[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The pathophysiology of sepsis consists of two phases. A first phase characterized by a substantial increase of pro-inflammatory mediators including cytokines and systemic inflammatory markers, and a second phase (immunoparalysis, immunodysregulation) associated with the rise of anti-inflammatory mediators. In this study we prospectively analyzed 52 consecutive patients with diagnosis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) at hospital admission to evaluate prognostic and early diagnostic performance of interleukin-10 (IL-10), soluble CD25 (sCD25) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and to confirm the prognostic accuracy of the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score. METHODS: Patients were divided in two groups (group 1 n = 28 patients with bacteremic SIRS and group 2 n = 24 patients with non-bacteremic SIRS) and then stratified into survivors (n = 39) and non-survivors (n = 13). Serum markers were evaluated on the day of hospital admission (D-1) and on the 7th day of hospital stay (D-7). Concentration of sCD25 was evaluated by a sandwich ELISA kit. Levels of IL-10 and IFN-gamma were quantified by a cytokine biochip array by the evidence investigator analyzer. Differences between groups were established by the Mann-Whitney test. Accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic markers were evaluated by the receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. Multivariate analysis was carried out to evaluate whether studied biomarker are independent predictors of poor outcome in prognosis, and of bacteremic SIRS in diagnosis. RESULTS: IL-10, sCD25 and SOFA score of survivors and non-survivors were significantly different both at D-1 (P=0.0014; P=0.014 and P=0.0311 respectively) and at D-7 (P=0.0002, P=0.014 and P=0.0012 respectively). Between the above groups IFN-gamma level was significantly different only at D-7 (P=0.0013). Moreover IL-10 and sCD25 were significantly higher in bacteremic versus non-bacteremic SIRS patients at D-1 and at D-7 (p<0.05). IFN-values showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in patients of group 1 only at D-7. The diagnostic accuracy of IL-10 and sCD25 was confirmed by the analysis of the AUROCC at D-1 and D-7 respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that sCD25 and IL-10 are independent predictors of a poor outcome for our patients during the first day of hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS: IL-10 and sCD25 gave a significant contribution to prognostic evaluation and early diagnosis of bacteremic SIRS. SOFA score appeared to be a reliable prognostic tool in this subset of patients.
Critical care (London, England) 04/2013; 17(2):R64. · 4.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a case of brain abscesses in a cirrhotic and diabetic 57-year-old woman showing fever, aphasia, right hemiparesis and seizures. Neuroradiological investigation revealed unilateral cerebritis evolving in multiple abscesses. From blood and surgical drainage samples Listeria monocytogenes grew in pure culture. Despite decompressive craniotomy, the patient died two months after hospital admission.
Le infezioni in medicina: rivista periodica di eziologia, epidemiologia, diagnostica, clinica e terapia delle patologie infettive 12/2012; 20(4):279-83.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pantoea agglomerans is an environmental organism which may seldom cause opportunistic infections. Here we report on a 6 case outbreak in a teaching hospital. Within three months . agglomerans was isolated from blood cultures of 5 patients from oncology and 1 patient from ICU departments. P. agglomerans was in pure culture in 5 cases, while in the last one Rahnella aquatilis and Candida famata were also isolated. Therefore, P. agglomerans is able to produce nosocomial infections in patients with primary pathology often associated with immune suppression.
The new microbiologica: official journal of the Italian Society for Medical, Odontoiatric, and Clinical Microbiology (SIMMOC) 02/2009; 32(1):119-23. · 1.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty-nine staphylococcal isolates from different clinical samples were tested for slime production: phenotypic characterization was carried out using Christensen test (tube test) and Congo red agar plate test (CRA plate test), while the presence and expression of icaA and icaD genes were evaluated by real-time PCR. In 79.3% of studied strains there was a concordance between slime production and presence of icaA and icaD genes, and between lack of slime production and absence of both or only one of the tested genes. In four of five strains where positive phenotype was not associated with the presence of ica genes, gene co-expression (evaluated by mRNA determination) was lacking, while in only a case out of five, there was the presence of transcripts without phenotype. Our study, for the first time, introduces real-time PCR for the detection of both icaA and icaD genes and their mRNA and, furthermore, addresses the relationship between slime phenotype absence and mRNA expression, in clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci.
