S Fukushima

Osaka City University, Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan

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Publications (577)1783.04 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present investigation was undertaken to determine the distribution and accumulation of 1,2-dichloropropane (DCP) in the blood, lung, liver, kidney, and abdominal fat of rats during and after inhalation exposure. Male rats were exposed to 80 or 500 ppm (v/v) DCP vapor for 360 min and the concentrations of DCP in the blood and tissues during the inhalation exposure period and after the end of the exposure period were measured. DCP accumulation in the abdominal fat was much greater than that in the blood and other tissues. Eighteen hours after the end of inhalation exposure, DCP could still be detected in the abdominal fat in the 80-ppm group, and in the blood, liver, kidney, and abdominal fat in the 500-ppm group. Our results are valuable data pertaining to the pharmacokinetics of DCP and to human health risk assessment of exposure to DCP vapor by inhalation.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 10/2014; 49(12):1341-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: The toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) may be related to the immune system. The objective of this study was to obtain information for immunotoxic mechanisms of MWCNT in situ. Methods: Using whole-body inhalation, male and female rats were exposed to 0, 0.2, 1 or 5 mg MWCNT/m(3) for 13 weeks. Thereafter, spleens were recovered from the rats. Real-time PCR was done to assess expression of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, MCP-1 and MIP-1α mRNA in the splenic macrophages; splenic T-lymphocytes were examined for IL-2 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression. Results: The relative expression of IL-1β mRNA in the cells from female rats exposed to 5 mg MWCNT/m(3) was significantly higher than that in control cells. For IL-6 and IL-10, cells from rats in the 0.2 and 5 mg MWCNT/m(3) had significantly higher mRNA expressions than did cells from controls. Expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα genes in cells from males in all exposure groups were higher than in control cells. Expression of MIP-1α in the cells from female 5-mg group was significantly higher than that in cells in the control. Only IL-2 was expression reduced, i.e. cells from male and female rats in all MWCNT groups had significantly lower mRNA expressions than control cells. Conclusions: Systemic inflammation would likely occur in rats (or other hosts) exposed to MWCNT via inhalation due to increases in the expression of inflammatory cytokines in splenic macrophages. Moreover, decreases in IL-2 expression in T-lymphocytes may be critical to the potential reductions in anti-tumor responses in MWCNT-exposed hosts.
    Inhalation Toxicology 10/2014; 26(12):750-758. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Cancer development due to fiber-like straight type of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has raised concerns for human safety because of its shape similar to asbestos. To set concentrations of MWCNT for a rat carcinogenicity study, we conducted a 13-week whole body inhalation study. F344 male and female rats, 6-week-old at the commencement of the study, were exposed by whole-body inhalation to MWCNT at concentrations of 0, 0.2, 1 and 5 mg/m(3) with a generation and exposure system utilizing the cyclone sieve method. Measured concentrations in the exposure chambers were 0.20 ± 0.02, 1.01 ± 0.11 and 5.02 ± 0.25 mg/m(3) for 13 weeks. The MMAD (GSD) of MWCNT were 1.4-1.6 μm (2.3-3.0), and mean width and length were 94.1-98.0 nm and 5.53-6.19 μm, respectively, for each target concentration. Lung weights were increased 1.2-fold with 1 mg/m(3) and 1.3-fold with 5 mg/m(3) in both sexes compared to the controls. In the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analyses, inflammatory parameters were increased concentration-dependently in both sexes from 0.2 mg/m(3). Granulomatous changes in the lung were induced at 1 and 5 mg/m(3) in females and even at 0.2 mg/m(3) in males. Focal fibrosis of the alveolar wall was observed in both sexes at 1 mg/m(3) or higher. Inflammatory infiltration in the visceral pleural and subpleural areas was induced only at 5 mg/m(3). In conclusion, we determined 0.2 mg/m(3) as the low-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) for respiratory tract toxicity in the present inhalation exposure study of rats.
