[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Convention holds that ionotropic receptors mediate fast neurotransmission and that ‘slow’ G-protein coupled metabotropic receptors have a secondary, modulatory role in the control of neuronal networks. Here, we discuss recent evidence showing that activation of metabotropic GABAB receptors in cortical layer 1 can powerfully inhibit principal cell activity and that their activation can rapidly halt ongoing network activity. Inputs from both within and outwith the cortex converge upon layer 1 where they target various populations of interneurons, including neurogliaform cells. We argue that neurogliaform cells are the main effector of a powerful inhibitory circuit that, acting through GABAB receptors, can be differentially recruited by long-range connections to serve in roles as diverse as conscious perception and memory consolidation.
Current Opinion in Neurobiology 06/2014; 26:15-21. · 7.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neto1 and Neto2 auxiliary subunits coassemble with NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and kainate receptors (KARs) to modulate their function. In the hippocampus, Neto1 enhances the amplitude and prolongs the kinetics of KAR-mediated currents at mossy fiber (MF)-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses. However, whether Neto1 trafficks KARs to synapses or simply alters channel properties is unresolved. Therefore, postembedding electron microscopy was performed to investigate the localization of GluK2/3 subunits at MF-CA3 synapses in Neto-null mice. Postsynaptic GluK2/3 Immunogold labeling was substantially reduced in Neto-null mice compared with wild types. Moreover, spontaneous KAR-mediated synaptic currents and metabotropic KAR signaling were absent in CA3 pyramidal cells of Neto-null mice. A similar loss of ionotropic and metabotropic KAR function was observed in Neto1, but not Neto2, single knock-out mice, specifically implicating Neto1 in regulating CA3 pyramidal cell KAR localization and function. Additional controversy pertains to the role of Neto proteins in modulating synaptic NMDARs. While Immunogold labeling for GluN2A at MF-CA3 synapses was comparable between wild-type and Neto-null mice, labeling for postsynaptic GluN2B was robustly increased in Neto-null mice. Accordingly, NMDAR-mediated currents at MF-CA3 synapses exhibited increased sensitivity to a GluN2B-selective antagonist in Neto1 knockouts relative to wild types. Thus, despite preservation of the overall MF-CA3 synaptic NMDAR-mediated current, loss of Neto1 alters NMDAR subunit composition. These results confirm that Neto protein interactions regulate synaptic localization of KAR and NMDAR subunits at MF-CA3 synapses, with implications for both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamatergic recruitment of the CA3 network.
Journal of Neuroscience 01/2014; 34(2):622-628. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Forebrain circuits rely upon a relatively small but remarkably diverse population of GABAergic interneurons to bind and entrain large principal cell assemblies for network synchronization and rhythmogenesis. Despite the high degree of heterogeneity across cortical interneurons, members of a given subtype typically exhibit homogeneous developmental origins, neuromodulatory response profiles, morphological characteristics, neurochemical signatures and electrical features. Here we report a surprising divergence among hippocampal oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM) projecting interneurons that have hitherto been considered a homogeneous cell population. Combined immunocytochemical, anatomical and electrophysiological interrogation of Htr3a-GFP and Nkx2-1-cre:RCE mice revealed that O-LM cells parse into a caudal ganglionic eminence-derived subpopulation expressing 5-HT3A receptors (5-HT3ARs) and a medial ganglionic eminence-derived subpopulation lacking 5-HT3ARs. These two cohorts differentially participate in network oscillations, with 5-HT3AR-containing O-LM cell recruitment dictated by serotonergic tone. Thus, members of a seemingly uniform interneuron population can exhibit unique circuit functions and neuromodulatory properties dictated by disparate developmental origins.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disrupted excitatory synapse maturation in GABAergic interneurons may promote neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. However, establishing developmental programs for nascent synapses in GABAergic cells is confounded by their sparsity, heterogeneity and late acquisition of subtype-defining characteristics. We investigated synaptic development in mouse interneurons targeting cells by lineage from medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) or caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE) progenitors. MGE-derived interneuron synapses were dominated by GluA2-lacking AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs), with little contribution from NMDA-type receptors (NMDARs) throughout development. In contrast, CGE-derived cell synapses had large NMDAR components and used GluA2-containing AMPARs. In neonates, both MGE- and CGE-derived interneurons expressed primarily GluN2B subunit-containing NMDARs, which most CGE-derived interneurons retained into adulthood. However, MGE-derived interneuron NMDARs underwent a GluN2B-to-GluN2A switch that could be triggered acutely with repetitive synaptic activity. Our findings establish ganglionic eminence-dependent rules for early synaptic integration programs of distinct interneuron cohorts, including parvalbumin- and cholecystokinin-expressing basket cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A systematic classification and accepted nomenclature of neuron types is much needed but is currently lacking. This article describes a possible taxonomical solution for classifying GABAergic interneurons of the cerebral cortex based on a novel, web-based interactive system that allows experts to classify neurons with pre-determined criteria. Using Bayesian analysis and clustering algorithms on the resulting data, we investigated the suitability of several anatomical terms and neuron names for cortical GABAergic interneurons. Moreover, we show that supervised classification models could automatically categorize interneurons in agreement with experts' assignments. These results demonstrate a practical and objective approach to the naming, characterization and classification of neurons based on community consensus.