Takao Suzuki

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States

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Publications (25)104.39 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Studies have shown that administration of 17β-estradiol prevents trauma-hemorrhage-induced increase in proinflammatory cytokine production by Kupffer cells and associated multiple organ injury. Since activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) following ischemic conditions has been shown to be protective, we examined if PPARγ plays any role in the salutary effects of 17β-estradiol on Kupffer cell cytokine production following trauma-hemorrhage. Male mice underwent trauma-hemorrhage (mean blood pressure 40 mmHg for 90 min, then resuscitation). 17β-estradiol (50 µg/kg) or vehicle with or without PPARγ antagonist GW9662 was injected subcutaneously at the middle of resuscitation. At 2 h after trauma-hemorrhage, plasma interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels, Kupffer cell IL-6 and TNF-α production and mRNA expression, and PPARγ, nuclear factor (NF)-κB and activator protein (AP)-1 DNA binding activity were determined. Kupffer cell IL-6 and TNF-α production, as well as plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels, increased following trauma-hemorrhage. Moreover, NF-κB and AP-1 DNA binding activity and IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression were also enhanced under such conditions. However, 17β-estradiol administration normalized all these parameters. Although PPARγ activity decreased after trauma-hemorrhage, administration of 17β-estradiol following trauma-hemorrhage elevated PPARγ activity above the normal level. Inhibition of PPARγ by co-administration of GW9662, however, abolished the salutary effects of 17β-estradiol on plasma cytokine and Kupffer cells. Thus, activation of PPARγ appears to play an important role in mediating the salutary effects of 17β-estradiol on plasma cytokine levels and Kupffer cell cytokine production after trauma-hemorrhage, which are likely mediated via NF-κB and AP-1.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 01/2011; 226(1):205-11. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although 17beta-estradiol (E2) administration following trauma-hemorrhage (T-H) improves immune functions in male rodents, it remains unclear whether E2 has salutary effects on Peyer's patch (PP) T cell functions. We hypothesized that T-H induces PP T cell dysfunction and E2 administration following T-H will improve PP T cell function. T-H was induced in male C3H/HeN mice (6-8weeks) by midline laparotomy and approximately 90min of hemorrhagic shock (blood pressure 35mmHg), followed by fluid resuscitation (4x the shed blood volume in the form of Ringer's lactate). Estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha agonist propyl pyrazole triol (PPT; 5microg/kg), ER-beta agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN; 5microg/kg), E2 (50microg/kg), or vehicle was injected subcutaneously at resuscitation onset. Two hours later, mice were sacrificed and PP T cells isolated. PP T cell capacity to produce cytokines in response to in vitro stimulation, PP T cell proliferation and MAPK (p38, ERK-1/2, JNK) activation were measured. Results indicate PP T cell proliferation, cytokine production and MAPK activation decreased significantly following T-H. E2, PPT or DPN administration normalized these parameters. Since PPT or DPN administration following T-H was effective in normalizing PP T cell functions, the salutary effects of E2 are mediated via ER-alpha and ER-beta.
    Cytokine 08/2010; 51(2):166-72. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although 17beta-estradiol (E2) administration following trauma-hemorrhage (T-H) reduces liver injury by decreasing neutrophil accumulation via estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha, it remains unclear whether cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 production by Kupffer cells (KC) is directly modulated by ER-alpha under such condition. Male rats underwent laparotomy and hemorrhagic shock (40 mmHg for 90 min), followed by resuscitation with four times the shed blood volume in the form of Ringer's lactate. ER-alpha agonist propyl pyrazole triol (PPT; 5 microg/kg), ER-beta agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN; 5 microg/kg), E2 (50 microg/kg), or vehicle (10% DMSO) was administered subcutaneously during resuscitation; rats were sacrificed 24h thereafter. KC were isolated and cultured with ER agonists to examine if they directly affect CINC-1 production. T-H increased plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT; hepatic injury) and hepatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. E2, PPT and DPN administration reduced increased ALT; however, PPT was more effective than DPN. PPT and E2, but not DPN significantly attenuated increased hepatic MPO activity and CINC-1 levels. PPT addition in vitro (10(-7) and 10(-6)M) significantly reduced KC CINC-1 production. In summary, the salutary effects of E2 against hepatic injury are mediated predominantly via ER-alpha which directly modulates KC CINC-1 production and hepatic neutrophil accumulation following T-H.
