[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two new 13,28-epoxyoleanane triterpene saponins, magnosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the 95% ethanolic extract of Cybianthus magnus (Mez) Pipoly roots. Their structures were deduced by a combination of spectral analyses and chemical evidences as compared to data reported in the literature. The hemolytic activity of both compounds was measured. Compound 1 was shown to exhibit the strongest hemolytic activity with a HD50 of 3.8 μM followed by 2 with a HD50 of 33.5 μM. The bioactivity of compounds 1 and 2 was also evaluated in vitro against different cellular models including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Leishmania amazonensis axenic amastigotes, mouse peritoneal macrophages and eight cancer cell lines. While neither of the tested compounds displayed any activity against M. tuberculosis, both exhibited anti-leishmanial activity against axenic amastigotes as well as in vitro growth inhibitory activity against all tested cancer cell lines with IC50 growth inhibitory concentrations ranging between 4 μM and 33 μM. The compounds displayed similar growth inhibitory activity in cancer cell lines sensitive to pro-apoptotic stimuli versus those displaying various levels of resistance to such stimuli. Quantitative videomicroscopy analyses revealed that compounds 1 and 2 are cytotoxic.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neglected diseases represent a major health problem. It is estimated that one third of the world population is infected with tuberculosis and additionally Leishmaniosis and Chagas disease affect approximately 30 million people. N-Acylhydrazone moiety is a repeated functional group present in several prototypes and drug candidates for these neglected diseases. On the other hand, furoxan system has been studied as pharmacophore for Leishmaniosis and Chagas diseases. Here we report on the design and preparation of forty hybrid furoxanyl N-acylhydrazones and on their activity on Mycobacterium tuberculosis, H37Rv and MDR strains, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania amazonensis. Among them, four derivatives displayed excellent to good selectivity indexes against the three different microorganisms. Hybrid compound N'-(4-phenyl-3-furoxanylmethylidene)isoniazide 9 showed the best antibacterial profile with MIC value 4.5 lesser than the value for the reference isoniazid against MDR strain. Furoxanyl N-acylhydrazone (E)-2-methyl-N'-(4-phenyl-3-furoxanylmethylidene)-4H-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-carbohydrazide 15 was ten-fold more potent against T. cruzi Amastigotes than the standard drug nifurtimox. On the other hand, derivatives (E)-N'-(5-benzofuroxanylmethylidene)benzo[d][1,3]dioxole-5-carbohydrazide 25 and (E)-N'-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylmethylidene)-3-methylfuroxan-4-carbohydrazide 37 emerged as leads for the development of new leishmanicidal agents. The adequate stability, in simulated biological system and plasma, and the lack of mutagenicity of these derivatives allow us to propose them as candidates for further pre-clinical studies.
European journal of medicinal chemistry 11/2012; 59C:64-74. · 3.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two new dihydrochalcones (1, 2), as well as eight known compounds, piperaduncin C (3), 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxydihydrochalcone (4), 4,2',6'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxydihydrochalcone (5), 4-hydroxy-3,5-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-benzoic acid (6), 3,5-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-4-methoxybenzoic acid (7), 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenoyl)-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-benzoic acid (8), 2,2-dimethyl-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylic acid (9), and 3-(3',7'-dimethyl-2',6'-octadienyl)-4-methoxybenzoic acid (10) were isolated from the leaves of Piper dennisii Trelease (Piperaceae), using a bioassay-guided fractionation to determine their antileishmanial potential. Among them, compound 10 exhibited the best antileishmanial activity (IC50 = 20.8 µM) against axenic amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis, with low cytotoxicity on murine macrophages. In the intracellular macrophage-infected model, compound 10 proved to be more active (IC50 = 4.2 µM). The chemical structures of compounds 1-10 were established based on the analysis of the spectroscopic data.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two known 13,28-epoxy-oleanane triterpene saponins (1) and (2), were isolated from the 95%
ethanolic extract of the roots of Myrsine coriaceae and Myrsine andina. Their structures were
deduced by combined spectral analysis and chemical evidences based on data reported in the
literature. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated in vitro against different cellular models such as
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Leishmania amazonensis axenic amastigotes, six human cancer
cell lines (Hs683, T98G, U251, HT29, MCF7, SKMEL28) and two murine cell lines (CT26
and B16F10). Compound 1 was found to exhibit antileishmanial activity (IC = 16 μg/mL) 50
whereas compound 2 was inactive (IC > 50 μg/mL). Furthermore, compound 1 exhibited 50
stronger inhibition activity on human cancer cells (IC = 15 μg/mL) and on murine cell lines 50
(IC = 10 μg/mL) than compound 2 (IC > 82 and 42 μg/mL, respectively). As the only 50 50
difference between 1 and 2 is due to a substitution of an aldehyde group by a hydroxymethyl
moiety, these results showed the crucial role of the aldehyde function at C-30 for the
cytotoxicity. In contrast, none of the tested compounds revealed activity against M.
