[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is characterised by low-grade inflammation, which increases the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular risks. The aim of the present study was to verify the role of multicomponent therapy in controlling the MetS, inflammation and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in obese adolescents. The second aim was to investigate the relationships between adipokines, the MetS parameters and cIMT. A total of sixty-nine obese adolescents participated in the present study and completed 1 year of multicomponent therapy (a combination of strategies involving nutrition, psychology, physical exercise and clinical therapy), and were divided according to their MetS diagnosis as follows: MetS (
19); non-MetS (
50). Blood analyses of glucose, lipid and adipokine concentrations (adiponectin, leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and C-reactive protein) were collected. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and homeostasis model assessment-adiponectin. cIMT and visceral and subcutaneous fat were estimated using ultrasonography. At baseline, the MetS group presented higher waist circumference, glucose and insulin levels, and systolic and median blood pressures compared with the non-MetS group. After therapy, both groups showed improvements in the anthropometric profile, body composition, insulin level, insulin resistance, insulin sensibility, TAG and VLDL-cholesterol, adiponectin, leptin and PAI-1 levels, blood pressure and cIMT. The prevalence of the MetS was reduced from 27·5 to 13·0 %. Metabolic syndrome patients showed resistance in the attenuation of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and leptin:adiponectin and adiponectin:leptin ratios. In the MetS group, the variation in the adiponectin:leptin ratio was correlated with variations in glucose, insulin sensibility, total cholesterol, LDL-c and systolic blood pressure. Additionally, the number of MetS parameters was correlated with the carotid measurement. Moreover, the variation in cIMT was correlated with the variations in insulin sensibility, total cholesterol and LDL-c. For the entire group, the number of MetS alterations was correlated with the leptin level and leptin:adiponectin ratio and adiponectin:leptin ratio after therapy. In conclusion, multicomponent therapy was effective in controlling the MetS, inflammation and cIMT in the obese adolescents. However, the MetS patients showed resistance in the attenuation of the atherogenic lipid profile and leptin:adiponectin ratio and adiponectin:leptin ratio. These results suggest that the MetS patients have increased cardiovascular risks, and that it is important to attempt to control the inflammatory process that occurs due to obesity in clinical practice in order to improve the health of adolescents.
The British journal of nutrition 04/2015; 113(12):1-11. DOI:10.1017/S0007114515001129 · 3.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into two groups and fed a control diet (C) or a hyperlipidic diet (H) for 4 weeks. Rats from each group underwent ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery (SHAM). They received C or H for the next four weeks. The body weight gain (BW), food efficiency (FE), and carcass lipid content were higher in the OVX H than in the SHAM H. The OVX H exhibited a higher serum leptin level than other groups. IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 content of mesenteric (MES) adipose tissue was lower in the OVX H than in the OVX C. IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 content of retroperitoneal (RET) adipose tissue was lower in the SHAM H than in the SHAM C. The SHAM H showed decreased TG relative to the SHAM C. Similar results were obtained in relation to IL-6Rα, TNFR1, TLR-4, and MyD88 contents in the MES and RET white adipose tissue among the groups. A hyperlipidic diet for 8 weeks combined with short-term ovariectomy decreases the cytokine content of MES adipose tissues but increases BW, enhancing FE and elevating serum leptin levels. These suggest that the absence of estrogens promotes metabolic changes that may contribute to installation of a proinflammatory process induced by a hyperlipidic diet.
Mediators of Inflammation 01/2015; 2015:923248. DOI:10.1155/2015/923248 · 3.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During pregnancy and/or lactation, maternal nutrition is related to the adequate development of the fetus, new-born and future adult, likely by modifications in fetal programming and epigenetic regulation. Fetal programming is characterised by adaptive responses to specific environmental conditions during early life stages, which may alter gene expression and permanently affect the structure and function of several organs and tissues, thus influencing the susceptibility to metabolic disorders. Regarding lipid metabolism during the first two trimesters of pregnancy, the maternal body accumulates fat, whereas in late pregnancy, the lipolytic activity in the maternal adipose tissue is increased. However, an excess or deficiency of certain fatty acids may lead to adverse consequences to the fetuses and new-borns. Fetal exposure to trans fatty acids appears to promote early deleterious effects in the offspring’s health, thereby increasing the individual risk for developing metabolic diseases throughout life. Similarly, the maternal intake of saturated fatty acids seems to trigger alterations in the liver and adipose tissue function associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly long chain PUFA (LC-PUFA-AA, EPA and DHA), play an important and beneficial physiologic role in the offspring who receive this fatty acid during critical periods of development. Therefore, the maternal nutritional condition and fatty acid intake during pregnancy and/or lactation are critical factors that are strongly associated with normal fetal and postnatal development, which influence the modifications in fetal programming and in the individual risk for developing metabolic diseases throughout life.
