyse whole-genome sequence data from the UK10K project (N=2,287). Using additional whole-genome sequence and deeply imputed data sets, we report meta-analysis results for common variants (MAF≥1%) associated with TSH and FT4 (N=16,335). For TSH, we identify a novel variant in SYN2 (MAF=23.5%, P=6.15 × 10−9) and a new independent variant in PDE8B (MAF=10.4%, P=5.94 × 10−14). For FT4, we report a low-frequency variant near B4GALT6/SLC25A52 (MAF=3.2%, P=1.27 × 10−9) tagging a rare TTR variant (MAF=0.4%, P=2.14 × 10−11). All common variants explain ≥20% of the variance in TSH and FT4. Analysis of rare variants (MAF<1%) using sequence kernel association testing reveals a novel association with FT4 in NRG1. Our results demonstrate that increased coverage in whole-genome sequence association studies identifies novel variants associated with thyroid function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most complex diseases have well-established genetic and non-genetic risk factors. In some instances, these risk factors are likely to interact, whereby their joint effects convey a level of risk that is either significantly more or less than the sum of these risks. Characterizing these gene-environment interactions may help elucidate the biology of complex diseases, as well as to guide strategies for their targeted prevention. In most cases, the detection of gene-environment interactions will require sample sizes in excess of those needed to detect the marginal effects of the genetic and environmental risk factors. Although many consortia have been formed, comprising multiple diverse cohorts to detect gene-environment interactions, few robust examples of such interactions have been discovered. This may be because combining data across studies, usually through meta-analysis of summary data from the contributing cohorts, is often a statistically inefficient approach for the detection of gene-environment interactions. Ideally, single, very large and well-genotyped prospective cohorts, with validated measures of environmental risk factor and disease outcomes should be used to study interactions. The presence of strong founder effects within those cohorts might further strengthen the capacity to detect novel genetic effects and gene-environment interactions. Access to accurate genealogical data would also aid in studying the diploid nature of the human genome, such as genomic imprinting (parent-of-origin effects). Here we describe two studies from northern Sweden (the GLACIER and VIKING studies) that fulfill these characteristics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coffee, a major dietary source of caffeine, is among the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has received considerable attention regarding health risks and benefits. We conducted a genome-wide (GW) meta-analysis of predominately regular-type coffee consumption (cups per day) among up to 91 462 coffee consumers of European ancestry with top single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) followed-up in ~30 062 and 7964 coffee consumers of European and African-American ancestry, respectively. Studies from both stages were combined in a trans-ethnic meta-analysis. Confirmed loci were examined for putative functional and biological relevance. Eight loci, including six novel loci, met GW significance (log10Bayes factor (BF)>5.64) with per-allele effect sizes of 0.03-0.14 cups per day. Six are located in or near genes potentially involved in pharmacokinetics (ABCG2, AHR, POR and CYP1A2) and pharmacodynamics (BDNF and SLC6A4) of caffeine. Two map to GCKR and MLXIPL genes related to metabolic traits but lacking known roles in coffee consumption. Enhancer and promoter histone marks populate the regions of many confirmed loci and several potential regulatory SNPs are highly correlated with the lead SNP of each. SNP alleles near GCKR, MLXIPL, BDNF and CYP1A2 that were associated with higher coffee consumption have previously been associated with smoking initiation, higher adiposity and fasting insulin and glucose but lower blood pressure and favorable lipid, inflammatory and liver enzyme profiles (P<5 × 10(-8)).Our genetic findings among European and African-American adults reinforce the role of caffeine in mediating habitual coffee consumption and may point to molecular mechanisms underlying inter-individual variability in pharmacological and health effects of coffee.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 7 October 2014; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.107.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated approximately 2,000, approximately 3,700 and approximately 9,500 SNPs explained approximately 21%, approximately 24% and approximately 29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured 60% of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci were enriched for genes, pathways and tissue types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/beta-catenin and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perilipin-1 is a lipid droplet coat protein predominantly expressed in adipocytes, where it inhibits basal and facilitates stimulated lipolysis. Loss-of-function mutations in PLIN1 were recently reported in patients with a novel subtype of familial partial lipodystrophy, designated as FPLD4. We now report the identification and characterization of a novel heterozygous frameshift mutation affecting the carboxy-terminus (439fs) of perilipin-1 in two unrelated families. The mutation co-segregated with a similar phenotype including partial lipodystrophy, severe insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, extreme hypertriglyceridaemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in