[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transdermal delivery of macromolecules provides an attractive alternative route of drug administration when compared to oral delivery and hypodermic injection because of its ability to bypass the harsh gastrointestinal tract and deliver therapeutics non-invasively. However, the barrier properties of the skin only allow small, hydrophobic permeants to traverse the skin passively, greatly limiting the number of molecules that can be delivered via this route. The use of low-frequency ultrasound for the transdermal delivery of drugs, referred to as low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS), has been shown to increase skin permeability to a wide range of therapeutic compounds, including both hydrophilic molecules and macromolecules. Recent research has demonstrated the feasibility of delivering proteins, hormones, vaccines, liposomes and other nanoparticles through LFS-treated skin. In vivo studies have also established that LFS can act as a physical immunization adjuvant. LFS technology is already clinically available for use with topical anesthetics, with other technologies currently under investigation.
This review provides an overview of mechanisms associated with LFS-mediated transdermal delivery, followed by an in-depth discussion of the current applications of LFS technology for the delivery of hydrophilic drugs and macromolecules, including its use in clinical applications.
The reader will gain an insight into the field of LFS-mediated transdermal drug delivery, including how the use of this technology can improve on more traditional drug delivery methods.
Ultrasound technology has the potential to impact many more transdermal delivery platforms in the future due to its unique ability to enhance skin permeability in a controlled manner.
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 12/2010; 7(12):1415-32. · 4.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: How does one design a surfactant mixture using a set of available surfactants such that it exhibits a desired adsorption kinetics behavior? The traditional approach used to address this design problem involves conducting trial-and-error experiments with specific surfactant mixtures. This approach is typically time-consuming and resource-intensive and becomes increasingly challenging when the number of surfactants that can be mixed increases. In this article, we propose a new theoretical framework to identify a surfactant mixture that most closely meets a desired adsorption kinetics behavior. Specifically, the new theoretical framework involves (a) formulating the surfactant mixture design problem as an optimization problem using an adsorption kinetics model and (b) solving the optimization problem using a commercial optimization package. The proposed framework aims to identify the surfactant mixture that most closely satisfies the desired adsorption kinetics behavior subject to the predictive capabilities of the chosen adsorption kinetics model. Experiments can then be conducted at the identified surfactant mixture condition to validate the predictions. We demonstrate the reliability and effectiveness of the proposed theoretical framework through a realistic case study by identifying a nonionic surfactant mixture consisting of up to four alkyl poly(ethylene oxide) surfactants (C(10)E(4), C(12)E(5), C(12)E(6), and C(10)E(8)) such that it most closely exhibits a desired dynamic surface tension (DST) profile. Specifically, we use the Mulqueen-Stebe-Blankschtein (MSB) adsorption kinetics model (Mulqueen, M.; Stebe, K. J.; Blankschtein, D. Langmuir 2001, 17, 5196-5207) to formulate the optimization problem as well as the SNOPT commercial optimization solver to identify a surfactant mixture consisting of these four surfactants that most closely exhibits the desired DST profile. Finally, we compare the experimental DST profile measured at the surfactant mixture condition identified by the new theoretical framework with the desired DST profile and find good agreement between the two profiles.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Very recently, bile salt biosurfactants have been utilized extensively to disperse individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in aqueous solution with high weight fractions, as well as to sort SWNTs according to their electronic properties with the aid of ultracentrifugation. To help elucidate the role of bile salts in the SWNT dispersion process, we report the first detailed large-scale all-atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study of the adsorption and surface self-assembly of a common bile salt surfactant, sodium cholate (SC), on a SWNT in aqueous solution. We find that the cholate ions wrap around the SWNT like a ring and have a small tendency to orient perpendicular to the cylindrical axis of the SWNT, a unique feature that has not been observed for conventional linear surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). In addition, we carry out a series of simulations to compute the potential of mean force (PMF) between two parallel SC-covered SWNTs as a function of the intertube separation. By comparing our simulated PMF profile of SC with the PMF profile of SDS reported in the literature, we found that, at the saturated surface coverages, SC is a better stabilizer than SDS, a finding that is consistent with the widespread use of SC to disperse SWNTs in aqueous media. Indeed, the superior dispersion-induced stability of SC over SDS results from a higher repulsive energy barrier and a shallower attractive energy well induced by SC in the PMF profile. In particular, we found that the shallower attractive energy well induced by SC is due to the rigid, bean-like structure of SC which allows this bile salt surfactant to more effectively accommodate the intertube gap.