    Nanotoxicology 07/2014; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Generically, carcinogenic effects of chemicals in bladder carcinogenesis are judged by induction of papillary or nodular (PN) hyperplasia in rats given N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN) for 4 weeks and the test chemical for 22–28 weeks. However, upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) begins early in rat BBN bladder carcinogenesis. To establish a short-term rat bladder carcinogenic bioassay, we analyzed the correlations between VEGF, VEGF mRNA and bladder lesions inductions at 10 and 26 weeks after BBN treatment. Six-week-old male Wistar (slc) rats were given 0.05% BBN for 4, 10 or 26 weeks. To avoid individual rat bias, the bladders were investigated by partial cystectomy at 10 weeks and total cystectomy at 26 weeks. After induction, PN hyperplasia and carcinoma in rats increased with the length of BBN treatment and immunohistochemical VEGF expression also increased following carcinogenesis, but the immunoreactivity of individual lesions was quite variable. Moreover, induction of PN hyperplasia at 10 weeks’ BBN treatment was not significantly correlated with that at 26 weeks' treatment; thus, it was not possible to predict the carcinogenic effect due to the induction of PN hyperplasia at 26 weeks' BBN treatment by that at 10 weeks' treatment. However, VEGF mRNA levels of rat bladders at 10 weeks' BBN treatment revealed a strong significant correlation with the incidence of bladder lesions at 26 weeks' treatment. Here, we suggest that quantitative VEGF mRNA levels are a good biomarker for a short-term BBN-induced bioassay for rat bladder carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Applied Toxicology 05/2014; · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the time-course changes of concentration of chloroform (CHCl3) in the blood during and after exposure of male rats to CHCl3 by inhalation. Increasing the dose of CHCl3 in the inhalation exposed groups caused a commensurate increase in the concentration of CHCl3 in the blood and the area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC). There was good correlation (r = 0.988) between the inhalation dose and the AUC/kg body weight. Based on the AUC/kg body weight-inhalation dose curve and the AUC/kg body weight after oral administration, inhalation equivalent doses of orally administered CHCl3 were calculated. Calculation of inhalation equivalent doses allows the body burden due to CHCl3 by inhalation exposure and oral exposure to be directly compared. This type of comparison facilitates risk assessment in humans exposed to CHCl3 by different routes. Our results indicate that when calculating inhalation equivalent doses of CHCl3, it is critical to include the AUC from the exposure period in addition to the AUC after the end of the exposure period. Thus, studies which measure the concentration of volatile organic compounds in the blood during the inhalation exposure period are crucial. The data reported here makes an important contribution to the physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) database of CHCl3 in rodents.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 01/2014; 49(3):253-61.
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To study the effect of Cleistocalyx nervosum extract (CE) on diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and phenobarbital (PB) induced oxidative stress in early stages of rat hepatocarcinogenesis. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, with Group 1 as a negative control and Group 2 was a positive control receiving DEN injections once a week and PB in drinking water for 6 weeks. Two weeks before DEN initiation and PB treatment, Groups 3 and 4, were fed with 500 and 1000 mg/kg of CEs, respectively, for 8 weeks. Results: A number of GST-P-positive foci, preneoplastic lesions, in the liver were markedly increased in carcinogen administered rats, but was comparatively decreased in rats treated with 1000 mg/kg of CE. The CE reduced malondialdehyde in serum and in the livers of rats treated with DEN and PB. Moreover, CE significantly increased the activities of glutathione peroxidase and catalase in rat liver. Conclusions: CE appeared to exert its chemopreventive effects by modulating antioxidant status during DEN and PB induced early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2014; 15(6):2825-30. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) on two-stage urinary bladder carcinogenesis in male F344 rats initiated with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) were investigated at various dose levels with regard to possible promoting activity. Groups of 30 rats were given drinking water containing 500 ppm BBN, as an initiator, for 4 weeks and starting one week thereafter received ETBE by gavage (daily, 7 days/week) at dose levels of 0 (control), 100, 300, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day until experimental week 36. No statistically significant differences in incidences of preneoplastic lesions, papillomas, and carcinomas of the urinary bladder were evident in rats treated with 100-1000 mg/kg/day ETBE as compared with control values. Furthermore, the average numbers of preneoplastic or neoplastic lesions per unit length of basement membrane in rats given 100-1000 mg/kg/day ETBE were also comparable to control values. However, papillomatosis of the urinary bladder was found in 4 out of 30 rats (13%) in the group given 1000 mg/kg/day ETBE, and soft stones in the urinary bladder were found in 3 out of these 4 rats. The results thus demonstrated that ETBE did not exert promotional activity on urinary bladder carcinogenesis. However, papillomatosis of the urinary bladder developed in small numbers of the rats given ETBE at 1000 mg/kg/day but not in rats given 500 mg/kg/day or lower doses.