Boletín de la Sociedad Química del Péru 01/2012; 78(3):188-197.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study of traditional remedies used by the Chayahuita, an ethnic group from the Peruvian Amazonia, has prompted us to investigate in detail the ethanolic extract of Pseudelephantopus spicatus (Juss. ex Aubl.) C.F. Baker, which has demonstrated strong biological activity towards Leishmania amazonensis. Our goal was to discover the active compound of this plant-based remedy.
A bioguided fractionation of the crude extract was undertaken based on the biological activity recorded against Leishmania amazonensis axenic amastigotes in in vitro bioassays.
Three strongly to moderately active compounds were isolated: two hirsutinolides (the 8,13-diacetyl-piptocarphol and the 8-acetyl-13-O-ethyl-piptocarphol) and ursolic acid. IC(50) against Leishmania amazonensis axenic amastigotes are respectively 0.2, 0.37 and 0.99 μM (while IC(50) of amphotericin B is 0.41 μM). These compounds have never been isolated from this plant species, and germacranolides have never been identified as potential antileishmanial agents.
The compounds isolated from Pseudelephantopus spicatus account for the antileishmanial activity of the plant, thus giving support to its use by the Chayahuita in Peru.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 09/2011; 137(1):875-9. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RESUMEN En el presente trabajo se evaluó la actividad antifúngica de los extractos etanólicos de Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum. (Apocynaceae), Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae), Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth.) Hook. f. ex K. Schum. (Rubiaceae) y Psidium acutangulum DC (Myrtaceae), cuatro plantas utilizadas en la medicina tradicional peruana contra las infecciones micóticas de la piel. El extracto etanólico de Psidium acutangulum fue el más activo contra los hongos evaluados (Candida albicans, Sporothrix schenckii y Trychophyton mentagrophytes), por lo que fue sometido a fraccionamiento biodirigido que condujo al aislamiento de 3'-formil-2',4',6'-trihidroxidihidrochalcona. Este compuesto mostró concentraciones inhibitorias mínimas en el rango de 16-512 µg/mL contra los hongos Cryptococcus neoformans, S. schenckii y varias especies de Candida. Los resultados obtenidos apoyan el uso de Psidium acutangulum en la medicina tradicional peruana. Su actividad antifúngica se debe principalmente a la 3'-formil-2',4',6'-trihidroxidihidrochalcona. ABSTRACT We report here the antifungal activities of the ethanolic extracts of Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum. (Apocynaceae), Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae), Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth.) Hook. f. ex K. Schum. (Rubiaceae) and Psidium acutangulum DC (Myrtaceae), four plants used in peruvian traditional medicine against skin mycosis. The most active sample against the evaluated fungi (Candida albicans, Sporothrix schenckii and Trychophyton mentagrophytes) was the ethanol extract of Psidium acutangulum, which was submitted to bioassay-guided fractionation, leading to the isolation of 3'-formyl-2',4',6'-trihydroxydihydrochalcone. This compound showed minimum inhibitory concentrations of a b c
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of N'-substituted-2-(5-nitrofuran or 5-nitrothiophen-2-yl)-3H-benzo[d]imidazole-5-carbohydrazide derivatives were synthesized and investigated for their abilities to inhibit β-hematin formation, hemoglobin hydrolysis and in vivo for their antimalarial efficacy in rodent Plasmodium berghei. Selected analogues were screened for their antitubercular activity against sensitive MTB H(37)Rv and multidrug-resistant MDR-MTB strains, and cytotoxic activity against a panel of human tumor cell lines and two nontumourogenic cell lines. Compounds 3a, 5a, f, 6g were the most promising as inhibitors of β-hematin formation, however, their effect as inhibitors of hemoglobin hydrolysis were marginal. The most active compounds to emerge from the in vitro and in vivo murine studies were 3a and 6i, suggesting an antimalarial activity via inhibition of β-hematin formation and are as efficient as chloroquine. The cytotoxic and antitubercular activities of the present compounds were not comparable with those of the standard drugs employed. But, however, compound 5b showed better antitubercular activity compared to rifampin against multidrug-resistant MDR-MTB strains. Compounds 3a, 6i and 5b showed a good safety index.