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 10/2014; 26(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2014.10.001 · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Objectives
Obesity is related to inflammation and cardiovascular disease. The increase in saturated fatty acid intake (SFA) can potentiate cardiovascular risks. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of change in SFA on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), metabolic profile and anti/pro-inflammatory adipokines in obese adolescents.Methods
Sixty obese adolescents were subjected to 1 year of interdisciplinary intervention (nutrition, psychology, physical exercise and clinical therapy). Blood glucose, insulin, lipid profile, leptin and adiponectin were analysed. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA-IR and HOMA-AD. cIMT was measured by ultrasonography. Dietetic intake was calculated by 3-day dietary record. Volunteers were analysed according to tertiles of change (Δ) in SFA intake: Low-SFA reduction < 3.68 g; Moderate-SFA reduction 3.68-13.67 g; and High-SFA reduction > 13.67 g.ResultsModerate and High-SFA tertiles presented reduction in insulin, leptin/adiponectin ratio, cIMT and increase in adiponectin and adiponectin/leptin ratio. Adiponectin/leptin ratio was predictor of cIMT. HOMA-IR, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol reduced only in High-SFA tertile, and was associated with SFA independent of visceral fat. Negative correlations between Δ of SFA and adiponectin and adiponectin/leptin ratio were observed.Conclusion
Obese adolescents with moderate and high reduction in SFA presented improvements on pro/anti-inflammatory biomarkers and cIMT, leading to reduction in cardiovascular risks.
International Journal of Clinical Practice 10/2014; 69(5). DOI:10.1111/ijcp.12573 · 2.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate possible mechanisms of green tea’s anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects in the hypothalamus, the central regulator of metabolism, of mice fed with high-fat diet, we analysed proteins of the toll-like receptor 4 pathway and serotoninergic proteins involved in energy homeostasis. Thirty days old male Swiss mice were fed with high-fat diet rich in saturated fat and green tea extract for eight weeks. After that, body weight and mass of fat depots were evaluated. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed three days prior to euthanasia; serum glucose, insulin and adiponectin were measured in fasted mice. Hypothalamic toll-like receptor 4 pathway proteins, serotonin receptors 1B and 2C, and serotonin transporter were analysed by Western blotting or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A second set of animals was used to measure food intake in response to fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Mice fed with high-fat diet had increased body weight and mass of fat depots, impaired oral glucose tolerance, elevated glucose and insulin, and decreased adiponectin serum levels. Toll-like receptor 4, IκB-α, nuclear factor κB p50, and interleukin-6 were increased by high-fat diet. Concomitant green tea extract treatment ameliorated these parameters. The serotoninergic system remained functional after high-fat diet treatment, despite a few alterations in protein content of serotonin receptors 1B and 2C, and serotonin transporter. In summary, the green tea extract attenuated the deleterious effects of the high-fat diet investigated in this study, partially due to reduced hypothalamic inflammation.
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 10/2014; 25(10). DOI:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2014.05.012 · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maternal intake of trans-fatty acids (TFAs) in the perinatal period triggers a proinflammatory state in offspring. Anthocyanins contained in fruit are promising modulators of inflammation. This study investigated the effect of Jussara supplementation in the maternal diet on the proinflammatory state of the colon in offspring exposed to perinatal TFAs. On the first day of pregnancy rats were divided into four groups: control diet (C), control diet with 0.5% Jussara supplementation (CJ), diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat, rich in TFAs (T), or T diet supplemented with 0.5% Jussara (TJ) during pregnancy and lactation. We showed that Jussara supplementation in maternal diet (CJ and TJ groups) reduced carcass lipid/protein ratios, serum lipids, glucose, IL-6, TNF-α, gene expression of IL-6R, TNF-αR (P < 0.05), TLR-4 (P < 0.01), and increase Lactobacillus spp. (P < 0.05) in the colon of offspring compared to the T group. The IL-10 (P = 0.035) and IL-10/TNF-α ratio (P < 0.01) was higher in the CJ group than in the T group. The 0.5% Jussara supplementation reverses the adverse effects of perinatal TFAs, improving lipid profiles, glucose levels, body composition, and gut microbiota and reducing low-grade inflammation in the colon of 21-day-old offspring, and could contribute to reducing chronic disease development.
