[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Flavonol 3-O-diglucosides with a 1→2 interglycosidic linkage are representative pollen-specific flavonols widely distributed in plants, but their biosynthetic genes and physiological roles are not well understood. Flavonoid analysis of four Arabidopsis floral organs (pistils, stamens, petals and calyxes) and flowers of wild-type and male sterility 1 (ms1) mutants, which are defective in normal development of pollen and tapetum, showed that kaempferol/quercetin 3-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-ß-D-glucopyranosides accumulated in Arabidopsis pollen. Microarray data using wild-type and ms1 mutants, gene expression patterns in various organs, and phylogenetic analysis of UGTs suggest that UGT79B6 (At5g54010) is a key modification enzyme for determining pollen-specific flavonol structure. Kaempferol- and quercetin 3-O-glucosyl-(1→2)-glucosides were absent from two independent ugt79b6 knockout mutants. Transgenic ugt79b6 mutant lines transformed with the genomic UGT79B6 gene had the same flavonoid profile as wild-type plants. Recombinant UGT79B6 protein converted kaempferol 3-O-glucoside to kaempferol 3-O-glucosyl-(1→2)-glucoside. UGT79B6 recognized 3-O-glucosylated/galactosylated anthocyanins/flavonols but not 3,5- or 3,7-diglycosylated flavonoids, and prefers UDP-glucose, indicating that UGT79B6 encodes flavonoid 3-O-glucoside: 2"-O-glucosyltransferase. A UGT79B6-ß-glucuronidase fusion showed that UGT79B6 was localized in tapetum cells and microspores of developing anthers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify candidate genes involved in Arabidopsis flavonoid biosynthesis, we applied transcriptome coexpression analysis and independent component analyses with 1388 microarray data from publicly available databases. Two glycosyltransferases, UGT79B1 and UGT84A2 were found to cluster with anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. Anthocyanin was drastically reduced in ugt79b1 knockout mutants. Recombinant UGT79B1 protein converted cyanidin 3-O-glucoside to cyanidin 3-O-xylosyl(1→2)glucoside. UGT79B1 recognized 3-O-glucosylated anthocyanidins/flavonols and uridine diphosphate (UDP)-xylose, but not 3,5-O-diglucosylated anthocyanidins, indicating that UGT79B1 encodes anthocyanin 3-O-glucoside: 2''-O-xylosyltransferase. UGT84A2 is known to encode sinapic acid: UDP-glucosyltransferase. In ugt84a2 knockout mutants, a major sinapoylated anthocyanin was drastically reduced. A comparison of anthocyanin profiles in ugt84a knockout mutants indicated that UGT84A2 plays a major role in sinapoylation of anthocyanin, and that other UGT84As contribute the production of 1-O-sinapoylglucose to a lesser extent. These data suggest major routes from cyanidin 3-O-glucoside to the most highly modified cyanidin in the potential intricate anthocyanin modification pathways in Arabidopsis.
The Plant Journal 09/2011; 69(1):154-67. · 6.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In plants, pollen is the male gametophyte that is generated from microspores, which are haploid cells produced after meiosis of diploid pollen mother cells in floral anthers. In normal maturation, microspores interact with the tapetum, which consists of one layer of metabolically active cells enclosing the locule in anthers. The tapetum plays several important roles in the maturation of microspores. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a highly conserved protein super-family that uses the energy released in ATP hydrolysis to transport substrates. The ABC transporter gene family is more diverse in plants than in animals. Previously, we reported that an Arabidopsis half-size type ABC transporter gene, COF1/AtWBC11/AtABCG11, is involved in lipid transport for the construction of cuticle layers and pollen coats in normal organ formation, as compared to CER5/AtWBC12/AtABCG12. However, physiological functions of most other ABCG members are unknown. Here, we identified another family gene, AtABCG26, which is required for pollen development in Arabidopsis. An AtABCG26 mutant developed very few pollen grains, resulting in a male-sterile phenotype. By investigating microspore and pollen development in this mutant, we observed that there was a slight abnormality in tetrad morphology prior to the formation of haploid microspores. At a later stage, we could not detect exine deposition on the microspore surface. During pollen maturation, many grains in the mutant anthers got aborted, and surviving grains were found to be defective in mitosis. Transmission of the mutant allele through male gametophytes appeared to be normal in genetic transmission analysis, supporting the view that the pollen function was disturbed by sporophytic defects in the AtABCG26 mutant. AtABCG26 can be expected to be involved in the transport of substrates such as sporopollenin monomers from tapetum to microspores, which both are plant-specific structures critical to pollen development.