The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 11/2010; 114(47):15616-25. · 3.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has been used extensively to study water surfaces. Nevertheless, the quantitative prediction of water surface tension has been controversial, since results from different simulation studies using the same water model may differ considerably. Recent research has suggested that bond flexibility, long-range electrostatic interactions, and certain simulation parameters, such as Lennard-Jones (LJ) cutoff distance and simulation time, may play an important role in determining the simulated surface tension. To gain better insight on the MD simulation of water surfaces, particularly on the prediction of surface tension, we examined seven flexible water models using a consistent set of simulation parameters. The surface tensions of the flexible, extended simple point charge (SPCE-F) model and the flexible three-center (F3C) model at 300 K were found to be 70.2 and 65.3 mN/m, respectively, in reasonable agreement with the experimental value of 71.7 mN/m. More importantly, however, detailed analysis of the interfacial structure and contributions from various interactions have revealed that the surface tension of water is determined by the delicate balance between intramolecular (bond stretching) and intermolecular (LJ) interactions, which reflects both the molecular orientation in the interfacial region and the density variation across the Gibbs dividing surface (GDS). In addition, the water molecules on the liquid side of the GDS were found to lie almost parallel to the surface, which helps to clarify the dual-layer structure suggested by sum-frequency generation spectroscopy. By correlating the simulated surface tensions of the seven water models with selected molecular parameters, it was found that the partial charge distribution in the water molecule is likely a key factor in determining the near-parallel alignment of water molecules with the surface.
The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 10/2010; 114(43):13786-95. · 3.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential of rigid nanoparticles to serve as transdermal drug carriers can be greatly enhanced by improving their skin penetration. Therefore, the simultaneous application of ultrasound and sodium lauryl sulfate (referred to as US/SLS) was evaluated as a skin pre-treatment method for enhancing the passive transdermal delivery of nanoparticles. We utilized inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and an improved application of confocal microscopy to compare the delivery of 10- and 20-nm cationic, neutral, and anionic quantum dots (QDs) into US/SLS-treated and untreated pig split-thickness skin. Our findings include: (a) ∼0.01% of the QDs penetrate the dermis of untreated skin (which we quantify for the first time), (b) the QDs fully permeate US/SLS-treated skin, (c) the two cationic QDs studied exhibit different extents of skin penetration and dermal clearance, and (d) the QD skin penetration is heterogeneous. We discuss routes of nanoparticle skin penetration and the application of the methods described herein to address conflicting literature reports on nanoparticle skin penetration. We conclude that US/SLS treatment significantly enhances QD transdermal penetration by 500-1300%. Our findings suggest that an optimum surface charge exists for nanoparticle skin penetration, and motivate the application of nanoparticle carriers to US/SLS-treated skin for enhanced transdermal drug delivery.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding the solution-phase dispersion of pristine, unfunctionalized graphene is important for the production of conducting inks and top-down approaches to electronics. This process can also be used as a higher-quality alternative to chemical vapor deposition. We have developed a theoretical framework that utilizes molecular dynamics simulations and the kinetic theory of colloid aggregation to elucidate the mechanism of stabilization of liquid-phase-exfoliated graphene sheets in N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), γ-butyrolactone (GBL), and water. By calculating the potential of mean force between two solvated graphene sheets using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have found that the dominant barrier hindering the aggregation of graphene is the last layer of confined solvent molecules between the graphene sheets, which results from the strong affinity of the solvent molecules for graphene. The origin of the energy barrier responsible for repelling the sheets is the steric repulsions between solvent molecules and graphene before the desorption of the confined single layer of solvent. We have formulated a kinetic theory of colloid aggregation to model the aggregation of graphene sheets in the liquid phase in order to predict the stability using the potential of mean force. With only one adjustable parameter, the average collision area, which can be estimated from experimental data, our theory can describe the experimentally observed degradation of the single-layer graphene fraction in NMP. We have used these results to rank the potential solvents according to their ability to disperse pristine, unfunctionalized graphene as follows: NMP ≈ DMSO > DMF > GBL > H(2)O. This is consistent with the widespread use of the first three solvents for this purpose.