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we report four new dihydro-β-agarofuran sesquiterpenes (1-4), which were isolated from the leaves of Celastrus vulcanicola, in addition to five derivatives (5-9). Their stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, X-ray studies, chemical correlations and biogenetic means. Compounds 1-9 and the previously reported sesquiterpenes 10-25 have been tested as potential antimycobacterial agents against sensitive and resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. 1α-Acetoxy-6β,9β-dibenzoyloxy-dihydro-β-agarofuran (20) exhibited antituberculosis activity against the MDR TB strain with a MIC value of 6.2 μg/mL, comparable to or better than isoniazid or rifampin, two of the best first-line drugs commonly used in the treatment of TB. The structure-activity relationship is discussed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bioassay-guided purification of the ethanolic extract from the leaves of Piper hispidum led to the isolation of one new amide, N-2-(3',4',5'-trimethoxyphenyl)ethyl-2-hydroxybenzamide (1) as well as two known chalcones 2'-hydroxy-3',4',6'-trimethoxychalcone (2); 2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxychalcone (cardamonin, 3) and one known flavanone, 5,7-dihydroxyflavanone (Pinocembrin, 4). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, including homo-and heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments (COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and comparison with data reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were tested against Leishmania amazonensis axenic amastigotes. The results showed that the known chalcone 2 exhibited the most potent antileishmanial activity with an IC(50) of 0.8 mu M (amphotericin B: IC(50) = 0.2 mu M) but was shown to exhibit mild cytotoxicity. (C) 2011 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three new caffeic acid esters (1-3), four new lignans (4-7), and the known compounds (7'S)-parabenzlactone (8), dihydrocubebin (9), and justiflorinol (10) have been isolated from leaves of Piper sanguineispicum. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR, HRCIMS, CD experiments, and chemical methods. Compounds 1-10 were assessed for their antileishmanial potential against axenic amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis. Caffeic acid esters 1 and 3 exhibited the best antileishmanial activity (IC(50) 2.0 and 1.8 μM, respectively) with moderate cytotoxicity on murine macrophages.
Journal of Natural Products 10/2010; 73(11):1884-90. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antimycobacterial activities of eight diterpenes, 1-8, isolated previously from Plectranthus and eleven esters, 9-19, of 7alpha-acetoxy-6beta,12-dihydroxyabieta-8,12-diene-11,14-dione (5) were evaluated against the MTB strains H(37)Rv and MDR. Only diterpenoids with a quinone framework revealed anti-MTB activity. Abietane 5 and its 6,12-dibenzoyl, 12-methoxybenzoyl, 12-chlorobenzoyl, and 12-nitrobenzoyl esters, 9, 11, 12, and 13, respectively, showed potent activities against the MDR strain with MIC values between 3.12 and 0.39 microg/ml. Cytotoxic activities towards 3T3 and Vero cells were also evaluated. Compound 11, with the best selectivity index, may be a suitable lead for further chemical modifications. The complete structural elucidation of the new esters, 9-14, 16, 18, and 19, as well as the NMR data of known derivatives 15 and 17 are reported.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A pharmacological screening of the ethanol extract and fractions of two Peruvian medicinal plants, Plagiochila disticha and Ambrosia peruviana, led to the isolation and characterization of three ENT-2,3-secoaromadendrane-type sesquiterpenoids, named plagiochiline A ( 1), I ( 2), and R ( 3), as well as of two pseudoguaianolids, damsin ( 4) and confertin ( 5), which exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against a panel of human tumor cell lines. Compounds 1, 4, and 5 were also investigated for their in vitro antileishmanial, trypanocidal, and antituberculosis activity against Leishmania amazonensis axenic amastigotes and Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes, as well as against MDR and sensitive strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A knowledge attitude and practice study centred on leishmaniasis and its treatment was performed among the Chayahuita, an Amazonian Peruvian ethnic group living in an endemic area. This study documents traditional Chayahuita plant's use and disease concepts. Also, activity of some medicinal plants used by the Chayahuita is highlighted and discussed.