Journal of plant physiology 06/2011; 168(16):2001-5. · 2.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A majority of the proteins of the chloroplast are encoded by the nuclear genome, and are post-translationally targeted to the chloroplast. From databases of tagged insertion lines at international seed stock centers and our own stock, we selected 3246 Ds/Spm (dissociator/suppressor-mutator) transposon- or T-DNA-tagged Arabidopsis lines for genes encoding 1369 chloroplast proteins (about 66% of the 2090 predicted chloroplast proteins) in which insertions disrupt the protein-coding regions. We systematically observed 3-week-old seedlings grown on agar plates, identified mutants with abnormal phenotypes and collected homozygous lines with wild-type phenotypes. We also identified insertion lines for which no homozygous plants were obtained. To date, we have identified 111 lines with reproducible seedling phenotypes, 122 lines for which we could not obtain homozygotes and 1290 homozygous lines without a visible phenotype. The Chloroplast Function Database presents the molecular and phenotypic information obtained from this resource. The database provides tools for searching for mutant lines using Arabidopsis Genome Initiative (AGI) locus numbers, tagged line numbers and phenotypes, and provides rapid access to detailed information on the tagged line resources. Moreover, our collection of insertion homozygotes provides a powerful tool to accelerate the functional analysis of nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins in Arabidopsis. The Chloroplast Function Database is freely available at http://rarge.psc.riken.jp/chloroplast/. The homozygous lines generated in this project are also available from the various Arabidopsis stock centers. We have donated the insertion homozygotes to their originating seed stock centers.
The Plant Journal 11/2009; 61(3):529-42. · 6.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Responses to water stress are thought to be mediated by transcriptional regulation of gene expression via reversible protein phosphorylation events. Previously, we reported that bZIP (basic-domain leucine zipper)-type AREB/ABF (ABA-responsive element-binding protein/factor) transcription factors are involved in ABA signaling under water stress conditions in Arabidopsis. The AREB1 protein is phosphorylated in vitro by ABA-activated SNF1-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s) such as SRK2D/SnRK2.2, SRK2E/SnRK2.6 and SRK2I/SnRK2.3 (SRK2D/E/I). Consistent with this, we now show that SRK2D/E/I and AREB1 co-localize and interact in nuclei in planta. Our results show that unlike srk2d, srk2e and srk2i single and double mutants, srk2d srk2e srk2i (srk2d/e/i) triple mutants exhibit greatly reduced tolerance to drought stress and highly enhanced insensitivity to ABA. Under water stress conditions, ABA- and water stress-dependent gene expression, including that of transcription factors, is globally and drastically impaired, and jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive and flowering genes are up-regulated in srk2d/e/i triple mutants, but not in other single and double mutants. The down-regulated genes in srk2d/e/i and areb/abf triple mutants largely overlap in ABA-dependent expression, supporting the view that SRK2D/E/I regulate AREB/ABFs in ABA signaling in response to water stress. Almost all dehydration-responsive LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) protein genes and group-A PP2C (protein phosphatase 2C) genes are strongly down-regulated in the srk2d/e/i triple mutants. Further, our data show that these group-A PP2Cs, such as HAI1 and ABI1, interact with SRK2D. Together, our results indicate that SRK2D/E/I function as main positive regulators, and suggest that ABA signaling is controlled by the dual modulation of SRK2D/E/I and group-A PP2Cs.