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 09/2010; 132(41):14638-48. · 10.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The simultaneous application of ultrasound and the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (referred to as US/SLS) to skin enhances transdermal drug delivery (TDD) in a synergistic mechanical and chemical manner. Since full-thickness skin (FTS) and split-thickness skin (STS) differ in mechanical strength, US/SLS treatment may have different effects on their transdermal transport pathways. Therefore, we evaluated STS as an alternative to the well-established US/SLS-treated FTS model for TDD studies of hydrophilic permeants. We utilized the aqueous porous pathway model to compare the effects of US/SLS treatment on the skin permeability and the pore radius of pig and human FTS and STS over a range of skin electrical resistivity values. Our findings indicate that the US/SLS-treated pig skin models exhibit similar permeabilities and pore radii, but the human skin models do not. Furthermore, the US/SLS-enhanced delivery of gold nanoparticles and quantum dots (two model hydrophilic macromolecules) is greater through pig STS than through pig FTS, due to the presence of less dermis that acts as an artificial barrier to macromolecules. In spite of greater variability in correlations between STS permeability and resistivity, our findings strongly suggest the use of 700microm-thick pig STS to investigate the in vitro US/SLS-enhanced delivery of hydrophilic macromolecules.
Journal of Controlled Release 03/2010; 145(1):26-32. · 7.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, we explore a novel approach to predict equilibrium adsorption properties from experimental dynamic surface tension (DST) data and the known rate-limiting adsorption kinetics mechanism, an approach that has never been pursued in the DST literature. Specifically, we develop a new methodology to predict the equilibrium surface tension versus surfactant bulk solution concentration (ESTC) behavior of nonionic surfactants from experimental DST data when the adsorption kinetics rate-limiting mechanism is diffusion controlled. The new methodology requires the following three inputs: (1) experimental DST data measured at a single surfactant bulk solution concentration, Cb, (2) the diffusion coefficient of the surfactant molecule, D, and (3) a single equilibrium surface tension data point, to predict the entire ESTC curve applicable over a wide range of surfactant bulk solution concentrations which are less than, or equal to, Cb. We demonstrate the applicability of the new methodology by predicting the ESTC curves of the two alkyl poly (ethylene oxide) nonionic surfactants C12E4 and C12E6, and validate the results by comparing the predictions with (a) equilibrium surface tension measurements, (b) surface-expansion measurements, and (c) pendant-bubble dynamic surface tension measurements for t<approximately 100-200 s (when the assumption of diffusive transport of surfactant molecules in the bulk solution is valid). Very good agreement is obtained between the predictions and the measurements in (a), (b), and (c) for both C12E4 and C12E6. On the basis of these results, we conclude that the new methodology presented here represents an efficient method to predict reliable ESTC curves for nonionic surfactants.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traditionally, surfactant bulk solutions in which dynamic surface tension (DST) measurements are conducted using the pendant-bubble apparatus are assumed to be quiescent. Consequently, the transport of surfactant molecules in the bulk solution is often modeled as being purely diffusive when analyzing the experimental pendant-bubble DST data. In this Article, we analyze the experimental pendant-bubble DST data of the alkyl poly (ethylene oxide) nonionic surfactants, C12E4 and C12E6, and demonstrate that both surfactants exhibit "superdiffusive" adsorption kinetics behavior with characteristics that challenge the traditional assumption of a quiescent surfactant bulk solution. In other words, the observed superdiffusive adsorption behavior points to the possible existence of convection currents in the surfactant bulk solution. The analysis presented here involves the following steps: (1) constructing an adsorption kinetics model that corresponds to the fastest rate at which surfactant molecules adsorb onto the actual pendant-bubble surface from a quiescent solution, (2) predicting the DST behaviors of C12E4 and C12E6 at several surfactant bulk solution concentrations using the model constructed in step 1, and (3) comparing the predicted DST profiles with the experimental DST profiles. This comparison reveals systematic deviations for both C12E4 and C12E6 with the following characteristics: (a) the experimental DST profiles exhibit adsorption kinetics behavior, which is faster than the predicted fastest rate of surfactant adsorption from a quiescent surfactant bulk solution at time scales greater than 100 s, and (b) the experimental DST profiles and the predicted DST behaviors approach the same equilibrium surface tension values. Characteristic (b) indicates that the cause of the observed systematic deviations may be associated with the adsorption kinetics mechanism adopted in the model used rather than with the equilibrium behavior. Characteristic (a) indicates that the actual surfactant bulk