Jarno Salonen

Hospital Regional Universitario de Málaga, Málaga, Andalusia, Spain

Are you Jarno Salonen?

Claim your profile

Publications (159)537.63 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two limestones and two solid wastes were tested as adsorbents for chloride and sulphate ion removal from synthetic and real alkaline process mining water. The composition and surface structure of the adsorbents were analysed by ED-XRF, XRD, SEM and MIR spectroscopy and the nitrogen adsorption method. The optimal adsorption time and amount of adsorbent were determined by batch analysis with an anion concentration of 20 mg/L. In synthetic solution adsorbents removed 99% of SO42− and 96% of Cl− and in real process water the removal rate was 85% and 74% for SO42− and Cl−, respectively. It was found that equilibrium could successfully be fitted to the Langmuir, Toth and BiLangmuir adsorption isotherms.
    Chemical Engineering Journal 01/2015; 259:364–371. · 3.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An advanced nanocomposite consisting of an encapsulated porous silicon (PSi) nanoparticle and an acid-degradable acetalated dextran (AcDX) matrix (nano-in-nano), was efficiently fabricated by a one-step microfluidic self-assembly approach. The obtained nano-in-nano PSi@AcDX composites showed improved surface smoothness, homogeneous size distribution, and considerably enhanced cytocompatibility. Furthermore, multiple drugs with different physicochemical properties have been simultaneously loaded into the nanocomposites with a ratiometric control. The release kinetics of all the payloads was predominantly controlled by the decomposition rate of the outer AcDX matrix. To facilitate the intracellular drug delivery, a nona-arginine cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) was chemically conjugated onto the surface of the nanocomposites by oxime click chemistry. Taking advantage of the significantly improved cell uptake, the proliferation of two breast cancer cell lines was markedly inhibited by the CPP-functionalized multidrug-loaded nanocomposites. Overall, this nano-in-nano PSi@polymer composite prepared by the microfluidic self-assembly approach is a universal platform for nanoparticles encapsulation and precisely controlled combination chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Biomaterials 11/2014; · 8.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the research was to verify that electrospraying of piroxicam yielded a new polymorphic form of this drug. In the experiments, piroxicam was dissolved in chloroform and the solution was atomised electrostatically. Subsequently, the charged droplets were neutralised and dried. The solid drug particles were collected and analysed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, high performance liquid chromatography, and infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The X-ray diffractogram measured for the electrosprayed piroxicam particles did not match with any of the known piroxicam crystal structures (Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre). The variable temperature X-ray diffraction showed that the structure recrystallised completely into piroxicam polymorphic formI during heating. No degradation products or solvate removal were detected by high performance liquid chromatography and thermal analysis. The infrared and Raman spectra of the electrosprayed piroxicam were compared to those of formI, and some notable differences in the peak positions, shapes and intensities were detected. The results indicate that electrospraying leads to piroxicam crystallisation in a currently unknown polymorphic form. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 11/2014; · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • Nano Research 11/2014; · 7.39 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The wound healing stands as very complex and dynamic process, aiming the re-establishment of the damaged tissue's integrity and functionality. Thus, there is the emerging need for developing biopolymer-based composites capable of actively promote cellular proliferation and reconstitute the extracellular matrix. The aims of the present work were to prepare and characterize biopolymer-functionalized porous silicon (PSi) microparticles, resulting in the development of drug delivery microsystems for future applications in wound healing. Thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (THCPSi) microparticles were coated with both chitosan (CHI) and a mixture of chondroitin sulfate/hyaluronic acid (CS/HA), and subsequently loaded with two antibacterial model drugs, vancomycin and resveratrol. The biopolymer coating, drug loading degree and drug release behaviour of the modified PSi microparticles were evaluated in vitro. The results showed that both the biopolymer coating and drug loading of the THCPSi microparticles were successfully achieved. In addition, a sustained release was observed for both the drugs tested. The viability and proliferation profiles of a fibroblast cell line exposed to the modified THCPSi microparticles and the subsequent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were also evaluated. The cytotoxicity and proliferation results demonstrated less toxicity for the biopolymer-coated THCPSi microparticles at different concentrations and time points comparatively to the uncoated counterparts. The ROS production by the fibroblasts exposed to both uncoated and biopolymer-coated PSi microparticles showed that the modified PSi microparticles did not induce significant ROS production at the concentrations tested. Overall, the biopolymer-based PSi microparticles developed in this study are promising platforms for wound healing applications.