    Journal of Toxicologic Pathology 12/2013; 26(4):351-7. · 0.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)s are suspected to induce pulmonary and pleural cancers due to their asbestos-like configurations. Therefore, accurate measurement of inhaled nanotubes in target organs is crucial for assessing cancer risk. Conventionally, nanotubes are measured after combustion at high temperature for conversion into CO2; however, the sensitivity is poor and the method lacks versatility. We have therefore developed a novel approach using hybrid markers for nanotube analysis, featuring high sensitivity and the capacity to conduct repeated analyses. The method involves adsorption of markers to nanotubes, followed by their desorption and assessment by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Recovery of MWCNT from rat lungs was conducted, and pulmonary MWCNT amounts were determined using rats intratracheally-exposed to MWCNT aerosol at 5 mg/m3 for 6 hours/day. The correlation coefficient for the calibration curve of MWCNT weight and the HPLC area was 0.9991. Consequently, the lower quantitation limit yielded was 0.2 mug. The recovery was 92-98% at approximately 0.4-2.0 mug demonstrating that MWCNTs in the lung could be measured accurately and precisely. We have developed a novel method using a hybrid marker approach for nanotube analysis, featuring very high sensitivity and the capacity to conduct repeated analyses. We further confirmed correlations between the amounts of nanotubes and markers and pulmonary nanotube measurement demonstrated that trace amounts could be detected with values closely relating to the administered dose, verifying that the method is sensitive and precise.
    Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology 10/2013; 8(1):30.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The subchronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of 1,2-dichloropropane (DCP) in male and female B6D2F1 mice exposed to DCP by inhalation for 13 weeks or for 2 years was investigated. The DCP concentrations used were 50, 100, 200, 300 or 400 ppm (v/v) in the 13-week study, and 32, 80 or 200 ppm (v/v) in the 2-year study. Thirteen weeks inhalation exposure of mice to DCP caused death in the mice exposed to 300 ppm and above, and was found to induce hemolytic anemia and lesions of the liver, forestomach and heart. Two years exposure to DCP significantly increased the combined incidence of bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas and carcinomas in females and marginally increased the incidence of Harderian gland adenomas in males. As non-neoplastic lesion, atrophy and respiratory metaplasia in the olfactory epithelium, and respiratory metaplasia in the submucosal gland of the nasal cavity were increased. Thus, two years inhalation exposure to DCP is carcinogenic in female mice and there is a marginal evidence of carcinogenicity in males.
    Inhalation Toxicology 07/2013; · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate pulmonary toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), F344 rats of both sexes were exposed by inhalation to 0.2, 1 or 5 mg/m(3) MWCNT aerosol for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks using a whole-body exposure system. At the end of the 2-week exposure period, one-half of the rats were necropsied, and at the end of an additional 4-week postexposure period, the remaining rats were necropsied. MWCNTs were deposited in the lungs of all MWCNT-exposed groups and mostly remained in the lungs throughout the 4-week postexposure period. Granulomatous changes in the lung were found in the rats exposed to 5 mg/m(3) MWCNTs, and these changes were slightly aggravated at the end of the 4-week postexposure period. In the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the numbers of neutrophils, percentages of bi- and multinucleated alveolar macrophages, levels of ALP activity and concentrations of total protein and albumin were elevated in the rats exposed to 1 and 5 mg/m(3) MWCNTs. At the end of the 4-week postexposure period, the values of the BALF parameters tended to remain elevated. In addition, goblet cell hyperplasias in the nasal cavity and nasopharynx were observed in the rats exposed to 1 and 5 mg/m(3) MWCNTs, but these lesions had largely regressed by the end of the postexposure period. Based on the histopathological and inflammatory changes, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for inhalation of MWCNTs for 2 weeks was 0.2 mg/m(3).