Mediators of Inflammation 09/2014; 2014:987927. DOI:10.1155/2014/987927 · 3.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Obesity is associated with increased adipose tissue and glucose intolerance. High-fat diets (HFDs) are known to induce obesity and increase proinflammatory adipokines. The consumption of green tea may improve the health of obese individuals because it contains a potent antioxidant that has effects on body weight, energy expenditure and serum cholesterol concentrations.
We examined the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) (50 mg/kg body weight per day) or saline after 30 or 60 days of treatment. Mice were distributed into four groups: 1) NS: normolipidic diet receiving saline; 2) NE: normolipidic diet receiving EGCG; 3) HFS: high-fat diet receiving saline; 4) HFE: high-fat diet receiving EGCG.
We observed that administration of a HFD plus EGCG treatment for 60 days reduced delta weight, the relative weights of the mesenteric adipose tissue (MES), retroperitonial adipose tissue (RET), epididymal adipose tissue (EPI), the sum of the adipose tissues (SAT), reduced triacylglycerol (TG) and improved both high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and the adiponectin/STA ratio when compared with HFS.
Our results suggest that the chronic administration of EGCG (60 days) promoted a significant improvement in glucose tolerance, decreased adipose tissue deposits, weight mass, TG and HDL-C only when associated with high-fat diet treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional foods with bioactive properties may help in treat obesity, as they can lead to a decreased risks of inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chitosan coacervate whey protein on the proinflammatory processes in mice fed with high-fat diet.
Mice were divided into two groups receiving either a normolipidic or high-fat diet; the animals in each of the two diet groups were given a diet supplement of either coacervate (gavage, 36 mg protein/kg of body weight) or tap water for four weeks [groups: normolipidic diet plus water (C); normolipidic diet and coacervate (CC); high-fat diet and water (H); and high-fat diet and coacervate (HC)].
The high-fat diet promoted inflammation, possibly by decreased adiponectin/sum of adipose tissues ratio and increased phosphorylation of NF-kappaB p50. In HC we observed a positive correlation between IL-10 and TNF-alpha in mesenteric adipose tissue, retroperitoneal adipose tissue and liver tissue. We also observed a positive correlation between lipopolisaccharide with IL-10 in the liver tissue.
High-fat diet treatment promoted metabolic alterations and inflammation, and chitosan coacervate whey protein modulated inflammatory milieu.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we showed that the intake of trans fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation triggers a pro-inflammatory status in the offspring. On the other hand, prebiotics can alter the intestinal environment, reducing serum lipopolysaccharides (LPS) concentrations. This study evaluated the effect of the oligofructose 10% diet supplementation in the presence or absence of hydrogenated vegetable fat during pregnancy and lactation on the development, endotoxemia and bacterial composition of 21-d-old offspring.
On the first day of pregnancy rats were divided into four groups: control diet (C), control diet supplemented with 10% oligofructose (CF), diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat, rich in TFA (T) or diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat supplemented with 10% oligofructose (TF). Diets were maintained during pregnancy and lactation. At birth, 7th, 14th and 21th, pups were weighed and length was measured. Serum concentrations of LPS and free fatty acids (FFA) were performed by specific kits. Bacterial DNA present in faeces was determined by real-time PCR. Data were expressed as mean +/- standard error of the mean and the statistical analysis was realized by ANOVA two-way and ANOVA for repeated measures. p < 0.05 was considered significant.
We observed that the oligofructose (10%) supplementation during pregnancy and lactation reduced body weight, body weight gain, length and serum FFA in the CF and TF group compared to C and T group respectively, of the 21-day-old offspring, accompanied by an increase in serum LPS and genomic DNA levels of lactobacillus spp. on faeces of the CF group in relation to C group.
In conclusion, dam's diet supplementation with 10% of oligofructose during pregnancy and lactation, independent of addition with hydrogenated vegetable fat, harms the offspring development, alters the bacterial composition and increases the serum concentrations of lipopolysaccharides in 21d-old pups.