Microbiological Research 11/2007; 164(5):522-8. · 1.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the applicability of the LightCycler Staphylococcus M(GRADE0 assay on artificially infected blood samples from healthy donors and on clinical specimens of 31 hospitalized patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay for detecting Staphylococcus aureus was 100% in blood samples, and 100% in blood culture bottles, when data from the BACTEC 9120 blood culture system were taken as gold standard. The same specificity and sensitivity was found during the search for CoNS (Coagulase Negative Staphylococci) in blood culture bottles, whereas a 93.33% sensitivity and 100% specificity was observed for detecting CoNS directly in blood clinical specimens.
Le infezioni in medicina: rivista periodica di eziologia, epidemiologia, diagnostica, clinica e terapia delle patologie infettive 07/2006; 14(2):71-6.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A case of deep brain abscess by Gemella morbillorum is described. Due to high fever, lethargy, severe headache, and the risk of intraventricular rupture of the suppurative lesion, a CT-guided stereotactic aspiration of the abscess was successfully performed. The patient responded well to a 6-week course of meropenem, metronidazole, and fluconazole. Gemella spp. should not be considered as trivial commensals of the mucous membranes, but appear as emerging pathogens involved in endocarditis, septic shock, and necrotizing pneumonia, as well as in serious intracranial infections.
Japanese journal of infectious diseases 05/2006; 59(2):126-8. · 1.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging pathogen implicated in an increasing number of severe pulmonary infections and nosocomial sepsis. We evaluated the influence of four different antibiotics on the bacterial count and LPS activity found in broth cultures of S. maltophilia. After 4 h ceftazidime (CTZ) decreased live bacteria but increased endotoxin activity, whilst isepamicin (ISE), tobramycin (TB), and polymyxin B (PB) reduced both of them. We also investigated the influence of the above mentioned antibiotics on the ability of S. maltophilia culture filtrates and S. maltophilia LPS, extracted in our laboratory, to stimulate sepsis mediators such as tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-a), interleukin 8 (IL-8), interleukin 10 (IL-10), Nitric Oxide (NO) and as bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) in human whole blood. Our results demonstrated that both single polycationic antibiotics and the combination of two molecules are able to kill bacteria and neutralize released S. maltophilia LPS. Combination between beta-lactams and aminoglycosides is often able to reduce the pro-inflammatory effects of S. maltophilia culture filtrates.
Le infezioni in medicina: rivista periodica di eziologia, epidemiologia, diagnostica, clinica e terapia delle patologie infettive 01/2005; 12(4):227-38.
Monaldi archives for chest disease = Archivio Monaldi per le malattie del torace / Fondazione clinica del lavoro, IRCCS [and] Istituto di clinica tisiologica e malattie apparato respiratorio, Università di Napoli, Secondo ateneo 07/1994; 49(3):268.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is continued interest in the development of oral beta-lactam compounds, which can be used clinically to treat various bacterial infections, particularly those caused by beta-haemolytic streptococci. Cefixime is a new orally active cephalosporin, with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, including Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus influenzae, Branhamella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. Cefixime is highly resistant to hydrolysis by most beta-lactamases. In this study the authors examined the effects of this molecule on Group A and Group B beta-haemolytic streptococci, recently isolated from clinical specimens in the authors' laboratory. MICs and the growth curves of 36 strains of Group A streptococci and the effects of sub-MICs on buccal cell adhesion were evaluated. The results show that concerning the sub-MIC cefixime effect on streptococci adherence, the treatment led to a decrease in adherence to the cells of the strains studied. Moreover cefixime showed good activity with 86.1% of the strains with MIC less than or equal to 0.5 microgram/ml, and the growth curves demonstrated that the molecule possesses a bactericidal effect after 3 h. Concerning Group B streptococci, 70.3% of the strains showed a MIC less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml. In conclusion cefixime demonstrates good activity on beta-haemolytic streptococci, particularly those of Group A.
Drugs under experimental and clinical research 02/1991; 17(6):305-8.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study the in vitro antibacterial effects of cefixime are presented. Its activity was studied by evaluation of MICs, MBCs and the disc diffusion susceptibility method on Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Moreover, the coefficient of correlation between MIC values and the disc diffusion susceptibility test was evaluated. The results support the wide antimicrobial activity of cefixime, which appears to be particularly effective against enterobacteria.
Drugs under experimental and clinical research 02/1990; 16(4):175-9.