solution in which the DST measurement was conducted, most likely, cannot be considered to be quiescent at time scales greater than 100 s. Accordingly, the observed superdiffusive adsorption behavior is interpreted as resulting from convection currents present in a nonquiescent surfactant bulk solution. Convection currents accelerate the surfactant adsorption process by increasing the rate of surfactant transport in the bulk solution. The systematic nature of the deviations observed between the predicted DST profiles and the experimental DST behavior for C12E4 and C12E6 suggests that the nonquiescent nature of the surfactant bulk solution may be intrinsic to the experimental pendant-bubble DST measurement approach. To validate this possibility, we identified generic features in the experimental DST data when DST measurements are conducted in a nonquiescent surfactant bulk solution, and the DST measurements are analyzed assuming that the surfactant bulk solution is quiescent. An examination of the DST literature reveals that these identified generic features are quite general and are observed in the experimental DST data of several other surfactants (decanol, nonanol, C10E8, C14E8, C12E8, and C10E4) measured using the pendant-bubble apparatus.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synopsis We propose that skin electrical current measurements can be used in vitro to effectively rank aqueous solutions containing surfactants and humectants (the enhancer) contacting the skin, relative to a PBS aqueous solution (the control) contacting the skin, based on their ability to perturb the skin aqueous pores. Specifically, we develop an in vitro ranking metric using the increase in the skin electrical current induced by an enhancer relative to the control. Aqueous contacting solutions containing (i) surfactants [SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate)] and C12E6 [dodecyl hexa (ethylene oxide)], (ii) humectants (glycerol and propylene glycol), and (iii) a control (PBS) were studied. Utilizing the new in vitro ranking metric, these aqueous contacting solutions were ranked as follows (from the mildest to the harshest): glycerol < propylene glycol < PBS < C12E6 < SDS. In order to further develop this ranking methodology, which can potentially lead to the reduction, or elimination, of costly and time-consuming procedures, such as human and animal testing and trial-and-error screening in vivo, it was important to correlate the findings of the in vitro ranking metric with direct in vivo skin barrier measurements. For this purpose, in vivo soap chamber measurements, including transepidermal water loss, visual skin dryness, and chromameter erythema measurements, were carried out on human volunteers using the aqueous surfactant-humectant solutions described above. The results of these in vivo measurements were found to be consistent with the ranking results obtained using the in vitro ranking metric. To further explore the validity of our model and to verify the skin barrier mitigating effect of glycerol, in vivo soap chamber measurements were carried out for aqueous SDS solutions containing 10 wt% added glycerol. These in vivo measurements support our recent in vitro finding that glycerol reduces the average radius and the pore number density of the skin aqueous pores, such that SDS micelles are hindered from penetrating into the skin and inducing skin barrier perturbation.
International journal of cosmetic science 11/2008; 30(5):385.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sodium cocoyl isethionate (SCI) is an important surfactant ingredient in mild, syndet (synthetic detergent) cleansing bars. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that SCI is mild and less damaging to the skin barrier than soaps and surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). We have recently shown that SDS forms small micelles in aqueous solutions contacting the skin relative to the aqueous pores in the stratum corneum (SC), and as a result, the SDS micelles can contribute to SDS skin penetration and induce skin barrier perturbation. In this paper, we attempt to explain the well-documented skin mildness of SCI by examining the size of the SCI micelles relative to that of the aqueous pores in the SC. For this purpose, we have conducted in vitro mannitol skin permeability and average skin electrical resistivity measurements upon exposure of the skin to an aqueous SCI contacting solution in the context of a hindered-transport aqueous porous pathway model of the SC. These in vitro studies demonstrate that an SCI micelle of radius 33.5 +/- 1 A (as determined using dynamic light-scattering measurements) experiences significant steric hindrance and cannot penetrate into the SC through aqueous pores that have an average radius of 29 +/- 5 A.We believe that this inability of the SCI micelles to contribute to SCI skin penetration and associated skin barrier perturbation is responsible for the observed skin mildness of SCI. Through in vitro quantitative skin radioactivity assays using (14)C-radiolabeled SCI and pig full-thickness skin (p-FTS), we also show conclusively that SCI skin penetration is dose-independent, an important finding that provides additional evidence that the larger SCI micelles cannot penetrate into the SC through the smaller aqueous pores that exist in the SC, and therefore, cannot induce skin barrier perturbation.