Ninety-three Chayahuita people were interviewed, following a semi-structured questionnaire focussed on disease knowledge and perception, personal attitude and healing practices. Simultaneously, a collection of plants was performed in different ecotopes, in order to make an extensive inventory of the pharmacopoeia.
For the Chayahuita, cutaneous (CL) and muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) are considered as diseases of their own, with specific names, aetiologies, mode of transmission. Regarding CL, Chayahuita people consider that the humid characteristic of the skin ulcer is a discriminative fact orienting the diagnostic forTa'ta' (leishmaniasis). Forty-six different species were designated useful against LC and /or MCL (29 species by means of the questionnaire and 27 species when collecting in different ecotopes). Thirty-seven extracts corresponding to 31 species used medicinally were screened in vitro against Leishmania amazonensis axenic amastigotes, assessing their viability by the reduction of tetrazolium salt (MTT). Six species displayed a good activity (10 microg/ml<IC50<20 microg/ml): an undetermined hemi-epiphytic Clusiaceae, Cybianthus anthuriophyllus Pipoly (Myrsinaceae), two Piper, Piper sanguineispicum Trel., and Piper loretoanum Trel. (Piperaceae), Desmodium axillare Sw. DC. (Fabaceae), and Clibadium sylvestre (Aubl.) Baill. (Asteraceae).
Perception of leishmaniasis, attitude, treatments and diet prohibitions still largely reflects traditional Chayahuita cosmovision, even if some tentative of bio-medical re-interpretation is arising.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 07/2009; 126(1):149-58. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ninety-four ethanolic extracts of plants used medicinally by the Yanesha, an Amazonian Peruvian ethnic group, for affections related to leishmaniasis and malaria were screened in vitro against Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes and against a Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant strain.
The viability of Leishmania amazonensis amastigote stages was assessed by the reduction of tetrazolium salt (MTT) while the impact on Plasmodium falciparum was determined by measuring the incorporation of radio-labelled hypoxanthine.
Six plant species displayed good activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant strain (IC(50) < 10 microg/ml): a Monimiaceae, Siparuna aspera (Ruiz & Pavon), A. DC., two Zingiberaceae, Renealmia thyrsoidea (Ruiz & Pavon) Poepp. & Endl. and Renealmia alpinia (Rottb.), two Piperaceae (Piper aduncum L. and Piper sp.) and the leaves of Jacaranda copaia (Aubl.) D. Don (Bignoniaceae). Eight species displayed interesting leishmanicidal activities (IC50 < 10 microg/ml): Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae), Piper dennisii Trel (Piperaceae), Hedychium coronarium J. König (Zingiberaceae), Cestrum racemosum Ruiz & Pav. (Solanaceae), Renealmia alpinia (Rottb.) Zingiberaceae, Lantana sp. (Verbenaceae), Hyptis lacustris A. St.-Hil. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae) and Calea montana Klat. (Asteraceae). Most of them are used against skin affections by Yanesha people. Results are discussed herein, according to the traditional use of the plants and compared with data obtained from the literature.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2009; 123(3):413-22. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A multidisciplinary and international team of scientists was assembled in the early 1990s to conduct an ethnobotanical study of plants used by the Aguaruna people of the Peruvian Amazon forest. The initial ethnobotanical project, carried out under the auspices of an International Cooperative Biodiversity Grant (ICBG), led to the collection of approximately 4000 plant species. Some members of the original team of scientists have continued this collaboration by focusing on potential sources of new anticancer, anti-infective, and wound-healing agents. This effort has uncovered several secondary metabolites representing a wide variety of chemical diversity. In this short review we describe some bioactive compounds of interest as part of our continuing collaboration.