    Cytokine 08/2008; 43(1):88-92. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although studies have shown 17beta-estradiol (E2) administration following trauma-hemorrhage (T-H) attenuates alterations in T cell cytokine production, it remains unknown whether such effects of E2 are mediated via genomic or non-genomic pathways. In this study, we determined the non-genomic effects of E2 on splenic T cell cytokine production and the role of MAPK following T-H. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent T-H (mean BP 40 mmHg for 90 min, then resuscitation). E2, E2 conjugated with BSA (E2-BSA, 1 mg/kg E2) with or without an estrogen receptor antagonist (ICI 182 780), or vehicle was administered during resuscitation. Two hours thereafter, T cell production of IL-2 and IFN-gamma and activation of MAPK (p38, ERK-1/2 and JNK) were determined. The effect of selective MAPK inhibitors on cytokine production was also examined in vitro. IL-2 and IFN-gamma production capacity and MAPK activation decreased in T cells following T-H. However, E2 administration normalized these parameters. Although E2-BSA administration also attenuated suppression in cytokine production, the values were lower compared to sham. In contrast, E2-BSA prevented T-H-induced suppression in MAPK activation to the same extent as E2. Co-administration of ICI 182 780 abolished E2-BSA effects. These findings suggest E2 effects on T cell cytokine production following T-H are mediated at least in part via non-genomic pathway and these non-genomic effects are likely mediated via MAPK pathways.
    Cytokine 05/2008; 42(1):32-8. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although 17beta-estradiol (E2) attenuates the alterations in Kupffer cells and splenic macrophages (MPhi) cytokine production following trauma-hemorrhage, the mechanism by which this occurs remains unknown. Utilizing a cell-impermeable E2 conjugated with BSA (E2-BSA), we examined the non-genomic effects of E2 on the above two cell population cytokine production, MAPK and transcription factors activation following trauma-hemorrhage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent trauma-hemorrhage (mean BP 40 mmHg for 90 min, then resuscitation). E2, E2-BSA (1 mg/kg E2) with or without an estrogen receptor antagonist (ICI 182,780), or vehicle was administrated during resuscitation. Two hrs thereafter, Kupffer cells and SMPhi production of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-10, activation of MAPK (p38, ERK-1/2, and JNK), and transcription factors (NF-kappaB and AP-1) were determined. IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-10 productive capacity, MAPK, and transcription factors activation increased in Kupffer cells while they decreased in SMPhi following trauma-hemorrhage. However, E2 administration normalized all of these alterations. Although E2-BSA also attenuated the alterations in cytokine production/transcription factors, the values were higher in Kupffer cells and lower in SMPhi compared to shams. In contrast, E2-BSA prevented trauma-hemorrhage-mediated changes in MAPK activation to the same extent as E2. Co-administration of ICI 182,780 abolished E2-BSA effects. Although some MAPK inhibitors suppressed cytokine production, the inhibitor effectiveness was dependent on cytokine, cell type and animal condition (trauma-hemorrhage or sham). Thus, E2 effects on Kupffer cells and SMPhi cytokine production and transcription factors activation following trauma-hemorrhage are mediated at least in part via non-genomic pathway and these non-genomic effects are likely mediated via MAPK pathways.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 04/2008; 214(3):662-72. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although 17beta-estradiol administration following trauma-hemorrhage attenuates Kupffer cell, splenic and peritoneal macrophage functions, it remains unknown whether 17beta-estradiol has any salutary effects on splenic dendritic cell (DC) functions and if so, whether such effects are mediated via the estrogen receptors (ER). We hypothesized that 17beta-estradiol administration following trauma-hemorrhage has salutary effects on splenic DC functions. Male C3H/HeN (6-8 weeks) mice were randomly assigned to sham operation or trauma-hemorrhage. Trauma-hemorrhage was induced by midline laparotomy and approximately 90 min of hemorrhagic shock (blood pressure [BP] 35 mmHg), followed by fluid resuscitation (4x the shed blood volume in the form of Ringer's lactate). Estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha agonist propyl pyrazole triol (PPT; 5microg/kg), ER-beta agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN; 5microg/kg), 17beta-estradiol (50microg/kg), or vehicle (10% DMSO) was injected subcutaneously during resuscitation. Two hours later, the mice were sacrificed, splenic DCs were isolated and the changes in their