Plant and Cell Physiology 10/2009; 50(12):2123-32. · 4.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BRCA2 is a breast tumour susceptibility factor with functions in maintaining genome stability through ensuring efficient double-strand DNA break (DSB) repair via homologous recombination. Although best known in vertebrates, fungi, and higher plants also possess BRCA2-like genes. To investigate the role of Arabidopsis BRCA2 genes in DNA repair in somatic cells, transposon insertion mutants of the AtBRCA2a and AtBRCA2b genes were identified and characterized. atbrca2a-1 and atbrca2b-1 mutant plants showed hypersensitivity to genotoxic stresses compared to wild-type plants. An atbrca2a-1/atbrca2b-1 double mutant showed an additive increase in sensitivity to genotoxic stresses compared to each single mutant. In addition, it was found that atbrca2 mutant plants displayed fasciation and abnormal phyllotaxy phenotypes with low incidence, and that the ratio of plants exhibiting these phenotypes is increased by gamma-irradiation. Interestingly, these phenotypes were also induced by gamma-irradiation in wild-type plants. Moreover, it was found that shoot apical meristems of the atbrca2a-1/atbrca2b-1 double mutant show altered cell cycle progression. These data suggest that inefficient DSB repair in the atbrca2a-1/atbrca2b-1 mutant leads to disorganization of the programmed cell cycle of apical meristems.
Journal of Experimental Botany 06/2009; 60(9):2751-61. · 5.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Arabidopsis thaliana MALE STERILITY1 (MS1) gene encodes a nuclear protein with Leu zipper-like and PHD-finger motifs and is important for postmeiotic pollen development. Here, we examined MS1 function using both cell biological and molecular biological approaches. We introduced a fusion construct of MS1 and a transcriptional repression domain (MS1-SRDX) into wild-type Arabidopsis, and the transgenic plants showed a semisterile phenotype similar to that of ms1. Since the repression domain can convert various kinds of transcriptional activators to dominant repressors, this suggested that MS1 functioned as a transcriptional activator. The Leu zipper-like region and the PHD motif were required for the MS1 function. Phenotypic analysis of the ms1 mutant and the MS1-SRDX transgenic Arabidopsis indicated that MS1 was involved in formation of pollen exine and pollen cytosolic components as well as tapetum development. Next, we searched for MS1 downstream genes by analyzing publicly available microarray data and identified 95 genes affected by MS1. Using a transgenic ms1 plant showing dexamethasone-inducible recovery of fertility, we further examined whether these genes were immediately downstream of MS1. From these results, we discuss a role of MS1 in pollen and tapetum development and the conservation of MS1 function in flowering plants.
The Plant Cell 12/2007; 19(11):3549-62. · 9.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the functions of nuclear genes involved in chloroplast development, we systematically analyzed albino and pale green Arabidopsis thaliana mutants by use of the Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) transposon tagging system. In this study, we focused on one of these albino mutants, designated apg3-1 (for a lbino or p ale g reen mutant 3). A gene encoding a ribosome release factor 1 (RF1) homologue was disrupted by the insertion of a Ds transposon into the APG3 gene; a T-DNA insertion into the same gene caused a similar phenotype (apg3-2). The APG3 gene (At3g62910) has 15 exons and encodes a protein (422-aa) with a transit peptide that functions in targeting the protein to chloroplasts. The amino acid sequence of APG3 showed 40.6% homology with an RF1 of Escherichia coli, and complementation analysis using the E. coli rf1 mutant revealed that APG3 functions as an RF1 in E. coli, although complementation was not successful in the RF2-deficient (rf2) mutants of E. coli. These results indicate that the APG3 protein is an orthologue of E. coli RF1, and is essential for chloroplast translation machinery; it was accordingly named AtcpRF1. Since the chloroplasts of apg3-1 plants contained few internal thylakoid membranes, and chloroplast proteins related to photosynthesis were not detected by immunoblot analysis, AtcpRF1 is thought to be essential for chloroplast development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Receptor-like kinases (RLK) comprise a large gene family within the Arabidopsis genome and play important roles in plant growth and development as well as in hormone and stress responses. Here we report that a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK), RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE2 (RPK2), is a key regulator of anther development in Arabidopsis. Two RPK2 T-DNA insertional mutants (rpk2-1 and rpk2-2) displayed enhanced shoot growth and male sterility due to defects in anther dehiscence and pollen maturation. The rpk2 anthers only developed three cell layers surrounding the male gametophyte: the middle layer was not differentiated from inner secondary parietal cells. Pollen mother cells in rpk2 anthers could undergo meiosis, but subsequent differentiation of microspores was inhibited by tapetum hypertrophy, with most resulting pollen grains exhibiting highly aggregated morphologies. The presence of tetrads and microspores in individual anthers was observed during microspore formation, indicating that the developmental homeostasis of rpk2 anther locules was disrupted. Anther locules were finally crushed without stomium breakage, a phenomenon that was possibly caused by inadequate thickening and lignification of the endothecium. Microarray analyses revealed that many genes encoding metabolic enzymes, including those involved in cell wall metabolism and lignin biosynthesis, were downregulated throughout anther development in rpk2 mutants. RPK2 mRNA was abundant in the tapetum of wild-type anthers during microspore maturation. These results suggest that RPK2 controls tapetal cell fate by triggering subsequent tapetum degradation, and that mutating RPK2 impairs normal pollen maturation and anther dehiscence due to disruption of key metabolic pathways.