    European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics. 10/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone that is in the pipeline for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) therapy. However, oral administration of GLP-1 is hindered by the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract and poor bioavailability. In this study, three nanosystems composed by three different biomaterials (poly(lactide-co-glycolide) polymer (PLGA), Witepsol E85 lipid (solid lipid nanoparticles, SLN) and porous silicon (PSi) were developed and loaded with GLP-1 to study their permeability in vitro. All the nanoparticles presented a size of approximately 200 nm. The nanoparticles' interaction with the mucus and the intestinal cells were enhanced after coating with chitosan (CS). PSi nanosystems presented the best association efficiency (AE) and loading degree (LD), even though a high AE was also observed for PLGA nanoparticles and SLN. Among all the nanosystems, PLGA and PSi were the only nanoparticles able to sustain the release of GLP-1 in biological fluids when coated with CS. This characteristic was also maintained when the nanosystems were in contact with the intestinal Caco-2 and HT29-MTX cell monolayers. The CS-coated PSi nanoparticles showed the highest GLP-1 permeation across the intestinal in vitro models. In conclusion, PLGA + CS and PSi + CS are promising nanocarriers for the oral delivery of GLP-1.
    Biomaterials 08/2014; · 8.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Active targeting of nanoparticles to receptor-overexpressing cancer cells has great potential for enhancing the cellular uptake of nanoparticles and for reducing fast clearance of the nanoparticles from the body. Herein, we present a preparation method of a porous silicon (PSi)-based nanodelivery system for breast cancer targeting, by covalently conjugating a synthesized amide-modified hyaluronic acid (HA(+)) derived polymer on the surface of undecylenic acid-modified thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (UnTHCPSi) nanoparticles. The resulting UnTHCPSi-HA(+) nanoparticles showed relatively small size, reduced polydispersibility, high biocompatibility, improved colloidal and human plasma stability, as well as enhanced cellular interactions and internalization. Moreover, we demonstrated that the enhanced cellular association of UnTHCPSi-HA(+) relies on the capability of the conjugated HA(+) to bind and consequently target CD44 receptors expressed on the surface of breast cancer cells, thus making the HA(+)-functionalized UnTHCPSi nanoparticles a suitable and promising nanoplatform for the targeting of CD44-overexpressing breast tumors and for drug delivery.
    Nanoscale 07/2014; · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nanoparticles (NPs) have been suggested for immunotherapy applications in order to optimize the delivery of immuno-stimulative or -suppressive molecules. However, low attention towards the impact of the NPs' physicochemical properties has presented a major hurdle for developing efficient immunotherapeutic agents. Here, the effects of porous silicon (PSi) NPs with different surface chemistries were evaluated on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) and lymphocytes in order to highlight the importance of the NPs selection in immuno-stimulative or -suppressive treatment. Although all the PSi NPs showed high biocompatibility, only thermally oxidized PSi (TOPSi) and thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (THCPSi) NPs were able to induce very high rate of immunoactivation by enhancing the expression of surface co-stimulatory markers of the MDDCs (CD80, CD83, CD86, and HLA-DR), inducing T-cell proliferation, and also the secretion of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α). These results indicated a balanced increase in the secretion of Th1, Th2, and Treg cytokines. Moreover, undecylenic acid functionalized THCPSi, as well as poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid) conjugated to (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane functionalized thermally carbonized PSi and polyethyleneimine conjugated undecylenic acid functionalized THCPSi NPs showed moderate immunoactivation due to the mild increase in the above-mentioned markers. By contrast, thermally carbonized PSi (TCPSi) and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane functionalized TCPSi NPs did not induce any immunological responses, suggesting that their application could be in the delivery of immunosuppressive molecules. Overall, our findings suggest all the NPs containing more nitrogen or oxygen on the outermost backbone layer have lower immunostimulatory effect than NPs with higher C-H structures on the surface.
    Biomaterials 07/2014; · 8.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Active targeting of nanoparticles to receptor-overexpressing cancer cells has great potential for enhancing the cellular uptake of nanoparticles and for reducing fast clearance of the nanoparticles from the body. Herein, we present a preparation method of a porous silicon (PSi)-based nanodelivery system for breast cancer targeting, by covalently conjugating a synthesized amide-modified hyaluronic acid (HA+) derived polymer on the surface of undecylenic acid-modified thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (UnTHCPSi) nanoparticles. The resulting UnTHCPSi–HA+ nanoparticles showed relatively small size, reduced polydispersibility, high biocompatibility, improved colloidal and human plasma stability, as well as enhanced cellular interactions and internalization. Moreover, we demonstrated that the enhanced cellular association of UnTHCPSi–HA+ relies on the capability of the conjugated HA+ to bind and consequently target CD44 receptors expressed on the surface of breast cancer cells, thus making the HA+-functionalized UnTHCPSi nanoparticles a suitable and promising nanoplatform for the targeting of CD44-overexpressing breast tumors and for drug delivery.