apoptosis, co-stimulating factors and MHC class II expression, ability to produce cytokines, and antigen presentation capacity were measured. Apoptosis of splenic DC increased following trauma-hemorrhage; however, 17beta-estradiol administration after trauma-hemorrhage normalized the rate of apoptosis. Moreover, splenic DC cytokines production, co-stimulating factors and MHC class II expression, and antigen presentation capacity were significantly decreased following trauma-hemorrhage; however, 17beta-estradiol as well as PPT also prevented these depressions. In contrast, DPN did not attenuate splenic DC functions following trauma-hemorrhage. Since PPT administration following trauma-hemorrhage was more effective in normalizing splenic DC functions than DPN, the salutary effects of 17beta-estradiol on splenic DC functions are mediated predominantly via ER-alpha.
    Molecular Immunology 02/2008; 45(2):376-85. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although 17beta-estradiol administration following trauma-hemorrhage prevents the suppression in splenic macrophage cytokine production, it remains unknown whether the salutary effects are mediated via estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha or ER-beta and which signaling pathways are involved in such 17beta-estradiol effects. Utilizing ER-alpha- or ER-beta-specific agonists, this study examined the role of ER-alpha and ER-beta in 17beta-estradiol-mediated restoration of macrophage cytokine production following trauma-hemorrhage. In addition, since MAPK and NF-kappaB are known to regulate macrophage cytokine production, we also examined the activation of those signaling molecules. Male rats underwent trauma-hemorrhage (mean arterial pressure of 40 mmHg for 90 min) and fluid resuscitation. The ER-alpha agonist propyl pyrazole triol (PPT; 5 microg/kg), the ER-beta agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN; 5 microg/kg), 17beta-estradiol (50 microg/kg), or vehicle (10% DMSO) was injected subcutaneously during resuscitation. Twenty-four hours thereafter, splenic macrophages were isolated, and their IL-6 and TNF-alpha production and activation of MAPK and NF-kappaB were measured. Macrophage IL-6 and TNF-alpha production and MAPK activation were decreased, whereas NF-kappaB activity was increased, following trauma-hemorrhage. PPT or 17beta-estradiol administration after trauma-hemorrhage normalized those parameters. DPN administration, on the other hand, did not normalize the above parameters. Since PPT but not DPN administration following trauma-hemorrhage was as effective as 17beta-estradiol in preventing the suppression in macrophage cytokine production, it appears that ER-alpha plays the predominant role in mediating the salutary effects of 17beta-estradiol on macrophage cytokine production following trauma-hemorrhage and that such effects are likely mediated via normalization of MAPK but not NF-kappaB signaling pathways.
    AJP Cell Physiology 10/2007; 293(3):C978-84. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As studies indicate that genomic and nongenomic pathways are involved in mediating the salutary effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) following trauma-hemorrhage, we examined if the nongenomic effects of E2 on attenuation of intestinal injury after trauma-hemorrhage involve the PI-3K/Akt pathway. Male Sprague-Dawley rats ( approximately 300 g body weight) underwent trauma-hemorrhage (mean blood pressure 40 mmHg for 90 min), followed by resuscitation. E2 conjugated to BSA (E2-BSA; 1 mg/Kg E2), with or without an estrogen receptor antagonist (ICI 182,780), a PI-3K inhibitor (Wortmannin), or vehicle, was injected i.v. during resuscitation. At 2 h after trauma-hemorrhage or sham operation, intestinal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, ICAM-1, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, CINC-3, and IL-6 levels were measured (n=6 rats/group). Intestinal PI-3K, phosphorylation of Akt (p-Akt), and Akt protein expressions were also determined. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's test were used for statistical analysis. The results indicated that trauma-hemorrhage increased intestinal MPO activity and ICAM-1, CINC-1, CINC-3, and IL-6 levels. These parameters were improved significantly in the E2- or E2-BSA-treated rats subjected to trauma-hemorrhage. Although trauma-hemorrhage decreased intestinal PI-3K and p-Akt protein expressions, E2 or E2-BSA treatment following trauma-hemorrhage prevented such decreases in intestinal PI-3K and p-Akt protein expressions. Coadministration of ICI 182,780 or Wortmannin abolished the beneficial effects of E2-BSA on attenuation of intestinal injury following trauma-hemorrhage. Thus, the PI-3K/Akt pathway plays a critical role in mediating the nongenomic, salutary effects of E2 on attenuation of shock-induced intestinal tissue damage.