International Journal of Cosmetic Science 09/2008; 30(4):310.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, the implementation of the CS-FE/MT model introduced in article 1 is discussed, and computer simulations are performed to evaluate the feasibility of the new theoretical approach. As discussed in article 1, making predictions of surfactant/solubilizate aqueous solution behavior using the CS-FE/MT model requires evaluation of DeltaDeltaG for multiple surfactant-to-solubilizate or surfactant-to-cosurfactant transformations. The central goal of this article is to evaluate the quantitative accuracy of the alchemical computer simulation method used in the CS-FE/MT modeling approach to predict DeltaDeltaG for a single surfactant-to-solubilizate or for a single surfactant-to-cosurfactant transformation. A hybrid single/dual topology approach was used to morph the ionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) into the ionic solubilizate ibuprofen (IBU), and a dual topology approach was used to morph the nonionic surfactant octyl glucoside (OG) into the nonionic solubilizate p-aminobenzoate (PAB). In addition, a single topology approach was used to morph the nonionic surfactant n-decyl dimethylphosphine oxide (C10PO) into the nonionic cosurfactant n-decyl methyl sulfoxide (C10SO), the nonionic surfactant octylsulfinyl ethanol (C8SE) into the nonionic cosurfactant decylsulfinyl ethanol (C10SE), and the nonionic surfactant n-decyl methyl sulfoxide (C10SO) into the nonionic cosurfactant n-octyl methyl sulfoxide (C8SO). Each DeltaDeltaG value was computed by using thermodynamic integration to determine the difference in free energy associated with (i) transforming a surfactant molecule of type A into a cosurfactant/solubilizate molecule of type B in a micellar environment (referred to as DeltaG2) and (ii) transforming a surfactant molecule of type A into a cosurfactant/solubilizate molecule of type B in aqueous solution (referred to as DeltaG1). CS-FE/MT model predictions of DeltaDeltaG for each alchemical transformation were made at a number of simulation conditions, including (i) different equilibration times at each value of the coupling parameter lambda, (ii) different data-gathering times at each lambda value, and (iii) simulation at a different number of lambda values. For the three surfactant-to-cosurfactant transformations considered here, the DeltaDeltaG values predicted by the CS-FE/MT model were compared with DeltaDeltaG values predicted by an accurate molecular thermodynamic (MT) model developed by fitting to experimental CMC data. Even after performing lengthy equilibration and data gathering at each lambda value, physically unrealistic values of DeltaDeltaG were predicted by the CS-FE/MT model for the transformations of SDS into IBU and of OG into PAB. However, more physically realistic DeltaDeltaG values were predicted for the transformation of C10PO into C10SO, and reasonable free-energy predictions were obtained for the transformations of C8SE into C10SE and C10SO into C8SO. Each of the surfactant-to-cosurfactant transformations considered here involved less extensive structural changes than the surfactant-to-solubilizate transformations. As computer power increases and as improvements are made to alchemical free-energy methods, it may become possible to apply the CS-FE/MT model to make accurate predictions of the free-energy changes associated with forming multicomponent surfactant and solubilizate micelles in aqueous solution where the chemical structures of the surfactants, cosurfactants, and solubilizates differ significantly.