Journal of Natural Products 03/2009; 72(3):524-6. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A pharmacological screening of the ethanol extract and fractions of Blepharodon nitidum led to the isolation of fourteen compounds, two of which, 24-hydroperoxycycloart-25-en-3beta-ol and 25-hydroperoxycycloart-23-en-3beta-ol, exhibited in vitro anti- Mycobacterium tuberculosis and antileishmanial activities, as well as significant cytotoxic activity against a panel of human tumor cell lines.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antiproliferative bioassay-guided fractionation of five Peruvian plants, Doliocarpus dentatus, Picramnia sellowii, Strychnos mitscherlichii, Iryanthera juruensis, and Croton alnifolius, led to the isolation and identification of their different major cytotoxic constituents, betulinic acid (1), nataloe-emodin (2), bisnordihydrotoxyferine (4), 2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxydihydrochalcone (5), and 2',4'-dihydroxy-4,6'-dimethoxydihydrochalcone (6) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (7), respectively. Eight human tumor cell lines and two nontumorigenic cell lines were used in this investigation. Their in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is also reported.
Journal of Natural Products 02/2008; 71(1):102-5. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 27 ethanolic plant extracts from 27 species were screened for leishmanicidal activity in vitro against Leishmania amazonensis. Most of the selected species (19) are traditionally used by the Chayahuitas, an Amazonian Peruvian ethnic group, to treat skin affections and/or leishmaniasis.
A colorimetric method based on the reduction of tetrazolium salt (MTT) was used to measure the viability of Leishmania amazonensis promastigote and amastigote stages.
Only the leaves of two species of the Piperaceae family (Piper hispidum Sw., and Piper strigosum Trel.) showed good leishmanicidal activities (IC(50)<10 microg/ml against amastigotes). Roots of Tabernaemontana sananho Ruiz & Pav. (Apocynaceae), together with bark of Vismia tomentosa Ruiz & Pav. (Clusiaceae), fruits of Solanum straminifolium var straminifolium Jacq. (Solanaceae), and stems of Zamia lindenii Regel ex André (Cycadaceae) showed low activity against amastigote stage (IC(50) around 50 microg/ml). Of those only Tabernaemontana sananho displayed also good activity on promastigotes (IC(50)<10 microg/ml). Results are discussed herein, in relation with the traditional use of the plants and compared with other data from the relevant literature.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 11/2007; 114(2):254-9. · 2.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracts of seven medicinal plants used specifically against cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Madre de Dios region of Peru were evaluated in vitro against promastigote and axenic amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis. One of them showed interesting leishmanicidal activities (IC(50)=5 microg/ml in amastigotes). Bio-guided isolation of the stem bark's ethanol extract of Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce ex Müll. Arg.) Woodson (Apocynaceae) afforded the spirolactone iridoids isoplumericin and plumericin. The latter showed a reduction of macrophage infection similar to that of the reference drug Amphotericin B (IC(50)=0.9 and 1 microM, respectively). These findings validate the traditional use of Himatanthus sucuuba in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (Uta) in Peru.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 07/2007; 112(2):410-4. · 2.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uncaria tomentosa, commonly known as cat's claw, is a medicinal plant native to Peru, which has been used for decades in the treatment of various inflammatory disorders. Uncaria tomentosa can be used as an antioxidant, has anti-apoptotic properties, and can enhance DNA repair, however it is best know for its anti-inflammatory properties. Treatment with Uncaria tomentosa extracts inhibits the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-alpha, which is a critical mediator of the immune response. In this paper, we showed that treatment of THP-1 monocyte-like cells with Uncaria tomentosa extracts inhibited the MAP kinase signaling pathway and altered cytokine expression. Using ELISA assays, we showed that treatment with Uncaria tomentosa extracts augmented LPS-dependent expression of IL-1beta by 2.4-fold, while inhibiting the LPS-dependent expression of TNF-alpha by 5.5-fold. We also showed that treatment of LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells with Uncaria tomentosa extracts blocked ERK1/2 and MEK1/2 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. These data demonstrate that treatment of THP-1 cells with Uncaria tomentosa extracts has opposite effects on IL-1beta and TNF-alpha secretion, and that these changes may involve effects on the MAP kinase pathway.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 02/2007; 109(2):312-7. · 2.76 Impact Factor