    Journal of Toxicologic Pathology 06/2013; 26(2):131-40. · 0.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Carcinogenicity of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCE) was examined by an inhalation exposure of F344 rats and BDF1 mice of both sexes to TCE at 0, 200, 800 or 3200 ppm for 6 h/d, 5 d/week for 104 weeks. In male rats, the incidences of bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas and peritoneal mesotheliomas were significantly increased in the 800 and 3200 ppm-exposed groups, respectively. The incidence of bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas in the 3200 ppm-exposed groups exceeded the range of historical control data in the Japan Bioassay Research Center. In female rats, the tumor incidences were not increased in any organs of the TCE-exposed groups. In male mice, a significant positive trend with dose was shown for incidences of bronchiolo-alveolar carcinomas, combined incidences of bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas/carcinomas and hepatocellular adenomas. The incidence of Harderian gland adenomas was significantly increased in the 3200 ppm-exposed group, and malignant lymphomas of spleen at this highest dose exceeded the range of historical control data. In female mice, the combined incidence of bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas/carcinomas was significantly increased in the 3200 ppm-exposed group, and the incidences of hepatocellular adenomas and combined incidences of hepatocellular adenomas/carcinomas were significantly increased in the 200, 800 and 3200 ppm-exposed groups with dose dependence except the combined incidence of hepatocellular adenomas/carcinomas in the 200 ppm-exposed group. The incidences of bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas in the 3200 ppm-exposed group and combined incidences of hepatocellular adenomas/carcinomas in the 200 ppm-exposed groups exceeded the ranges of historical control data. Thus, this study provided clear evidence of inhalation carcinogenicity for TCE in both rats and mice.
    Inhalation Toxicology 04/2013; 25(5):298-306. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Carcinogenicity of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) was examined with inhalation exposure using F344/DuCrlCrlj rats. Groups of 50 male and 50 female rats, 6 week old at commencement, were exposed to ETBE at 0, 500, 1,500 or 5,000 ppm (v/v) in whole-body inhalation chambers for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 104 weeks. A significant increase in the incidence of hepatocellular adenomas was indicated in males exposed at 5,000 ppm, but not in females at any concentration. In addition, significantly increased incidences of eosinophilic and basophilic cell foci were observed in male rats at 5,000 ppm. Regarding non-neoplastic lesions, rat-specific changes were observed in kidney, with an increase in the severity of chronic progressive nephropathy in both sexes at 5,000 ppm. Increased incidences of urothelial hyperplasia of the pelvis were observed at 1,500 ppm and above, and mineral deposition was apparent in the renal papilla at 5,000 ppm in males. There were no treatment-related histopathological changes observed in any other organs or tissues in either sex. The present 2-year inhalation study demonstrated hepatotumorigenicity of ETBE in male, but not in female rats.