    Journal of Leukocyte Biology 10/2007; 82(3):774-80. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether the nongenomic actions of E2 have any beneficial effect on cardiac function following trauma-hemorrhage and whether those effects are mediated via the PI3K/Akt pathway. Since studies suggest that both genomic and nongenomic pathways are involved in mediating the salutary effects of 17beta-estradiol (estradiol) following trauma-hemorrhage, we examined if the nongenomic effects of estradiol on cardiac function after trauma-hemorrhage involve the PI3K/Akt pathway. Male Sprague-Dawley rats ( approximately 300 g) underwent trauma-hemorrhage (mean blood pressure, 40 mm Hg for 90 min, then resuscitation). Estradiol conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) (estradiol-BSA; 1 mg/kg estradiol) with or without estrogen receptor antagonist (ICI 182,780), PI3K inhibitor (Wortmannin), or vehicle was injected intravenously during resuscitation. At 2 hours after trauma-hemorrhage or sham operation, cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and +/-dP/dt were measured. Cardiomyocyte PI3K, p-Akt, Akt protein expressions and apoptosis were also determined. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's test were used for statistical analysis. Cardiac output, stroke volume, and +/-dP/dt decreased significantly after trauma-hemorrhage. Administration of estradiol or estradiol-BSA significantly improved these parameters of cardiac function. Although trauma-hemorrhage decreased cardiomyocyte PI3K protein expression and Akt phosphorylation (p-Akt), estradiol or estradiol-BSA treatment following trauma-hemorrhage prevented such decreases in cardiomyocyte PI3K protein expressions and p-Akt. The increase in cardiomyocyte apoptosis was also prevented in rats receiving estradiol-BSA. Co-administration of ICI 182,780 or Wortmannin abolished beneficial effects of estradiol-BSA on cardiac functions following trauma-hemorrhage. The PI3K/Akt pathway plays a critical role in mediating the nongenomic salutary effects of estradiol on cardiac function following trauma-hemorrhage.
    Annals of Surgery 07/2007; 245(6):971-7. · 6.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine which of the estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes plays a predominant role in ameliorating hepatic damage following trauma-hemorrhage. Adult male rats were subjected to hemorrhagic shock (40 mmHg for 90 min) and resuscitation. ER-alpha agonist (PPT) or ER-beta agonist (DPN) was administered during resuscitation; rats were sacrificed 24h thereafter. PPT or DPN decreased elevated plasma alpha-glutathione S-transferase levels; however, PPT was more effective. PPT or DPN increased hepatic heat shock protein 32 (Hsp32) mRNA/protein expressions above levels observed after trauma-hemorrhage. PPT reduced hepatic NF-kappaB and AP-1 activity and iNOS expression. Although DPN reduced hepatic NF-kappaB activity, AP-1 activity remained higher than in shams; hepatic iNOS induction remained elevated. PPT/DPN reduced nitrate/nitrite production and iNOS mRNA in Kupffer cells following trauma-hemorrhage; however, these levels in DPN-treated animals remained higher than sham. Although both PPT and DPN decreased hepatic injury following trauma-hemorrhage, ER-alpha agonist PPT appears to be more effective in downregulating NF-kappaB and AP-1 activity, and iNOS induction. Thus, ER-alpha appears to play a predominant role in mediating the salutary effects of E2 in ameliorating hepatic damage following trauma-hemorrhage.