Lipids in Health and Disease 02/2014; 13(1):26. DOI:10.1186/1476-511X-13-26 · 2.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevention of obesity and health concerns related to body fat is a major challenge worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of a medically supervised, multidisciplinary approach, on reduction in the prevalence of obesity related comorbidities, inflammatory profile, and neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance in a sample of obese adolescents. A total of 97 postpuberty obese adolescents were enrolled in this study. Body composition, neuropeptides, and adipokines were analysed. The metabolic syndrome was defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). The abdominal ultrasonography was performed to measure visceral, subcutaneous fat and hepatic steatosis. All measures were performed at baseline and after one year of therapy. The multidisciplinary management promoted the control of obesity reducing body fat mass. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, asthma, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), binge eating, and hyperleptinemia was reduced. An improvement in the inflammatory profile was demonstrated by an increase in anti-inflammatory adiponectin and reduction in proinflammatory adipokines, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, interleukin-6 concentrations, and in the Lep/Adipo ratio. Moreover, a reduction in the AgRP and an increase in the alfa-MSH were noted. The multidisciplinary approach not only reduced obesity but also is efficacious in cardiovascular risk factors, inflammatory profile, and neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance.
International Journal of Endocrinology 10/2013; 2013:541032. DOI:10.1155/2013/541032 · 1.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The low-grade systemic inflammation seen in obesity may affect the actions of some adipose tissue-derived adipokines that are involved in the regulation of vascular function. We sought to verify whether hyperleptinemia may influence the inflammatory and atherogenic responses in obese adolescents undergoing interdisciplinary therapy. Thirty-four obese adolescents underwent interdisciplinary therapy for 1 year. Subjects were considered hyperleptinemic if they had baseline values of leptin above 20 ng/mL for boys and 24 ng/mL for girls. Both groups showed an improvement in body composition and a reduction in carotid intima-media thickness. However, only subjects in the non-hyperleptinemic group showed an increase in adiponectin concentration after therapy. Moreover, leptin concentration was positively correlated with adiponectin and inversely correlated with PAI-1 in this group. Hyperleptinemic state may impair the attenuation of inflammation in obese adolescents undergoing interdisciplinary therapy, particularly by impeding the increase in adiponectin concentration, which is directly involved in vascular protection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Previously, we demonstrated that trans fatty acid ingestion during pregnancy and lactation caused a pro-inflammatory effect on the newborn. The opposite effect was described for gestational prebiotic intake. In the present study, we examined whether supplementation of the diet of the dams with 10% of oligofructose with or without hydrogenated vegetable fat during pregnancy and lactation affected the pro-inflammatory status on the pups at age 21 days.
On the first day of pregnancy, rats were divided into four groups, each of which received one of four diets: a control diet (C group), a control diet supplemented with 10% oligofructose (CF group), a diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat containing trans fatty acids (T group) or a diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat containing trans fatty acids supplemented with 10% oligofructose (TF group). The pups were weighed at birth and at 7, 14 and 21 days of life and were euthanized on post-natal day 21. The serum glucose, insulin and adiponectin concentrations were analyzed. The IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α contents of the retroperitoneal white adipose tissue, liver, soleus and extensor digital longus muscles were analyzed by ELISA. The results are presented as the means ± standard error of the mean. Statistical significance was assessed using two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's test and considered significant at p < 0.05
The body weights of the 21-day old pups in the CF and TF groups were significant lower than those of the C (27% and 21%) and T (25% and 19%, respectively) groups. The serum levels of adiponectin in the CF, T and TF groups were lower than in the C group (41%; 34% and 31%, respectively). In the retroperitoneal adipose tissue, the IL-6 content was increased in TF group relative to the C and CF groups (74% for both), and the TNF-α content was higher in the T and TF groups than in the C group (62% and 98%, respectively). In the liver, the TNF-α (56% and 104%) and IL-10 (52% and 73%) contents were increased in the CF group relative to the C and TF groups.
Supplementation of the diet of the dams with 10% of oligofructose during pregnancy and lactation, independent of supplementation with hydrogenated vegetable fat, adversely affected the development of the offspring and contributed to development of a pro-inflammatory status in the pups on postnatal day 21.