    Archives of Toxicology 02/2013; · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol consumption is frequently associated with various cancers and the enhancement of the metabolic activation of carcinogens has been proposed as a mechanism underlying this relationship. The ethanol-induced enhancement of N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN)-mediated carcinogenesis can be attributed to an increase in hepatic activity. However, the mechanism of elevation of N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA)-induced tumorigenesis remains unclear. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the role of ethanol in the enhancement of NMBA-induced oesophageal carcinogenesis, we evaluated the hepatic and extrahepatic levels of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) and mutagenic activation of environmental carcinogens by immunoblot analyses and Ames preincubation test, respectively, in F344 rats treated with ethanol. Five weeks of treatment with 10% ethanol added to the drinking water or two intragastric treatments with 50% ethanol, both resulted in elevated levels of CYP2E1 (1.5- to 2.3-fold) and mutagenic activities of DEN, N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine in the presence of rat liver S9 (1.5- to 2.4-fold). This was not the case with CYP1A1/2, CYP2A1/2, CYP2B1/2 or CYP3A2, nor with the activities of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole, aflatoxin B(1) or other N-nitroso compounds (NOCs), including NMBA. Ethanol-induced elevations of CYP2A and CYP2E1 were observed in the oesophagus (up to 1.7- and 2.3-fold) and kidney (up to 1.5- and 1.8-fold), but not in the lung or colon. In oesophagus and kidney, the mutagenic activities of NMBA and four NOCs were markedly increased (1.3- to 2.4-fold) in treated rats. The application of several CYP inhibitors revealed that CYP2A were likely to contribute to the enhancing effect of ethanol on NMBA activation in the rat oesophagus and kidney, but that CYP2E1 failed to do so. These results showed that the enhancing effect of ethanol on NMBA-induced oesophageal carcinogenesis could be attributed to an increase in the metabolic activation of NMBA by oesophageal CYP2A during the initiation phase, and that this occurred independently of CYP2E1.
    Mutagenesis 01/2013; · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Because the primary route of human exposure to MWCNT is via inhalation, we have developed a new dry multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) aerosol generation and exposure system for whole-body inhalation exposure using a cyclone and sieve. The system was tested for operational performance at 0.2, 1, and 5 mg/m<sup>3</sup>. Additionally, we examined whether this system can be employed in animal whole-body inhalation studies by exposing rats to MWCNT aerosol for six hours at 5 mg/m<sup>3</sup>. Our system could consistently provide aerosols with a similar particle size distribution and configuration at all the target exposure concentrations. Almost all MWCNTs were fibrous, and the presence of many well-dispersed, nano-sized particles was confirmed. Additionally, the animal study revealed that large amounts of MWCNTs were inhaled into the lung, resulting in an inflammatory response, with increased LDH and albumin levels, and granulomatous change. Therefore, our aerosol generation and exposure system appears useful for MWCNT inhalation studies using rats.
    Nanotoxicology 01/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The compound 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant. The primary route of exposure of humans to DCE is inhalation of its vapor. The present investigation was undertaken to determine the distribution and accumulation of DCE in the blood, lung, liver, brain, kidney and abdominal fat of rats during and after inhalation exposure. Male rats were exposed to 160 ppm (v/v) of DCE vapor for 360 min and the concentrations of DCE in the blood and tissues during the inhalation exposure period and after the end of the exposure period were measured. DCE accumulation in the abdominal fat was much greater than that in the blood and other tissues. The information we obtained in this study is useful basic data pertaining to the pharmacokinetics of DCE and DCE-mediated carcinogenicity: Our results suggest that one of the factors involved in the induction of peritoneal tumors in rats exposed to DCE vapor by inhalation is DCE accumulation in the abdominal fat.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 01/2013; 48(9):1031-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) is an oxygenated gasoline additive synthesized from ethanol and isobutene that is used to reduce CO2 emissions. To support the Kyoto Protocol, the production of ETBE has undergone a marked increase. Previous reports have indicated that exposure to ETBE or methyl tertiary-butyl ether resulted in liver and kidney tumors in rats and/or mice. These reports raise concern about the effects of human exposure being brought about by the increased use of ETBE. The present study was conducted to evaluate the genotoxicity of ETBE using micronucleus induction of polychromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow of male and female rats treated with ETBE in the drinking-water at concentrations of 0, 1,600, 4,000 or 10,000 ppm or exposed to ETBE vapor at 0, 500, 1,500 or 5,000 ppm for 13 weeks. There were no significant increases in micronucleus induction in either the drinking water-administered or inhalation-administered groups at any concentration of ETBE; although, in both groups red blood cells and hemoglobin concentration were slightly reduced in the peripheral blood in rats administered the highest concentration of ETBE. In addition, two consecutive daily intraperitoneal injections of ETBE at doses of 0, 250, 500 or 1,000 mg/kg did not increase the frequency of micronucleated bone marrow cells in either sex; all rats receiving intraperitoneal injections of ETBE at a dose of 2,000 mg/kg died after treatment day 1. These data suggest that ETBE is not genotoxic in vivo.