    Journal of Hepatology 07/2007; 46(6):1047-54. · 9.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although 17beta-estradiol (E2) administration following trauma-hemorrhage prevents the suppression in splenocyte cytokine production, it remains unknown whether the salutary effects of 17beta-estradiol are mediated via estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha or ER-beta. Moreover, it is unknown which signaling pathways are involved in 17beta-estradiol's salutary effects. Utilizing an ER-alpha- or ER-beta-specific agonist, we examined the role of ER-alpha and ER-beta in E2-mediated restoration of T-cell cytokine production following trauma-hemorrhage. Moreover, since MAPK, NF-kappaB, and activator protein (AP)-1 are known to regulate T-cell cytokine production, we also examined the activation of MAPK, NF-kappaB, and AP-1. Male rats underwent trauma-hemorrhage (mean arterial pressure 40 mmHg for 90 min) and fluid resuscitation. ER-alpha agonist propyl pyrazole triol (PPT; 5 microg/kg), ER-beta agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN; 5 microg/kg), 17beta-estradiol (50 microg/kg), or vehicle (10% DMSO) was injected subcutaneously during resuscitation. Twenty-four hours thereafter, splenic T cells were isolated, and their IL-2 and IFN-gamma production and MAPK, NF-kappaB, and AP-1 activation were measured. T-cell IL-2 and IFN-gamma production was decreased following trauma-hemorrhage, and this was accompanied with a decrease in T-cell MAPK, NF-kappaB, and AP-1 activation. PPT or 17beta-estradiol administration following trauma-hemorrhage normalized those parameters, while DPN administration had no effect. Since PPT, but not DPN, administration following trauma-hemorrhage was as effective as 17beta-estradiol in preventing the T-cell suppression, it appears that ER-alpha plays a predominant role in mediating the salutary effects of 17beta-estradiol on T cells following trauma-hemorrhage, and that such effects are likely mediated via normalization of MAPK, NF-kappaB, and AP-1 signaling pathways.
    AJP Cell Physiology 07/2007; 292(6):C2103-11. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although nongenomic effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) are mediated via the estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha), the existence of another novel ER, G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), has been suggested as a candidate for triggering a broad range of E2-mediated signaling. GPR30 also acts independently of the ER to promote activation of the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, which protects cells from apoptosis through Bcl-2. In this study, we examined whether the salutary effects of E2 in attenuating hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhage are mediated via GPR30- or ER-alpha-regulated activation of PKA-dependent signaling. At 2 hours after trauma-hemorrhage, administration of E2-conjugated to bovine serum albumin (E2-BSA, membrane impermeable) or E2 induced the up-regulation of ER-alpha and GPR30 and attenuated hepatic injury. This was accompanied by increases in PKA activity and Bcl-2 expression. Inhibition of PKA in E2-BSA-treated trauma-hemorrhage rats by PKA inhibitor H89 prevented the E2-BSA attenuation of hepatic injury. Isolated hepatocytes were transfected with small interfering RNA to suppress GPR30 or ER. We found that suppression of GPR30 but not ER-alpha prevented E2-BSA- or E2-induced PKA activation and Bcl-2 expression. These results suggest that the nongenomic salutary effect of E2 in reducing hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhage is mediated through the PKA-dependent pathway via GPR30 but not ER-alpha.