Lipids in Health and Disease 05/2013; 12(1):59. DOI:10.1186/1476-511X-12-59 · 2.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whether leptin targets the hypothalamic serotonergic system to inhibit food intake is not established. We examined the effect of a short-term i.c.v. leptin treatment on serotonin microdialysate levels in rat lateral hypothalamus. Adipose tissue gene expression was also evaluated. Male rats received four daily injections of leptin (5μg) or vehicle (with pair-feeding to leptin-induced intake) and a fifth injection during collection of LH microdialysates. We found that serotonin and 5-HIAA levels were not affected by the leptin pre-treatment, as basal levels were similar between the leptin and the pair-fed group. These levels remained unaltered after the acute leptin injection. For gene expression studies, rats were pre-treated with five daily injections of either leptin (5μg) or vehicle (with either pair-feeding or ad libitum intake). mRNA levels of resistin, adiponectin, lipoprotein lipase, and PPAR-gamma were unaltered by either leptin or pair-feeding. Leptin gene expression was significantly reduced by leptin but not by pair-feeding, in both the retroperitoneal (-74%) and the epididymal (-99%) depots while no differences were observed in the subcutaneous depot. The observations confirmed the absence of an acute stimulatory effect of central leptin on serotonin release in the lateral hypothalamus and showed that the pre-treatment with leptin failed to modify this pattern. This indicates that components of the serotonergic system are probably not directly affected by leptin. Additionally, the central effect of leptin was able to downregulate its own adipose tissue gene expression in a depot-specific manner while other adipokine genes were not affected.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whether PUFA diets affect inflammatory mediators in central and peripheral sites is not clear. We investigated the effect of high-fat PUFA diets on the expression of proteins involved in inflammatory pathways in hypothalamus, muscle, and liver. Male rats were fed for 2 months with either chow or high-fat diets enriched with either soy (n-6 PUFAs) or fish oil (n-3 PUFAs). The fish group had normal body weight, low serum NEFA, reduced hypothalamic levels of TNF- α , IL-6, and TRAF6, and increased levels of IL-10 receptor. In contrast, the soy group had increased body weight and hypothalamic levels of TRAF6 and NF κ Bp65. In muscle, the fish diet reduced TNF- α and IL-6 levels. Both PUFA diets increased muscle IL-10 levels and reduced liver TNF- α and IL-6 levels. The data showed that the high-fat soy diet induced activation of the hypothalamic NF κ B inflammatory pathway, a feature predisposing to feeding and energy expenditure disturbances associated with the development of obesity. On the other hand, the high-fat fish diet improved the central and the peripheral inflammatory profile via reduction of intracellular inflammatory mediators, suggesting a protection against obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green tea Camellia sinensis extract on proinflammatory molecules and lipolytic protein levels in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Animals were randomized into four groups: CW (chow diet and water); CG (chow diet and water + green tea extract); HW (high-fat diet and water); HG (high-fat diet and water + green tea extract). The mice were fed ad libitum with chow or high-fat diet and concomitantly supplemented (oral gavage) with 400 mg/kg body weight/day of green tea extract (CG and HG, resp.). The treatments were performed for eight weeks. UPLC showed that in 10 mg/mL green tea extract, there were 15 μg/mg epigallocatechin, 95 μg/mg epigallocatechin gallate, 20.8 μg/mg epicatechin gallate, and 4.9 μg/mg gallocatechin gallate. Green tea administered concomitantly with a high-fat diet increased HSL, ABHD5, and perilipin in mesenteric adipose tissue, and this was associated with reduced body weight and adipose tissue gain. Further, we observed that green tea supplementation reduced inflammatory cytokine TNFα levels, as well as TLR4, MYD88, and TRAF6 proinflammatory signalling. Our results show that green tea increases the lipolytic pathway and reduces adipose tissue, and this may explain the attenuation of low-grade inflammation in obese mice.
Mediators of Inflammation 01/2013; 2013:635470. DOI:10.1155/2013/635470 · 3.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the effects of weight loss on adipokines, asthma-related symptoms, exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) and lung function, and to evaluate the role of leptin and adiponectin levels on lung function after treatment in obese adolescents. Methods: 84 postpubertal obese adolescents were enrolled and distributed in quartiles according to weight loss (low (<2.5 kg), low to moderate (>2.5 and <8 kg), moderate (<8 and <14 kg) and massive (<14 kg)). Body composition was measured by plethysmography, and visceral and subcutaneous fat were detected by ultrasound. Serum levels of adiponectin and leptin were analyzed. Lung function, asthma and EIB were evaluated according to the American Thoracic Society criteria. Patients were submitted to 1 year of interdisciplinary intervention consisting of physiotherapy, medical, nutritional, exercise, and psychological therapy. Results: After treatment the moderate and massive weight loss promoted an increase in adiponectin and adiponectin/leptin (A/L) ratio as well as a decrease in leptin levels and a reduction in EIB frequency and asthma-related symptoms. Furthermore, the reduction in leptin levels was a predictor factor to improvement in lung function. Conclusion: Interdisciplinary therapy was able to decrease EIB and asthma-related symptoms and to improve pro/anti-inflammatory adipokines. Additionally, the leptin concentration was a predictor factor to explain changes in lung function.