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 01/2013; 38(6):913-24. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This review highlights several in vivo studies utilizing non-genotoxic and genotoxic chemical carcinogens, and the mechanisms of their high and low dose carcinogenicities with respect to formation of oxidative stress. Here, we survey the examples and discuss possible mechanisms of hormetic effects with cytochrome P450 inducers, such as phenobarbital, a-benzene hexachloride and 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane. Epigenetic processes differentially can be affected by agents that impinge on oxidative DNA damage, repair, apoptosis, cell proliferation, intracellular communication and cell signaling. Non-genotoxic carcinogens may target nuclear receptors and induce post-translational modifications at the protein level, thereby impacting on the stability or activity of key regulatory proteins, including oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins. We further discuss role of oxidative stress focusing on the low dose carcinogenicities of several genotoxic carcinogens such as a hepatocarcinogen contained in seared fish and meat, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, arsenic and its metabolites, and the kidney carcinogen potassium bromate.
    Cancers. 01/2013; 5(4):1332-54.
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    ABSTRACT: To elucidate possible mode of action (MOA) and human relevance of hepatotumorigenicity in rats for ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), male F344 rats were administered ETBE at doses of 0, 150 and 1000 mg/kg body weight twice a day by gavage for 1 and 2 weeks. For comparison, non-genotoxic carcinogen phenobarbital (PB) was applied at a dose of 500 ppm in diet. Significant increase of P450 total content and hydroxyl radical levels by low, high doses of ETBE and PB treatments at weeks 1 and 2, and 8-OHdG formation at week 2, accompanied accumulation of CYP2B1/2B2, CYP3A1/3A2 and CYP2C6, and downregulation of DNA oxoguanine glycosylase 1, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in hepatocytes, respectively. Up-regulation of CYP2E1 and CYP1A1 at weeks 1 and 2, and peroxisome proliferation at week 2 were found in high dose ETBE group. Results of proteome analysis predicted activation of upstream regulators of gene expression altered by ETBE including constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). These results indicate that the MOA of ETBE hepatotumorigenicity in rats may be related to induction of oxidative stress, 8-OHdG formation, subsequent cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis, suggesting regenerative cell proliferation after week 2, predominantly via activation of CAR and PXR nuclear receptors by a mechanism similar to that of PB, and differentially by activation of PPARs. The MOA for ETBE hepatotumorigenicity in rats is unlikely to be relevant to humans.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 01/2013; 273(2):390–400. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since the disaster at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant in March 2011, people became concerned about adverse eŠects of radiation, in particular those of low dose radiation strongly. The eŠects of radiation on chromosome DNA are stochastic events, and thus it is thought that radiation poses cancer risk to humans even at very low doses. Likewise, genotoxic compounds, which interact with DNA and induce mutations, are as-sumed to have no thresholds for their action. These compounds are used to becallèradiomimetic com-pounds''. Hence, genotoxic carcinogens, which induce cancer via genotoxic mechanisms such as mutations, are regulated based on a paradigm that they have no thresholds for the cancer risk. Recently, however, the paradigm has been challenged by research on analyzes of carcinogenicity and genotoxicity of chemicals at low doses. In addition, organisms including humans possess various self-defense mechanisms, such as detoxication metabolism, DNA repair, error-free translesion DNA synthesis and apoptosis etc, which may suppress geno-toxicity of chemicals at low doses and reduce the muta-tion frequency and cancer risk to spontaneous levels. These self defense mechanisms mayconstitutappar-ent''òpractical'' thresholds for genotoxic carcino-gens. To discuss the low dose eŠects of genotoxic and carcinogenic compounds and the implication in regula-tory toxicology, the second international symposium on genotoxic and carcinogenic thresholds was held on November 23, 2011 in Tokyo. In this symposium, six and four experts of genotoxicity and chemical carcino-genicity were invited from inside and outside of Japan, respectively, to discuss genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of chemicals at low doses and the regulatory policies. This symposium follows the precedentsymposiInter-national symposium—threshold of carcinogenicity and genotoxicity'' in Kobe in Japan in 2006,athe 1st In-ternational symposium on genotoxic and carcinogenic thresholds'' in Tokyo in 2008. Here, we summarize the presentations of the symposium to discuss future per-spectives of research on genotoxic and carcinogenic thresholds.