    American Journal Of Pathology 04/2007; 170(4):1210-8. · 4.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the mechanism by which flutamide administration following trauma-hemorrhage (T-H) decreases cytokine production and hepatic injury under those conditions. Although studies have demonstrated that flutamide administration following T-H improves hepatic and immune functions, the mechanism by which flutamide produces the salutary effects remains unknown. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a 5-cm laparotomy and hemorrhagic shock (40 mm Hg for approximately 90 minutes), followed by resuscitation with 4 times the shed blood volume in the form of Ringer's lactate. Flutamide (25 mg/kg body weight, sc) was administered at the middle of resuscitation and animals were killed 2 hours thereafter. To block estrogen receptor (ER), ER antagonist ICI 182,780 was administrated with flutamide. Hepatic injury, myeloperoxidase activity, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) DNA binding activity and protein expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC-1 and CINC-3) markedly increased following T-H. Hepatic mRNA and plasma IL-6 levels were also elevated following T-H. The alterations in these parameters induced by T-H were significantly attenuated by flutamide administration. The decreased plasma estradiol levels following T-H were restored to sham levels in the flutamide-treated T-H animals. Coadministration of ICI 182,780 prevented those salutary effects of flutamide administration on pro-inflammatory responses and hepatic injury following T-H. These findings suggest that the reduction in the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and hepatic injury produced by flutamide administration following T-H is likely due to the down-regulation in hepatic NF-kappaB DNA binding activity. Moreover, the salutary effects of flutamide administration appear to be mediated at least in part via ER-related pathway.
    Annals of Surgery 03/2007; 245(2):297-304. · 6.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although 17beta-estradiol administration following trauma-hemorrhage attenuates plasma cytokines and alteration in immune cell cytokine production, it is not known whether the salutary effects are mediated via estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha or ER-beta. Accordingly, we examined which ER subtype predominantly mediates the salutary effects of 17beta-estradiol on systemic inflammatory response/immune cell cytokine production in various tissues following trauma-hemorrhage. Male rats underwent trauma-hemorrhage (mean blood pressure: 40 mmHg for 90 min) and fluid resuscitation. The ER-alpha agonist propyl pyrazole triol (PPT; 5 microg/kg), the ER-beta agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN; 5 microg/kg), 17beta-estradiol (50 microg/kg), or vehicle (10% DMSO) was injected subcutaneously during resuscitation, and various measurements were made 24 h thereafter. 17beta-Estradiol or PPT administration following trauma-hemorrhage prevented the increase in plasma IL-6 and IL-10 levels that were observed in vehicle-treated animals. IL-6 and TNF-alpha production by Kupffer cells increased; however, splenic macrophages (SMPhi), alveolar macrophages (AMPhi), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) had decreased release of these cytokines after trauma-hemorrhage. IL-10 production, however, increased in all macrophage populations. Administration of 17beta-estradiol following trauma-hemorrhage prevented all of these alterations. PPT had the same effects as 17beta-estradiol on IL-6 and TNF-alpha production by Kupffer cells and SMPhi, and DPN had the same effects on AMPhi and PBMC. The same effects as 17beta-estradiol on IL-10 production were observed by PPT on Kupffer cells and DPN on PBMC. Both agonists were equally effective on SMPhi and AMPhi. Thus ER subtypes have tissue compartment-specific roles in mediating the effects of 17beta-estradiol on immune cell functions following trauma-hemorrhage.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 02/2007; 102(1):163-8. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our recent study showed that estrogen receptor (ER) beta plays a major role in mediating the salutary effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) on cardiac function following trauma-hemorrhage (T-H). E2 is known to regulate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded genes including the mitochondrial respiratory complex (MRC) proteins. Depressed MRC activity has been reported to promote the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and induce apoptosis. We hypothesized that E2 and ERbeta-mediated cardioprotection following T-H is dependent on mtDNA transcription encoding for MRC activity. To test this, male rats underwent T-H (mean BP 40 mm Hg approximately 90 min, then resuscitation). During resuscitation, rats received either ERalpha agonist propylpyrazole triol (PPT; 5 microg/kg), ERbeta agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN; 5 microg/kg), E2 (50 microg/kg), or vehicle (10% DMSO). Another group of rats received mitochondrial respiratory complex-IV (MRC-IV) inhibitor sodium cyanide (SCN; 6 mg/kg) with or without DPN. The results indicated that 24 h after T-H, cardiac functions were depressed in the vehicle-treated but were normal in the DPN-treated rats. Moreover, E2 or DPN treatment after T-H normalized cardiac mitochondrial ERbeta expression and increased mitochondrial ERbeta DNA-binding activity. This was accompanied by an increase in MRC-IV gene expressions and activity, while MRC-I gene expression remained unchanged. Inhibition of MRC-IV in DPN-treated T-H rats by SCN abolished the DPN-mediated cardioprotection, ATP production, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, caspase-3 cleavage, and apoptosis. Thus, E2 and ERbeta-mediated cardioprotection following T-H appears to be mediated via mitochondrial ERbeta-dependent MRC-IV activity and inhibition of mitochondrial apoptotic signaling pathways.