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cortical networks display persistent activity in the form of periods of sustained synchronous depolarizations ('UP states') punctuated by periods of relative hyperpolarization ('DOWN states'), which together form the slow oscillation. UP states are known to be synaptically generated and are sustained by a dynamic balance of excitation and inhibition, with fast ionotropic glutamatergic excitatory and GABAergic inhibitory conductances increasing during the UP state. Previously, work from our group demonstrated that slow metabotropic GABA receptors also play an important role in terminating the UP state, but the effects of other neuromodulators on this network phenomenon have received little attention. Given that persistent activity is a neural correlate of working memory and that signalling through dopamine receptors has been shown to be critical for working memory tasks, we examined whether dopaminergic neurotransmission affected the slow oscillation. Here, using an in vitro model of the slow oscillation in rat medial entorhinal cortex, we showed that dopamine strongly and reversibly suppressed cortical UP states. We showed that this effect was mediated through D(1) -like and not D(2) -like dopamine receptors, and we found no evidence that tonic dopaminergic transmission affected UP states in our model.
European Journal of Neuroscience 01/2013; · 3.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During slow-wave sleep, cortical neurons display synchronous fluctuations between periods of persistent activity ('UP states') and periods of relative quiescence ('DOWN states'). Such UP and DOWN states are also seen in isolated cortical slices. Recently, we reported that both spontaneous and evoked termination of UP states in slices from the rat medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) involves GABAB receptors. Here, in order to dissociate the roles of GABAB1a- and GABAB1b-containing receptors in terminating UP states, we used mEC slices from mice in which either the GABAB1a or GABAB1b subunit had been genetically ablated. We found that pharmacological blockade of GABAB receptors using the antagonist CGP55845 prolonged the UP state duration in both wildtype mice and those lacking the GABAB1b subunit, but not in those lacking the GABAB1a subunit. Conversely, electrical stimulation of layer 1 could terminate an on-going UP state in both wildtype mice and those lacking the GABAB1a subunit, but not in those lacking the GABAB1b subunit. Together with previous reports, indicating a preferential presynaptic location of GABAB1a and postsynaptic location of GABAB1b-containing receptors, these results suggest that presynaptic GABA(B) receptors contribute to spontaneous DOWN state transitions, whilst postsynaptic GABA(B) receptors are essential for the afferent termination of the UP state. Inputs to layer 1 from other brain regions could thus provide a powerful mechanism for synchronising DOWN state transitions across cortical areas via activation of GABAergic interneurons targeting postsynaptic GABA(B) receptors.
The Journal of Physiology 12/2012; · 4.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the prevailing idea that neurogliaform cells produce a spatially unrestricted widespread inhibition, we demonstrate here that their activity attenuates thalamic-evoked feed-forward inhibition in layer IV barrel cortex but has no effect on feed-forward excitation. The result of this circuit selectivity is a dynamic regulation in the temporal window for integration of excitatory thalamic input, thus revealing a new role for neurogliaform cells in shaping sensory processing.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adult-born granule cells (GCs), a minor population of cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, are highly active during the first few weeks after functional integration into the neuronal network, distinguishing them from less active, older adult-born GCs and the major population of dentate GCs generated developmentally. To ascertain whether young and old GCs perform distinct memory functions, we created a transgenic mouse in which output of old GCs was specifically inhibited while leaving a substantial portion of young GCs intact. These mice exhibited enhanced or normal pattern separation between similar contexts, which was reduced following ablation of young GCs. Furthermore, these mutant mice exhibited deficits in rapid pattern completion. Therefore, pattern separation requires adult-born young GCs but not old GCs, and older GCs contribute to the rapid recall by pattern completion. Our data suggest that as adult-born GCs age, their function switches from pattern separation to rapid pattern completion.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the developing nervous system synaptic refinement, typified by the neuromuscular junction where supernumerary connections are eliminated by axon retraction leaving the postsynaptic target innervated by a single dominant input, critically regulates neuronal circuit formation. Whether such competition-based pruning continues in established circuits of mature animals remains unknown. This question is particularly relevant in the context of adult neurogenesis where newborn cells must integrate into preexisting circuits, and thus, potentially compete with functionally mature synapses to gain access to their postsynaptic targets. The hippocampus plays an important role in memory formation/retrieval and the dentate gyrus (DG) subfield exhibits continued neurogenesis into adulthood. Therefore, this region contains both mature granule cells (old GCs) and immature recently born GCs that are generated throughout adult life (young GCs), providing a neurogenic niche model to examine the role of competition in synaptic refinement. Recent work from an independent group in developing animals indicated that embryonically/early postnatal generated GCs placed at a competitive disadvantage by selective expression of tetanus toxin (TeTX) to prevent synaptic release rapidly retracted their axons, and that this retraction was driven by competition from newborn GCs lacking TeTX. In contrast, following 3-6 months of selective TeTX expression in old GCs of adult mice we did not observe any evidence of axon retraction. Indeed ultrastructural analyses indicated that the terminals of silenced GCs even maintained synaptic contact with their postsynaptic targets. Furthermore, we did not detect any significant differences in the electrophysiological properties between old GCs in control and TeTX conditions. Thus, our data demonstrate a remarkable stability in the face of a relatively prolonged period of altered synaptic competition between two populations of neurons within the adult brain.