    Genes and Environment 11/2012; 34(4):141-145.
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    ABSTRACT: The purposes of the present study were to evaluate the hepatocarcinogenicity of concurrent treatment of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in rats and to determine whether no effect levels of combinations of these two different structural categories of genotoxic hepatocarcinogens exist. Two 16-week rat hepatocarcinogenesis assays were performed using a total of 790 male F344 rats. In experiment 1, we evaluated the effects of concurrent treatment of a subcarcinogenic dose of DEN on rat hepatocarcinogenesis induced by various doses of MeIQx. In experiment 2, we determined hepatocarcinogenicities of combinations of MeIQx and DEN at subcarcinogenic doses, low carcinogenic doses and high carcinogenic doses. Quantitative analyses of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive foci, a preneoplastic lesion of the liver in rats, revealed that concurrent treatment with subcarcinogenic doses of DEN did not enhance MeIQx-induced rat hepatocarcinogenicity. We also found that concurrent treatment with combinations of subcarcinogenic doses of DEN and MeIQx was not hepatocarcinogenic, indicating that the combined effects of subcarcinogenic doses of DEN and MeIQx were neither additive nor synergistic. Moreover, concurrent treatment with low carcinogenic doses of these 2 carcinogens did not show additive or synergistic effects. Synergetic effects were observed only in rats coadministered high carcinogenic doses of the 2 carcinogens. These results demonstrate the existence of no effect levels of combinations of these 2 genotoxic hepatocarcinogens, and provide new evidence supporting our idea that there is a threshold, at least a practical threshold, that should be considered when evaluating the risk of genotoxic carcinogens. ( ; : -).
    Journal of Toxicologic Pathology 09/2012; 25(3):209-14. · 0.34 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,783.04 Total Impact Points


  • 1995–2013
    • Osaka City University
      • • First Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2005–2011
    • DIMS Institute of Medical Science
      Itinomiya, Aichi, Japan
  • 2010
    • National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health JAPAN
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1999–2009
    • National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine
      • • Institute of Urology
      • • Institute of Nephrology
      Kievo, Kyiv City, Ukraine
  • 2008
    • Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      • Department of Medicinal Chemistry
      Takatuki, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2006
    • Kaneka Corporation
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 1995–2005
    • Aichi Cancer Center
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 1975–2005
    • Nagoya City University
      • Medical School
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
  • 2000–2004
    • Sumitomo Chemical
      Tumasik, Singapore
    • Shionogi & Co., Ltd.
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2003
    • Tanta University
      • Department of Zoology
      Tanda, Muhafazat al Gharbiyah, Egypt
  • 2001–2002
    • Gifu Pharmaceutical University
      • Laboratory of Radiochemistry
      Gihu, Gifu, Japan
  • 1990–2000
    • Shimane University
      • Department of Legal Medicine
      Matsu, Shimane Prefecture, Japan
  • 1986–1999
    • National Cancer Center, Japan
      • Endoscopy Division
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1998
    • National Cancer Research Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1995–1996
    • National Institute of Health Sciences, Japan
      • Division of Pathology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1987
    • Asahi University
      • Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
      Gihu, Gifu, Japan
  • 1983–1984
    • University of Nebraska Medical Center
      • Department of Pathology and Microbiology
      Omaha, Nebraska, United States