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 10/2006; 41(3):511-21. · 5.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although androstenediol (adiol or 5-androstene-3beta,17beta-diol), a metabolite of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), has protective effects following trauma-hemorrhage (T-H), it remains unknown whether administration of adiol has any salutary effects on the inflammatory response and outcome following a combined insult of T-H and sepsis. Male rats underwent T-H shock [mean arterial pressure (MAP) 40 mmHg for 90 min] followed by resuscitation. Adiol (1 mg/kg body wt) or vehicle was administered at the end of resuscitation. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) at 20 h after T-H or sham operation. Five hours after CLP, plasma and tissue samples were analyzed for cytokines (IL-6 and IL-10), MPO, neutrophil chemotactic factor (CINC-3), and liver injury (alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase). In another group of rats, the gangrenous cecum was removed at 10 h after CLP, the cavity was irrigated with warm saline and closed in layers, and mortality was recorded over 10 days. T-H followed by CLP produced a significant elevation in plasma IL-6 and IL-10 levels, enhanced neutrophil cell activation, and resulted in liver injury. Adiol administration prevented the increase in cytokine production, neutrophil cell activation, and attenuated liver injury. Moreover, rats subjected to the combined insult, receiving vehicle or adiol, had a 50% and 6% mortality, respectively. Since adiol administration suppresses proinflammatory cytokines, reduces liver damage, and decreases mortality after the combined insult of T-H and sepsis, this agent appears to be a novel adjunct to fluid resuscitation for decreasing T-H-induced septic complications and mortality.
    AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 09/2006; 291(2):G260-6. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 17 beta-estradiol (E2) administration following trauma-hemorrhage (T-H) attenuates the elevation in plasma cytokines and Kupffer cell (KC) cytokine production; however, it remains unknown whether the salutary effects are mediated via estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha or ER-beta. We hypothesized that E2 mediates its salutary effects via ER-alpha and normalization of MAPK under those conditions. Male rats underwent T-H (mean blood pressure [BP] 40 mmHg for 90 min) and fluid resuscitation. ER-alpha agonist propyl pyrazole triol (PPT; 5 microg/kg), ER-beta agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN; 5 microg/kg), E2 (50 microg/kg), or vehicle (10% DMSO) was injected subcutaneously during resuscitation. Twenty-four hours thereafter, KCs were isolated and their cytokine production (IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-10) and MAPK activation were measured. Cytokine production increased after T-H, however, PPT or E2 administration after T-H normalized KC cytokine production. Although DPN attenuated increased production of these cytokines, KC capacity to produce the cytokines remained significantly higher than sham. PPT or E2 also prevented T-H-mediated activation of MAPK in KC. However, DPN did not prevent MAPK activation. Since PPT administration after T-H was more effective in decreasing KC cytokine production and MAPK activation than DPN, the salutary effects of E2 on KC functions are mediated predominantly via ER-alpha and normalization of MAPK following T-H.
    Surgery 09/2006; 140(2):141-8. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the mechanism by which androstenediol improves cardiac function following trauma-hemorrhage (T-H). Androstenediol administration improves cardiovascular function and attenuates proinflammatory cytokine production following T-H. Activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) has been shown to be protective following ischemic conditions. We hypothesized that PPAR-gamma activation plays a role in the androstenediol-mediated salutary effects on cardiac function following T-H. Male rats underwent laparotomy and hemorrhagic shock (40 mm Hg for 90 minutes), followed by resuscitation with 4 times the shed blood volume in the form of Ringer's lactate. Androstenediol (1 mg/kg body weight, i.v.) was administrated at the end of resuscitation. In a separate group of animals, a PPAR-gamma antagonist (GW9662) was administered simultaneously with androstenediol and animals were killed at 5 hours thereafter. A decrease in cardiac function and an increase in IL-6 and iNOS gene expression were observed following T-H. Androstenediol treatment normalized cardiac function, increased PPAR-gamma DNA binding activity, attenuated IL-6 and iNOS gene expressions, and reduced plasma IL-6. Plasma 15-deoxy-Delta12, 14-prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2, an endogenous PPAR-gamma agonist) levels were also increased in androstenediol-treated T-H rats, but these levels were lower than those observed in shams. Coadministration of PPAR-gamma antagonist along with androstenediol, however, prevented the androstenediol-mediated reduction in cardiac iNOS and IL-6 expressions and abolished the improvements in cardiac function. The androstenediol-mediated salutary effects on cardiac function following T-H appear to be mediated at least in part via PPAR-gamma activation, which down-regulates IL-6 and iNOS gene expression in the heart.