The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 03/2008; 112(6):1641-56. · 3.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The widespread use of surfactant mixtures and surfactant/solubilizate mixtures in practical applications motivates the development of predictive theoretical approaches to improve fundamental understanding of the behavior of these complex self-assembling systems and to facilitate the design and optimization of new surfactant and surfactant/solubilizate mixtures. This paper is the first of two articles introducing a new computer simulation-free-energy/molecular thermodynamic (CS-FE/MT) model. The two articles explore the application of computer simulation free-energy methods to quantify the thermodynamics associated with mixed surfactant/cosurfactant and surfactant/solubilizate micelle formation in aqueous solution. In this paper (article 1 of the series), a theoretical approach is introduced to use computer simulation free-energy methods to compute the free-energy change associated with changing micelle composition (referred to as DeltaDeltaGi). In this approach, experimental critical micelle concentration (CMC) data, or a molecular thermodynamic model of micelle formation, is first used to evaluate the free energy associated with single (pure) surfactant micelle formation, g(form,single), in which the single surfactant micelle contains only surfactant A molecules. An iterative approach is proposed to combine the estimated value of gform,single with free-energy estimates of DeltaDeltaGi based on computer simulation to determine the optimal free energy of mixed micelle formation, the optimal micelle aggregation number and composition, and the optimal bulk solution composition. After introducing the CS-FE/MT modeling framework, a variety of free-energy methods are briefly reviewed, and the selection of the thermodynamic integration free-energy method is justified and selected to implement the CS-FE/MT model. An alchemical free-energy pathway is proposed to allow evaluation of the free-energy change associated with exchanging a surfactant A molecule with a surfactant/solubilizate B molecule through thermodynamic integration. In article 2 of this series, the implementation of the CS-FE/MT model to make DeltaDeltaGi free-energy predictions for several surfactant/solubilizate systems is discussed, and the predictions of the CS-FE/MT model are compared with the DeltaDeltaGi predictions of a molecular thermodynamic model fitted to relevant experimental data.
The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 03/2008; 112(6):1634-40. · 3.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The self-assembly behavior of the triterpenoids asiatic acid (AA) and madecassic acid (MA), both widely studied bioactive phytochemicals that are similar in structure to bile salts, were investigated in aqueous solution through atomistic-level molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. AA and MA molecules initially distributed randomly in solution were observed to aggregate into micelles during 75 ns of MD simulation. A "hydrophobic contact criterion" was developed to identify micellar aggregates from the computer simulation results. From the computer simulation data, the aggregation number of AA and MA micelles, the monomer concentration, the principal moments of the micelle radius of gyration tensor, the one-dimensional growth exhibited by AA and MA micelles as the aggregation number increases, the level of internal ordering within AA and MA micelles (quantified using two different orientational order parameters), the local environment of atoms within AA and MA in the micellar environment, and the total, hydrophilic, and hydrophobic solvent accessible surface areas of the AA and MA micelles were each evaluated. The MD simulations conducted provide insights into the self-assembly behavior of structurally complex, nontraditional surfactants in aqueous solution. Motivated by the high computational cost required to obtain an accurate estimate of the critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) of AA and MA from evaluation of the average monomer concentration present in the AA and MA simulation cells, a modified computer simulation/molecular-thermodynamic model (referred to as the MCS-MT model) was formulated to quantify the free-energy change associated with optimal AA and MA micelle formation in order to predict the CMCs of AA and MA. The predicted CMC of AA was found to be 59 microM, compared with the experimentally measured CMC of 17 microM, and the predicted CMC of MA was found to be 96 microM, compared with the experimentally measured CMC of 62 microM. The AA and MA CMCs predicted using the MCS-MT model are much more accurate than the CMCs inferred from the monomer concentrations of AA and MA present in the simulation cells after micelle self-assembly (2390 microM and 11,300 microM, respectively). The theoretical modeling results obtained for AA and MA indicate that, by combining computer simulation inputs with molecular-thermodynamic models of surfactant self-assembly, reasonably accurate estimates of surfactant CMCs can be obtained with a fraction of the computational expense that would be required by using computer simulations alone.