Frontiers in Neural Circuits 01/2012; 6:85. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Information processing and transfer within cortical circuits requires precise spatiotemporal coordination of excitatory principal cell activity by a relatively small population of inhibitory interneurons that exhibit remarkable anatomical, molecular and electrophysiological diversity. One subtype of interneuron, the cholecystokinin-expressing basket cell (CCKBC), is particularly well suited to integrate and impart emotional features of an animal's physiological state to principal cell entrainment through the inhibitory network as CCKBCs are highly susceptible to neuromodulation by local and subcortically generated signals commonly associated with 'mood' such as cannabinoids, serotonin and acetylcholine. Here we briefly review recent studies that have elucidated the cellular mechanisms underlying cholinergic regulation of CCKBCs.
The Journal of Physiology 12/2011; 590(Pt 4):695-702. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although vastly outnumbered, inhibitory interneurons critically pace and synchronize excitatory principal cell populations to coordinate cortical information processing. Precision in this control relies upon a remarkable diversity of interneurons primarily determined during embryogenesis by genetic restriction of neuronal potential at the progenitor stage. Like their neocortical counterparts, hippocampal interneurons arise from medial and caudal ganglionic eminence (MGE and CGE) precursors. However, while studies of the early specification of neocortical interneurons are rapidly advancing, similar lineage analyses of hippocampal interneurons have lagged. A "hippocampocentric" investigation is necessary as several hippocampal interneuron subtypes remain poorly represented in the neocortical literature. Thus, we investigated the spatiotemporal origins of hippocampal interneurons using transgenic mice that specifically report MGE- and CGE-derived interneurons either constitutively or inducibly. We found that hippocampal interneurons are produced in two neurogenic waves between E9-E12 and E12-E16 from MGE and CGE, respectively, and invade the hippocampus by E14. In the mature hippocampus, CGE-derived interneurons primarily localize to superficial layers in strata lacunosum moleculare and deep radiatum, while MGE-derived interneurons readily populate all layers with preference for strata pyramidale and oriens. Combined molecular, anatomical, and electrophysiological interrogation of MGE/CGE-derived interneurons revealed that MGE produces parvalbumin-, somatostatin-, and nitric oxide synthase-expressing interneurons including fast-spiking basket, bistratified, axo-axonic, oriens-lacunosum moleculare, neurogliaform, and ivy cells. In contrast, CGE-derived interneurons contain cholecystokinin, calretinin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and reelin including non-fast-spiking basket, Schaffer collateral-associated, mossy fiber-associated, trilaminar, and additional neurogliaform cells. Our findings provide a basic blueprint of the developmental origins of hippocampal interneuron diversity.
Journal of Neuroscience 07/2011; 31(30):10948-70. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ionotropic glutamate receptors of AMPA, NMDA, and kainate receptor (KAR) subtypes mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate CNS. Auxiliary proteins have been identified for AMPA and NMDA receptor complexes, but little is known about KAR complex proteins. We previously identified the CUB (complement C1r/C1s, Uegf, Bmpl) domain protein, Neto1, as an NMDA receptor-associated polypeptide. Here, we show that Neto1 is also an auxiliary subunit for endogenous synaptic KARs. We found that Neto1 and KARs coimmunoprecipitated from brain lysates, from postsynaptic densities (PSDs) and, in a manner dependent on Neto1 CUB domains, when coexpressed in heterologous cells. In Neto1-null mice, there was an ∼50% reduction in the abundance of GluK2-KARs in hippocampal PSDs. Neto1 strongly localized to CA3 stratum lucidum, and loss of Neto1 resulted in a selective deficit in KAR-mediated neurotransmission at mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal cell (MF-CA3) synapses: KAR-mediated EPSCs in Neto1-null mice were reduced in amplitude and decayed more rapidly than did those in wild-type mice. In contrast, the loss of Neto2, which also localizes to stratum lucidum and interacts with KARs, had no effect on KAR synaptic abundance or MF-CA3 transmission. Indeed, MF-CA3 KAR deficits in Neto1/Neto2-double-null mutant mice were indistinguishable from Neto1 single-null mice. Thus, our findings establish Neto1 as an auxiliary protein required for synaptic function of KARs. The ability of Neto1 to regulate both NMDARs and KARs reveals a unique dual role in controlling synaptic transmission by serving as an auxiliary protein for these two classes of ionotropic glutamate receptors in a synapse-specific fashion.