    Annals of Surgery 08/2006; 244(1):131-8. · 6.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PGC-1alpha (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [PPARgamma] coactivator-1alpha) activates PPARalpha and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), which regulate proteins, fatty acid and ATP metabolism (i.e., FAT/CD36, MCAD, and COX I). Recently we found that the salutary effects of estradiol (E2) on cardiac function following trauma-hemorrhage (T-H) are mediated via estrogen receptor (ER)beta. In this study we tested the hypothesis that ERbeta-mediated cardioprotection is induced via up-regulation of PGC-1alpha through PPARalpha or Tfam-dependent pathway. Male rats underwent T-H and received ERalpha agonist propylpyrazole-triol (PPT), ERbeta agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN), E2, or vehicle. Another group was treated with antisense PGC-1alpha oligonucleotides prior to administration of DPN. E2 and DPN treatments attenuated the decrease in cardiac mitochondrial ATP, abrogated the T-H-induced lipid accumulation, and normalized PGC-1alpha, PPARalpha, FAT/CD36, MCAD, Tfam, and COX I after T-H. In contrast, PPT administration did not abrogate lipid accumulation. Moreover, in PPT-treated animals mitochondrial ATP remained significantly lower than those observed in DPN- or E2-treated animals. Prior administration of antisense PGC-1alpha prevented DPN-mediated cardioprotection and increase in ATP levels and Tfam but not in PPARalpha following T-H. These findings suggest that the salutary effects of E2 on cardiac function following T-H are mediated via ERbeta up-regulation of PGC-1alpha through Tfam-dependent pathway.
    The FASEB Journal 07/2006; 20(8):1109-17. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although 17beta-estradiol (E2) administration after trauma-hemorrhage (T-H) reduces tissue neutrophil sequestration in male rodents, it remains unknown which of the estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes mediates this effect and whether the same ER subtype is involved in all the tissues. We hypothesized that the salutary effects of E2 on attenuation of neutrophil accumulation following T-H are tissue and receptor subtype-specific. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent sham operation or T-H (mean blood pressure, 40 mmHg for 90 min and then resuscitation). E2 (50 microg/kg), ER-alpha agonist propyl pyrazole triol (PPT; 5 microg/kg), ER-beta agonist diarylpropiolnitrile (DPN; 5 microg/kg), or vehicle (10% dimethyl sulfoxide) was administered subcutaneously during resuscitation. Twenty-four hours thereafter, tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity (a marker of neutrophil sequestration), cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, CINC-3, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 levels in the liver, intestine, and lung were measured (n = 6 rats/group). ER-alpha and ER-beta mRNA levels in sham-operated rats were also determined. T-H increased MPO activity, CINC-1, CINC-3, and ICAM-1 levels in the liver, intestine, and lung. These parameters were improved significantly in rats receiving E2 after T-H. Administration of the ER-alpha agonist PPT but not the ER-beta agonist DPN improved the measured parameters in the liver. In contrast, DPN but not PPT significantly improved these parameters in the lung. In the intestine, ER subtype specificity was not observed. ER-alpha mRNA expression was highest in the liver, whereas ER-beta mRNA expression was greatest in the lung. Thus, the salutary effects of E2 administration on tissue neutrophil sequestration following T-H are receptor subtype and tissue-specific.
    Journal of Leukocyte Biology 06/2006; 79(5):963-70. · 4.57 Impact Factor