The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 03/2008; 112(8):2357-71. · 3.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The porosity (epsilon), the tortuosity (tau), and the hindrance factor (H) of the aqueous pore channels located in the localized transport regions (LTRs) and the non-LTRs formed in skin treated simultaneously with low-frequency ultrasound (US) and the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), were evaluated for the delivery of four hydrophilic permeants (urea, mannitol, raffinose, and inulin) by analyzing dual-radiolabeled diffusion masking experiments for three different idealized cases of the aqueous pore pathway hypothesis. When epsilon and tau were assumed to be independent of the permeant radius, H was found to be statistically larger in the LTRs than in the non-LTRs. When a distribution of pore radii was assumed to exist in the skin, no statistical differences in epsilon, tau, and H were observed due to the large variation in the pore radii distribution shape parameter (3 A to infinity). When infinitely large aqueous pores were assumed to exist in the skin, epsilon was found to be 3-8-fold greater in the LTRs than in the non-LTRs, while little difference was observed in the LTRs and in the non-LTRs for tau. This last result suggests that the efficacy of US/SLS treatment may be enhanced by increasing the porosity of the non-LTRs.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 03/2008; 97(2):906-18. · 3.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent experimental evidence using colored, fluorescent permeants suggests that skin treated with low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) is perturbed in a heterogeneous manner. Macroscopic and microscopic visualization studies, topical penetration studies, transdermal permeability studies, and skin electrical resistivity measurements have shown that discrete domains, referred to as localized transport regions (LTRs), which are formed during LFS treatment of the skin, possess greatly reduced barrier properties, and therefore exhibit increased permeant skin penetration, compared to the surrounding regions of LFS-treated skin. The transformation of LTR formation from a heterogeneous to a homogeneous phenomenon has the potential benefit of increasing the maximum level of transdermal permeability or of reducing the area of skin required to deliver a desired dose of drug transdermally. Future studies, aimed at elucidating both the mechanisms of LTR formation and the limits of nondamaging formation of LTRs in the skin, are required to incorporate these proposed improvements to enhance the efficacy and practical utility of low-frequency sonophoresis.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 02/2008; 97(10):4119-28. · 3.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To account for the effect of branched, parallel transport pathways in the intercellular domain of the stratum corneum (SC) on the passive transdermal transport of hydrophobic permeants, we have developed, from first-principles, a new theoretical model-the Two-Tortuosity Model. This new model requires two tortuosity factors to account for: (1) the effective diffusion path length, and (2) the total volume of the branched, parallel transport pathways present in the SC intercellular domain, both of which may be evaluated from known values of the SC structure. After validating the Two-Tortuosity model with simulated SC diffusion experiments in FEMLAB (a finite element software package), the vehicle-bilayer partition coefficient, K(b), and the lipid bilayer diffusion coefficient, D(b), in untreated human SC were evaluated using this new model for two hydrophobic permeants, naphthol (K(b) = 225 +/- 42, D(b) = 1.7 x 10(-7) +/- 0.3 x 10(-7) cm(2)/s) and testosterone (K(b) = 92 +/- 29, D(b) = 1.9 x 10(-8) +/- 0.5 x 10(-8) cm(2)/s). The results presented in this paper demonstrate that this new method to evaluate K(b) and D(b) is comparable to, and simpler than, previous methods, in which SC permeation experiments were combined with octanol-water partition experiments, or with SC solute release experiments, to evaluate K(b) and D(b).
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 01/2008; 96(12):3236-51. · 3.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Visualization of transdermal permeant pathways is necessary to substantiate model-based conclusions drawn using permeability data. The aim of this investigation was to visualize the transdermal delivery of sulforhodamine B (SRB), a fluorescent hydrophilic permeant, and of rhodamine B hexyl ester (RBHE), a fluorescent hydrophobic permeant, using dual-channel two-photon microscopy (TPM) to better understand the transport pathways and the mechanisms of enhancement in skin treated with low-frequency ultrasound (US) and/or a chemical enhancer (sodium lauryl sulfate--SLS) relative to untreated skin (the control). The results demonstrate that (1) both SRB and RBHE penetrate beyond the stratum corneum and into the viable epidermis only in discrete regions (localized transport regions--LTRs) of US treated and of US/SLS-treated skin, (2) a chemical enhancer is required in the coupling medium during US treatment to obtain two significant levels of increased penetration of SRB and RBHE in US-treated skin relative to untreated skin, and (3) transcellular pathways are present in the LTRs of US treated and of US/SLS-treated skin for SRB and RBHE, and in SLS-treated skin for SRB. In summary, the skin is greatly perturbed in the LTRs of US treated and US/SLS-treated skin with chemical enhancers playing a significant role in US-mediated transdermal drug delivery.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology 01/2008; 127(12):2832-46. · 6.19 Impact Factor