    Nanoscale 07/2014; · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The use of nanoparticle carriers for sustained release of cytotoxic drugs in cancer therapy can result in fewer adverse effects and can thus be of great benefit for the patient. Recently, a novel nanocomposite, prepared by the encapsulation of THCPSi nanoparticles within solid lipids (SLN), was developed and characterized as a promising drug delivery carrier in vitro. The present study describes the in vivo evaluation of unmodified THCPSi-nanoparticles and THCPSi-solid lipid nanocomposites (THCPSi-SLNCs) as potential drug delivery carriers for cancer therapy by using 18F-radiolabeling for the detection of the particle biodistribution in mice. Passive tumor targeting of 18F-THCPSis and 18F-THCPSi-SLNCs by the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect was investigated in a murine breast cancer model. Encapsulation of THCPSi nanoparticles with solid lipids improved their accumulation into tumors at 7-week time-point (tumour-to-liver ratio 0.10 ± 0.08 and 0.24 ± 0.09% for 18F-THCPSis and 18F-THCPSi-SLNCs, respectively).
    Molecular Pharmaceutics 06/2014; · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intravenously administered nanocarriers are widely studied to improve the delivery of various therapeutic agents. However, recent in vivo studies have demonstrated that intravenously administered nanocarriers that do not contain any drug may affect cardiovascular function. Here we provide an example where the drug and the nanocarrier both affect the same cardiovascular parameters following intravenous administration. The peptide ghrelin antagonist (GhA) increases arterial pressure, while thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon nanoparticles (THCPSi) transiently decrease it, as assessed with radiotelemetry in conscious rats. As a result, intravenous administration of GhA-loaded THCPSi nanoparticles partially antagonized GhA activity: arterial pressure was not increased. When the cardiovascular effects of GhA were blocked with atenolol pretreatment, GhA-loaded nanoparticles reduced arterial pressure to similar extent as drug-free nanoparticles. These data indicate that the biological activity of a drug delivered within a nanocarrier may be obscured by the biological responses induced by the nanocarrier itself.
    European journal of pharmaceutical sciences: official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences 06/2014; · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The development of a stable vehicle with low toxicity, high cellular internalization, efficient endosomal escape, and optimal drug release profile is a key bottleneck in nanomedicine. To overcome all these problems, we have developed a successful layer-by-layer method to covalently conjugate polyethyleneimine (PEI) and poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic acid) (PMVE-MA) copolymer on the surface of undecylenic acid functionalized thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon nanoparticles (UnTHCPSi NPs), forming a bilayer zwitterionic nanocomposite containing free positive charge groups of hyper-branched PEI disguised by the PMVE-MA polymer. The surface smoothness, charge and hydrophilicity of the developed NPs considerably improved the colloidal and plasma stabilities via enhanced suspensibility and charge repulsion. Furthermore, despite the surface negative charge of the bilayer polymer-conjugated NPs, the cellular trafficking and endosomal escape were significantly increased in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Remarkably, we also showed that the conjugation of surface free amine groups of the highly toxic UnTHCPSi-PEI (Un-P) NPs to the carboxylic groups of PMVE-MA renders acceptable safety features to the system and preserves the endosomal escape properties via proton sponge mechanism of the free available amine groups located inside the hyper-branched PEI layer. Moreover, the double layer protection not only controlled the aggregation of the NPs and reduced the toxicity, but also sustained the drug release of an anticancer drug, methotrexate, with further improved cytotoxicity profile of the drug-loaded particles. These results provide a proof-of-concept evidence that such zwitterionic polymer-based PSi nanocomposites can be extensively used as a promising candidate for cytosolic drug delivery.