Journal of Neuroscience 07/2011; 31(27):10009-18. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuregulin-1 and ErbB4 are genetically associated with schizophrenia, and detailed knowledge of the cellular and subcellular localization of ErbB4 is important for understanding how neuregulin-1 regulates neuronal network activity and behavior. Expression of ErbB4 is restricted to interneurons in the rodent hippocampus and cortex. However, controversy remains about the cellular expression pattern in primate brain and its subcellular distribution in postsynaptic somatodendritic locations versus presynaptic terminals.
ErbB4 expression was analyzed in pyramidal cells and interneurons in the frontal cortex of five species: C57BL6 mice (n = 3), ErbB4⁻/⁻ mice (n = 2), Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3), two macaque species (n = 3 + 2), and humans (normal control subjects, n = 2). We investigated 1) messenger RNA in mice, macaques, and humans; 2) protein expression in all species using highly specific monoclonal antibodies; and 3) specificity tests of several ErbB4 antibodies on brain samples (mouse, macaque, human).
ErbB4 RNA is restricted to interneurons in the frontal cortex of mice. ErbB4 protein is undetectable in pyramidal cells of rodents, macaques, and human frontal cortex, whereas most interneurons positive for parvalbumin, calretinin, or cholecystokinin, but only a minority of calbindin-positive cells, co-express ErbB4 in macaques. Importantly, no presynaptic ErbB4 expression was detected in any species.
The interneuron-selective somatodendritic expression of ErbB4 is consistent with a primary role of neuregulin-ErbB4 signaling in the postsynaptic modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acidergic function in rodents and primates. Our data validate the use of rodents to analyze effects of abnormal ErbB4 function as a means to model endophenotypes of psychiatric disorders.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the mammalian hippocampus, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) promotes learning and memory storage. During sensory processing and learning, large ACh-dependent electrical oscillatory events are observed, which involve the synchronization of both inhibitory and excitatory neural circuits. While the actions of ACh are known on excitatory hippocampal circuits, its actions on specific inhibitory circuits are poorly understood. We show that two types of cholecystokinin-positive local circuit inhibitory interneuron, the so-called 'basket cells' and 'Schaffer collateral-associated' cells, which innervate separately the cell body and dendritic regions of principal cells, are modulated similarly by cholinergic receptor activation. In both cell types activation of their muscarinic receptors triggers a general increase of excitability and intrinsic oscillatory activity, and a more efficient engagement to slow network oscillations. Knowledge of how cholinergic neuromodulation acts on neurochemically identical but morphologically distinct inhibitory interneurons will allow us to understand the role played by this important neuromodulator during hippocampal-dependent tasks in vivo.
The Journal of Physiology 02/2011; 589(Pt 3):609-27. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In somatosensory cortex, the relative balance of excitation and inhibition determines how effectively feedforward inhibition enforces the temporal fidelity of action potentials. Within the CA3 region of the hippocampus, glutamatergic mossy fiber (MF) synapses onto CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs) provide strong monosynaptic excitation that exhibit prominent facilitation during repetitive activity. We demonstrate in the juvenile CA3 that MF-driven polysynaptic IPSCs facilitate to maintain a fixed EPSC-IPSC ratio during short-term plasticity. In contrast, in young adult mice this MF-driven polysynaptic inhibitory input can facilitate or depress in response to short trains of activity. Transgenic mice lacking the feedback inhibitory loop continue to exhibit both facilitating and depressing polysynaptic IPSCs, indicating that this robust inhibition is not caused by the secondary engagement of feedback inhibition. Surprisingly, eliminating MF-driven inhibition onto CA3 pyramidal cells by blockade of GABA(A) receptors did not lead to a loss of temporal precision of the first action potential observed after a stimulus but triggered in many cases a long excitatory plateau potential capable of triggering repetitive action potential firing. These observations indicate that, unlike other regions of the brain, the temporal precision of single MF-driven action potentials is dictated primarily by the kinetics of MF EPSPs, not feedforward inhibition. Instead, feedforward inhibition provides a robust regulation of CA3 PC excitability across development to prevent excessive depolarization by the monosynaptic EPSP and multiple action potential firings.
Journal of Neuroscience 11/2010; 30(46):15628-37. · 6.91 Impact Factor