The Plant Journal 07/2007; 50(5):751-66. · 6.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates physiologically important developmental processes and stress responses. Previously, we reported on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) L. Heynh. ahg mutants, which are hypersensitive to ABA during germination and early growth. Among them, ABA-hypersensitive germination3 (ahg3) showed the strongest ABA hypersensitivity. In this study, we found that the AHG3 gene is identical to AtPP2CA, which encodes a protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C). Although AtPP2CA has been reported to be involved in the ABA response on the basis of results obtained by reverse-genetics approaches, its physiological relevance in the ABA response has not been clarified yet. We demonstrate in vitro and in vivo that the ahg3-1 missense mutation causes the loss of PP2C activity, providing concrete confirmation that this PP2C functions as a negative regulator in ABA signaling. Furthermore, we compared the effects of disruption mutations of eight structurally related PP2C genes of Arabidopsis, including ABI1, ABI2, HAB1, and HAB2, and found that the disruptant mutant of AHG3/AtPP2CA had the strongest ABA hypersensitivity during germination, but it did not display any significant phenotypes in adult plants. Northern-blot analysis clearly showed that AHG3/AtPP2CA is the most active among those PP2C genes in seeds. These results suggest that AHG3/AtPP2CA plays a major role among PP2Cs in the ABA response in seeds and that the functions of those PP2Cs overlap, but their unique tissue- or development-specific expression confers distinct and indispensable physiological functions in the ABA response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study we characterized the sensitive to low humidity 1 (slh1) mutant of Arabidopsis ecotype No-0 which exhibits normal growth on agar plate medium but which on transfer to soil shows growth arrest and development of necrotic lesions. cDNA microarray hybridization and RNA gel blot analysis revealed that genes associated with activation of disease resistance were upregulated in the slh1 mutants in response to conditions of low humidity. Furthermore, the slh1 mutants accumulate callose, autofluorescent compounds and salicylic acid (SA). We demonstrate that SA is required for the slh1 phenotype but not PAD4 or NPR1. SLH1 was isolated by map-based cloning and it encodes a resistance (R)-like protein consisting of a domain with Toll and interleukin-1 receptor homology (TIR), a nucleotide-binding domain (NB), leucine-rich repeats (LRR) and a carboxy-terminal WRKY domain. SLH1 is identical to the R gene RRS1-R of the Arabidopsis ecotype Nd-1, a gene which confers resistance to the bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum GMI1000 and also functions as an R gene to this pathogen in No-0. We identified a 3 bp insertion mutation in slh1 that results in the addition of a single amino acid in the WRKY domain; thereby impairing its DNA-binding activity. Our data suggest that SLH1 disease resistance signaling may be negatively regulated by its WRKY domain in the R protein and that the constitutive defense activation conferred by the slh1 mutation is inhibited by conditions of high humidity.
The Plant Journal 10/2005; 43(6):873-88. · 6.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We isolated an Arabidopsis albino and pale green 10 (apg10) mutant which exhibits pale green cotyledons and true leaves at the juvenile stage. We identified a valine to leucine change in BBMII (N'-[(5'-phosphoribosyl)-formimino]-5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide) isomerase involved in histidine biosynthesis. The morphological abnormality of apg10 was recovered by histidine supplementation. The histidine limitation induced by apg10 mutation causes dynamic changes of the free amino acid profile, suggesting the existence of a cross-pathway regulatory mechanism of amino acid biosynthesis in plants. We also revealed that the APG10 knockout mutant exhibited embryo lethality, indicating the essential role of the Arabidopsis BBMII isomerase for plant growth.
Plant and Cell Physiology 08/2005; 46(7):1165-72. · 4.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report here the generation of an additional collection of Dissociation (Ds) transposon-tagged, sequence-indexed lines of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our RIKEN Ds insertion collection now totals 17,668 lines. Our collection has preferential insertions in chromosomes 1 and 5, because Ds was transposed from start loci on those chromosomes (11,854 and 5,814 lines, respectively). We describe here features of the latter 5,814 lines. The former 11,854 lines have been described previously. We have created a searchable database of the insertion sites and mutated genes (http://rarge.gsc.riken.jp/), and are depositing these lines in the RIKEN BioResource Center (http://www.brc.riken.go.jp/lab/epd/Eng/). Our collection of these mutants will contribute to progress in functional genomics of plants.
Plant and Cell Physiology 08/2005; 46(7):1149-53. · 4.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Xyloglucan endotransglucosylases/hydrolases (XTHs) are a class of enzymes capable of catalyzing the molecular grafting between xyloglucans and/or the endotype hydrolysis of a xyloglucan molecule. They are encoded by 33 genes in Arabidopsis. Whereas recent studies have revealed temporally and spatially specific expression profiles for individual members of this family in plants, their biological roles are still to be clarified. To identify the role of each member of this gene family, we examined phenotypes of mutants in which each of the Arabidopsis XTH genes was disrupted. This was undertaken using a reverse genetic approach, and disclosed two loss-of-function mutants for the AtXTH27 gene, xth27-1 and xth27-2. These exhibited short-shaped tracheary elements in tertiary veins, and reduced the number of tertiary veins in the first leaf. In mature rosette leaves of the mutant, yellow lesion-mimic spots were also observed. Upon genetic complementation by introducing the wild-type XTH27 gene into xth27-1 mutant plants, the number of tertiary veins was restored, and the lesions disappeared completely. Extensive expression of the pXTH27::GUS fusion gene was observed in immature tracheary elements in the rosette leaves. The highest level of AtXTH27 mRNA expression in the rosette leaves was observed during leaf expansion, when the tracheary elements were elongating. These findings indicate that AtXTH27 plays an essential role during the generation of tracheary elements in the rosette leaves of Arabidopsis.
The Plant Journal 06/2005; 42(4):525-34. · 6.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The RIKEN Arabidopsis Genome Encyclopedia (RARGE) database houses information on biological resources ranging from transcriptome to phenome, including RIKEN Arabidopsis full-length (RAFL) complementary DNAs (cDNAs), their promoter regions, Dissociation (Ds) transposon-tagged lines and expression data from microarray experiments. RARGE provides tools for searching by resource code, sequence homology or keyword, and rapid access to detailed information on the resources. We have isolated 245 946 RAFL cDNA clones and collected 11 933 transposon-tagged lines, which are available from the RIKEN Bioresource Center and are stored in RARGE. The RARGE web interface can be accessed at http://rarge.gsc.riken.jp/. Additionally, we report 90 000 new RAFL cDNA clones here.