    Biomaterials 06/2014; · 8.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Porous silicon (PSi) based particulate systems are emerging as an important drug delivery system due to its advantageous properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability and ability to tailor the particles' physicochemical properties. Here, annealed thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (AnnTHCPSi) and undecylenic acid modified AnnTHCPSi (AnnUnTHCPSi) microparticles were developed as a PSi-based platform for oral delivery of insulin. Chitosan (CS) was used to modify the AnnUnTHCPSi microparticles to enhance the intestinal permeation of insulin. Surface modification with CS led to significant increase in the interaction of PSi microparticles with Caco-2/HT-29 cell co-culture monolayers. Compared to pure insulin, the CS-conjugated microparticles significantly improved the permeation of insulin across the Caco-2/HT-29 cell monolayers, with ca. 20-fold increase in the amount of insulin permeated and ca. 7-fold increase in the apparent permeability (Papp) value. Moreover, among all the investigated particles, the CS-conjugated microparticles also showed the highest amount of insulin associated with the mucus layer and the intestinal Caco-2 cells and mucus secreting HT-29 cells. Our results demonstrate that CS-conjugated AnnUnTHCPSi microparticles can efficiently enhance the insulin absorption across intestinal cells, and thus, they are promising microsystems for the oral delivery of proteins and peptides across the intestinal cell membrane.
    Biomaterials 05/2014; · 8.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A multifunctional nano-in-micro drug delivery platform is developed by conjugating the porous silicon nanoparticles with mucoadhesive polymers and subsequent encapsulation into a pH-responsive polymer using microfluidics. The multistage platform shows monodisperse size distribution, pH-responsive payload release, and the released nanoparticles are mucoadhesive. Moreover, this platform is capable of simultaneously loading and releasing multidrugs with distinct properties.
    Advanced Materials 04/2014; · 14.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report an advanced drug delivery platform for combination chemotherapy by concurrently incorporating two different drugs into microcompoistes with ratiometric control over the loading degree. Atorvastatin and celecoxib were selected as model drugs due to their different physicochemical properties and synergetic effect on colorectal cancer prevention and inhibition. To be effective in colorectal cancer prevention and inhibition, the produced microcomposite contained hypromellose acetate succinate, which is insoluble in acidic conditions but highly dissolving at neutral or alkaline pH conditions. Taking advantage of the large pore volume of porous silicon (PSi), atorvastatin was firstly loaded into the PSi matrix, and then encapsulated into the pH-responsive polymer microparticles containing celecoxib by microfluidics in order to obtain multi-drug loaded polymer/PSi microcomposites. The prepared microcomposites showed monodisperse size distribution, multistage pH-response, precise ratiometric controlled loading degree towards the simultaneously loaded drug molecules, and tailored release kinetics of the loaded cargos. This attractive microcomposite platform protects the payloads from being released at low pH-values, and enhances their release at higher pH-values, which can be further used for colon cancer prevention and treatment. Overall, the pH-responsive polymer/PSi-based microcomposite can be used as a universal platform for the delivery of different drug molecules for combination therapy.
    Small 02/2014; · 7.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: When nanocarriers are used for drug delivery they can often achieve superior therapeutic outcomes over standard drug formulations. However, concerns about their adverse effects are growing due to the association between exposure to certain nanosized particles and cardiovascular events. Here we examine the impact of intravenously injected drug-free nanocarriers on the cardiovasculature at both the systemic and organ levels. We combine in vivo and in vitro methods to enable monitoring of hemodynamic parameters in conscious rats, assessments of the function of the vessels after sub-chronic systemic exposure to nanocarriers and evaluation of the direct effect of nanocarriers on vascular tone. We demonstrate that nanocarriers can decrease blood pressure and increase heart rate in vivo via various mechanisms. Depending on the type, nanocarriers induce the dilation of the resistance arteries and/or change the responses induced by vasoconstrictor or vasodilator drugs. No direct correlation between physicochemical properties and cardiovascular effects of nanoparticles was observed. The proposed combination of methods empowers the studies of cardiovascular adverse effects of the nanocarriers.