both families. Poor metabolic control despite maximal medical therapy prompted two patients to undergo bariatric surgery, with remarkably beneficial consequences. Functional studies indicated that expression levels of the mutant protein were lower than wild type protein and in stably tranfected pre-adipocytes the mutant protein was associated with smaller lipid droplets. Interestingly, unlike the previously reported 398 and 404 frameshift mutants, this variant binds and stabilizes ABHD5 expression, but still fails to inhibit basal lipolysis as effectively as wild type perilipin-1. Collectively, these findings highlight the physiological need for exquisite regulation of neutral lipid storage within adipocyte lipid droplets, as well as the possible metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery in this serious disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complexes are essential for maintaining chromatin structure and regulating gene expression. Two the three known SMC complexes, cohesin and condensin, are important for sister chromatid cohesion and condensation, respectively; however, the function of the third complex, SMC5-6, which includes the E3 SUMO-ligase NSMCE2 (also widely known as MMS21) is less clear. Here, we characterized 2 patients with primordial dwarfism, extreme insulin resistance, and gonadal failure and identified compound heterozygous frameshift mutations in NSMCE2. Both mutations reduced NSMCE2 expression in patient cells. Primary cells from one patient showed increased micronucleus and nucleoplasmic bridge formation, delayed recovery of DNA synthesis, and reduced formation of foci containing Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM) after hydroxyurea-induced replication fork stalling. These nuclear abnormalities in patient dermal fibroblast were restored by expression of WT NSMCE2, but not a mutant form lacking SUMO-ligase activity. Furthermore, in zebrafish, knockdown of the NSMCE2 ortholog produced dwarfism, which was ameliorated by reexpression of WT, but not SUMO-ligase-deficient NSMCE. Collectively, these findings support a role for NSMCE2 in recovery from DNA damage and raise the possibility that loss of its function produces dwarfism through reduced tolerance of replicative stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously reported rare variants in Src homology 2 (SH2) B adaptor protein 1 (SH2B1) in individuals with obesity, insulin resistance and maladaptive behaviour. Here, we identify four additional SH2B1 variants by sequencing 500 individuals with severe early-onset obesity. SH2B1 has four alternatively spliced isoforms. One variant (T546A) lies within the N-terminal region common to all isoforms. As shown for past variants in this region, T546A impairs SH2B1β enhancement of nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth and the individual with the T546A variant exhibits mild developmental delay. The other three variants (A663V, V695M and A723V) lie in the C-terminal tail of SH2B1α. SH2B1α variant carriers were hyperinsulinemic but did not exhibit the behavioural phenotype observed in individuals with SH2B1 variants that disrupt all isoforms. In in vitro assays, SH2B1α, like SH2B1β, enhances insulin- and leptin-induced IRS2 phosphorylation and growth hormone (GH)-induced cell motility. None of the variants affect SH2B1α enhancement of insulin- and leptin-induced IRS2 phosphorylation. However, T546A, A663V and A723V all impair the ability of SH2B1α to enhance GH-induced cell motility. In contrast to SH2B1β, SH2B1α does not enhance NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. These studies suggest that genetic variants that disrupt isoforms other than SH2B1β may be functionally significant. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanism by which the individual isoforms regulate energy homeostasis and behaviour.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to validate genetic variants as instruments for insulin resistance and secretion, to characterise their association with intermediate phenotypes, and to investigate their role in T2D risk among normal-weight, overweight and obese individuals.We investigated the association of genetic scores with euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp- and OGTT-based measures of insulin resistance and secretion, and a range of metabolic measures in up to 18,565 individuals. We also studied their association with T2D risk among normal-weight, overweight and obese individuals in up to 8,124 incident T2D cases. The insulin resistance score was associated with lower insulin sensitivity measured by M/I value (β in SDs-per-allele [95%CI]:-0.03[-0.04,-0.01];p=0.004). This score was associated with lower BMI (-0.01[-0.01,-0.0;p=0.02) and gluteofemoral fat-mass : -0.03[-0.05,-0.02;p=1.4x10(-6)), and with higher ALT (0.02[0.01,0.03];p=0.002) and gamma-GT (0.02[0.01,0.03];p=0.001). While the secretion score had a stronger association with T2D in leaner individuals (pinteraction=0.001), we saw no difference in the association of the insulin resistance score with T2D among BMI- or waist-strata(pinteraction>0.31). While insulin resistance is often considered secondary to obesity, the association of the insulin resistance score with lower BMI and adiposity and with incident T2D even among individuals of normal weight highlights the role of insulin resistance and ectopic fat distribution in T2D, independently of body size.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the major glycerophospholipid in eukaryotic cells and is an essential component in all cellular membranes. The biochemistry of de novo PC synthesis by the Kennedy pathway is well established, but less is known about the physiological functions of PC. We identified two unrelated patients with defects in the Kennedy pathway due to biallellic loss-of-function mutations in phosphate cytidylyltransferase 1 alpha (PCYT1A), the rate-limiting enzyme in this pathway. The mutations lead to a marked reduction in PCYT1A expression and PC synthesis. The phenotypic consequences include some features, such as severe fatty liver and low HDL cholesterol levels, that are predicted by the results of previously reported liver-specific deletion of murine Pcyt1a. Both patients also had lipodystrophy, severe insulin resistance, and diabetes, providing evidence for an additional and essential role for PCYT1A-generated PC in the normal function of white adipose tissue and insulin action.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2014; 111(24). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1408523111 · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent genome-wide meta-analyses identified 157 loci associated with cross-sectional lipid traits. Here we tested whether these loci associate (singly and in trait-specific genetic risk scores [GRS]) with longitudinal changes in total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels in a population-based prospective cohort from Northern Sweden (the GLACIER Study). We sought replication in a southern Swedish cohort (the MDC Study; N = 2,943). GLACIER Study participants (N = 6,064) were genotyped with the MetaboChip array. Up to 3,495 participants had 10-yr follow-up data available in the GLACIER Study. The TC- and TG-specific GRSs were strongly associated with change in lipid levels (β = 0.02 mmol/l per effect allele per decade follow-up, P = 2.0×10-11 for TC; β = 0.02 mmol/l per effect allele per decade follow-up, P = 5.0×10-5 for TG). In individual SNP analysis, one TC locus, apolipoprotein E (APOE) rs4420638 (β = 0.12 mmol/l per effect allele per decade follow-up, P = 2.0×10-5), and two TG loci, tribbles pseudokinase 1 (TRIB1) rs2954029 (β = 0.09 mmol/l per effect allele per decade follow-up, P = 5.1×10-4) and apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) rs6589564 (β = 0.31 mmol/l per effect allele per decade follow-up, P = 1.4×10-8), remained significantly associated with longitudinal changes for the respective traits after correction for multiple testing. An additional 12 loci were nominally associated with TC or TG changes. In replication analyses, the APOE rs4420638, TRIB1 rs2954029, and APOA1 rs6589564 associations were confirmed (P≤0.001). In summary, trait-specific GRSs are robustly associated with 10-yr changes in lipid levels and three individual SNPs were strongly associated with 10-yr changes in lipid levels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE We investigated the variation in neuropsychological function explained by risk alleles at the psychosis susceptibility gene ZNF804A and its interacting partners using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), polygenic scores, and epistatic analyses. Of particular importance was the relative contribution of the polygenic score vs epistasis in variation explained. OBJECTIVES To (1) assess the association between SNPs in ZNF804A and the ZNF804A polygenic score with measures of cognition in cases with psychosis and (2) assess whether epistasis within the ZNF804A pathway could explain additional variation above and beyond that explained by the polygenic score. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Patients with psychosis (n = 424) were assessed in areas of cognitive ability impaired in schizophrenia including IQ, memory, attention, and social cognition. We used the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium 1 schizophrenia genome-wide association study to calculate a polygenic score based on identified risk variants within this genetic pathway. Cognitive measures significantly associated with the polygenic score were tested for an epistatic component using a training set (n = 170), which was used to develop linear regression models containing the polygenic score and 2-SNP interactions. The best-fitting models were tested for replication in 2 independent test sets of cases: (1) 170 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and (2) 84 patients with broad psychosis (including bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and other psychosis). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Participants completed a neuropsychological assessment battery designed to target the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia including general cognitive function, episodic memory, working memory, attentional control, and social cognition. RESULTS Higher polygenic scores were associated with poorer performance among patients on IQ, memory, and social cognition, explaining 1% to 3% of variation on these scores (range, P = .01 to .03). Using a narrow psychosis training set and independent test sets of narrow phenotype psychosis (schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder), broad psychosis, and control participants (n = 89), the addition of 2 interaction terms containing 2 SNPs each increased the R2 for spatial working memory strategy in the independent psychosis test sets from 1.2% using the polygenic score only to 4.8% (P = .11 and .001, respectively) but did not explain additional variation in control participants. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These data support a role for the ZNF804A pathway in IQ, memory, and social cognition in cases. Furthermore, we showed that epistasis increases the variation explained above the contribution of the polygenic score.