Nucleic Acids Research 02/2005; 33(Database issue):D647-50. · 8.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: More than 10 000 transposon-tagged lines were constructed by using the Activator (Ac)/Dissociation (Ds) system in order to collect insertional mutants as a useful resource for functional genomics of Arabidopsis. The flanking sequences of the Ds element in the 11 800 independent lines were determined by high-throughput analysis using a semi-automated method. The sequence data allowed us to map the unique insertion site on the Arabidopsis genome in each line. The Ds element of 7566 lines is inserted in or close to coding regions, potentially affecting the function of 5031 of 25 000 Arabidopsis genes. Half of the lines have Ds insertions on chromosome 1 (Chr. 1), in which donor lines have a donor site. In the other half, the Ds insertions are distributed throughout the other four chromosomes. The intrachromosomal distribution of Ds insertions varies with the donor lines. We found that there are hot spots for Ds transposition near the ends of every chromosome, and we found some statistical preference for Ds insertion targets at the nucleotide level. On the basis of systematic analysis of the Ds insertion sites in the 11 800 lines, we propose the use of Ds-tagged lines with a single insertion in annotated genes for systematic analysis of phenotypes (phenome analysis) in functional genomics. We have opened a searchable database of the insertion-site sequences and mutated genes (http://rarge.gsc.riken.go.jp/) and are depositing these lines in the RIKEN BioResource Center as available resources (http://www.brc.riken.go.jp/Eng/).
The Plant Journal 04/2004; 37(6):897-905. · 6.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arginine decarboxylase (ADC) catalyzes the first step of polyamine (PA) biosynthesis to produce putrescine (Put) from arginine (Arg). One of the 2 Arabidopsis ADC genes, AtADC2, is induced in response to salt stress causing the accumulation of free Put. To analyze the roles of stress-inducible AtADC2 gene and endogenous Put in stress tolerance, we isolated a Ds insertion mutant of AtADC2 gene (adc2-1) and characterized its phenotypes under salt stress. In the adc2-1 mutant, free Put content was reduced to about 25% of that in the control plants and did not increase under salt stress. Furthermore, the adc2-1 mutant was more sensitive to salt stress than the control plants. The stress sensitivity of adc2-1 was recovered by the addition of exogenous Put. These results indicate that endogenous Put plays an important role in salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. AtADC2 is a key gene for the production of Put under not only salinity conditions, but also normal conditions.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2004; 313(2):369-75. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the functions of the nuclear genes involved in chloroplast development, we systematically analyzed albino and pale-green Arabidopsis thaliana mutants by using a two-component transposon system based on the Ac/Ds element of maize as a mutagen. One of the pale-green mutants, albino or pale green mutant 1 (designated as apg1), did not survive beyond the seedling stage, when germinated on soil. The chloroplasts of the apg1 plants contained decreased numbers of lamellae with reduced levels of chlorophyll. A gene encoding a 37 kDa polypeptide precursor of the chloroplast inner envelope membrane was disrupted by insertion of the Ds transposon in apg1. The 37 kDa protein had partial sequence similarity to the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase. The apg1 plants lacked plastoquinone (PQ), suggesting that the APG1 protein is involved in the methylation step of PQ biosynthesis, which is localized at the envelope membrane. Our results demonstrate the importance of the 37 kDa protein of the chloroplast inner envelope membrane for chloroplast development in Arabidopsis.
The Plant Journal 07/2003; 34(5):719-31. · 6.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Arabidopsis, the induction of a dehydration-responsive gene, rd22, is mediated by abscisic acid (ABA). We reported previously that MYC and MYB recognition sites in the rd22 promoter region function as cis-acting elements in the drought- and ABA-induced gene expression of rd22. bHLH- and MYB-related transcription factors, rd22BP1 (renamed AtMYC2) and AtMYB2, interact specifically with the MYC and MYB recognition sites, respectively, in vitro and activate the transcription of the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene driven by the MYC and MYB recognition sites in Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts. Here, we show that transgenic plants overexpressing AtMYC2 and/or AtMYB2 cDNAs have higher sensitivity to ABA. The ABA-induced gene expression of rd22 and AtADH1 was enhanced in these transgenic plants. Microarray analysis of the transgenic plants overexpressing both AtMYC2 and AtMYB2 cDNAs revealed that several ABA-inducible genes also are upregulated in the transgenic plants. By contrast, a Ds insertion mutant of the AtMYC2 gene was less sensitive to ABA and showed significantly decreased ABA-induced gene expression of rd22 and AtADH1. These results indicate that both AtMYC2 and AtMYB2 proteins function as transcriptional activators in ABA-inducible gene expression under drought stress in plants.
The Plant Cell 02/2003; 15(1):63-78. · 9.25 Impact Factor