    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 02/2014; · 3.15 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (THCPSi) microparticles were loaded with indomethacin (IMC) and griseofulvin (GSV) using three different payloads between 6.2-19.5 w-% and 6.2-11.4 w-%, respectively. The drug loading parameters were selected to avoid crystallization of the drug molecules on the external surface of the particles that would block the pore entrances. The successfulness of the loadings were verified with TG, DSC and XRPD measurements. The effects of the confinement of IMC and GSV into the small mesopores of THCPSi were analyzed with helium pycnometry, FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. The results showed the density of the THCPSi loaded drugs to be ca. 10% lower than the bulk crystalline forms, while a melt quenched amorphous drugs showed a density reduction of 3-7.5%. DSC and FTIR results confirmed that the drugs reside in an amorphous form within the THCPSi pores. Similar results were obtained with NMR, which also indicated that IMC may reside both as amorphous clusters and individual molecules within the pores. The (1)H transverse relaxation times (T2) of amorphous and THCPSi loaded drugs showed IMC relaxation times of 0.28 ms for both the cases, whereas for GSV the values were 0.32 ms and 0.39 ms, respectively, indicating similar limited mobility in both cases. The results indicated that strong drug-carrier interactions were not necessary for stabilizing the amorphous state of the adsorbed drug. Dissolution tests using biorelevant media, fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) and simulated gastric fluid (SGF), showed that THCPSi-loaded IMC and GSV were rapidly released in FaSSIF with comparable rates to the amorphous forms, whereas in SGF the THCPSi reduced the pH dependency in the dissolution of IMC.
    Langmuir 02/2014; · 4.38 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Currently, developing a stable nanocarrier with high cellular internalization and low toxicity is a key bottleneck in nanomedicine. Here, we have developed a successful method to covalently conjugate poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic acid) (PMVE-MA) copolymer on the surface of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-functionalized thermally carbonized porous silicon nanoparticles (APSTCPSi NPs), forming a surface negatively charged nanovehicle with unique properties. This polymer conjugated NPs could modify surface smoothness, charge, and hydrophilicity of the developed NPs, leading to considerable improvement in the colloidal and plasma stabilities via enhanced suspensibility and charge repulsion. Furthermore, despite the surface negative charge of the polymer-conjugated NPs, the cellular internalization was increased in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These results provide a proof-of-concept evidence that such polymer-based PSi nanocomposite can be extensively used as a promising candidate for intracellular drug delivery.
    Macromolecular Rapid Communications 02/2014; · 4.93 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the present study, iron oxide nanoparticles (primary particle size of 80–90 nm) with controlled oxidation state were prepared via an atmospheric pressure chemical vapour synthesis (APCVS) method. Iron pentacarbonyl [Fe(CO)5], a precursor material, was thermally decomposed to iron in the APCVS reactor. Subsequently, the iron was oxidized with controlled amount of oxygen in the reactor to produce nearly pure magnetite or haematite particles depending on the oxygen concentration. Size, morphology and crystal structure of the synthesized nanoparticles were studied with scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and computational fluid dynamics model were used to predict the oxidation state of the iron oxides and the reaction conditions during mixing. Aggregates of crystalline particles were formed, determined as magnetite at the oxygen volumetric fraction of 0.1 % and haematite at volumetric fraction of 0.5 %, according to the XRD. The geometric mean electrical mobility diameter of the aggregates increased from 110 to 155 nm when the volumetric fraction of oxygen increased from 0.1 to 0.5 %, determined using the SMPS. The aggregates were highly sintered based on TEM analyses. As a conclusion, APCVS method can be used to produce nearly pure crystalline magnetite or haematite nanoparticles with controlled oxidation in a continuous one-stage gas-phase process.
    Journal of Nanoparticle Research 02/2014; 16(2):1-11. · 2.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A reliable microfluidic platform for the generation of stable and monodisperse multistage drug delivery systems is reported. A glass-capillary flow-focusing droplet generation device was used to encapsulate thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (PSi) microparticles into the aqueous cores of double emulsion drops, yielding the formation of a multistage PSi-lipid vesicle. This composite system enables a large loading capacity for hydrophobic drugs.
    Lab on a Chip 01/2014; · 5.70 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
537.63 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Hospital Regional Universitario de Málaga
      Málaga, Andalusia, Spain
  • 1996–2014
    • University of Turku
      • • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      • • Department of Physiatrics
      Turku, Province of Western Finland, Finland
  • 2013
    • Åbo Akademi University
      Turku, Province of Western Finland, Finland
  • 2007–2013
    • University of Helsinki
      • • Division of Pharmaceutical Technology
      • • Department of Chemistry
      Helsinki, Province of Southern Finland, Finland
  • 2012
    • University of Porto
      • Departamento de Química e Bioquímica
      Porto, Distrito do Porto, Portugal
  • 2010–2012
    • University of Eastern Finland
      • • School of Pharmacy
      • • Department of Physics and Mathematics
      Kuopio, Province of Eastern Finland, Finland
  • 2008
    • Japan Fine Ceramics Center
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan