P Ndiaye

Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Dakar, Region de Dakar, Senegal

Are you P Ndiaye?

Claim your profile

Publications (45)8.66 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction. As throughout sub-Saharan Africa, the use of skin-lightening (or brightening or bleaching) products is widespread in Senegal (67%). Although the medical and social determinants of this phenomenon have been documented, its cost is poorly defined. Thus, this work aims to evaluate the economic effects of skin bleaching on women's income. Methodology. A cross-sectional, quantitative, and descriptive survey was conducted in 2010 (October 7 to November 8) among women consulting for outpatient care at a reference dermatology clinic for complications related to use of skin-lightening products. We calculated the direct costs (products) and indirect costs (transportation costs, medical fees, dermatological treatment of complications). The social damage (pain and suffering and esthetics) was assessed. Results. This study included 65 women; their mean age was 33 years and 26% had not attended school. In all, 52% were merchants, 29% housewives, 9% civil servants, and 5% students. The average duration of product use was 9 years, and the mean age at onset of use, 23 years. Most (80%) had a low income (<100 000 FCFA or US $204). The total monthly income of the 65 women in the study was 5 675 000 CFA (US $ 11 582). The total monthly cost of skin lightening for them was 1081 658 CFA (US $ 2207), that is, 19% of their total income. The esthetic harm was categorized as moderate by 20% and high by 22%. Conclusion. This study opens perspectives for further studies of the intangible costs of skin bleaching and for increasing awareness of the complications and social damage induced.
    Medecine et sante tropicales. 09/2013;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In Senegal, the free distribution of sulfadoxine pyrimethamine during antenatal care is recommended to remove the disparity in the context of intermittent preventive treatment against malaria. The objective of this study was thus to identify factors influencing access to treatment in a situation of abolition of user fees. It was a cross-sectional and analytical study. It covered a sample of 1906 women aged 15-49 years randomly selected during the national survey on malaria in Senegal. Data were collected during a personal interview. The economic well-being was measured from the characteristics of housing and durable goods. The multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. The average age was 27.94 ± 5.34, 64.27% resided in rural area and 71.8% had received no schooling. Among the surveyed women, 23% were in the poorest quintile, while 16.3% were in the richest. Intermittent preventive treatment was performed in 49.3%. IPt were made more in urban areas (OR 1.45 95% [1.17 to 1.72]). It increased with the level of education with an OR of 1.5 and 1.68 in primary and secondary. The completion of the IPt increased with economic welfare. The OR ranged from 1.44 to 2.95 in the second quintile to the richest. Free medication does not necessarily benefit poor people. Other accompanying measures must be developed to facilitate the distribution of drugs particularly at community level with the involvement of people.
    Bulletin de la Société de pathologie exotique 12/2011; 105(3):215-9.
  • A Faye, C T Diop, P Ndiaye, A Tal-Dia
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Funding for healthcare poses a major problem in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to assess public perceptions toward the implementation of mutual healthcare coverage in rural Senegal. A descriptive transversal study was conducted from 24/09/07 to 05/10/07 in a randomly selected sample of 208 heads of households living in the rural communities of Ngogom and Réfane. Data were collected by means of individual interviews and focus group discussions. Topics included population health, community solidarity, health insurance and implementation of mutual healthcare insurance. The sample population was 94% male, 91% married, 36% uneducated and 11% unemployed. Household income was irregular in 36% and 84% had no savings. In case of medical emergency, 43% relied on family for assistance, 36% had no recourse and 21% would have to contract, a loan. Nearly half the sample population, i.e., 46%, were familiar with the principle of mutual healthcare insurance and 98% wanted to join. The main reasons for wanting to join were to reduce medical costs (57%), improve access to care (25%) and build community solidarity (11%). In focus groups, people expressed the need for micro health insurance. Findings also showed good community dynamics and a tradition of pooling resources to implement collective activities. The public perception of mutual healthcare insurance is favorable. However, due to economic difficulties, support from political and health authorities will be needed.
    Médecine tropicale: revue du Corps de santé colonial 10/2011; 71(5):508-9.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to review knowledge, attitudes and practices related to sexual transmitted diseases (STD) and HIV/AIDS among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Senegal. The study was undertaken from February 1st to June 30th 2007, in three capitals cities in Senegal (one national, and two regional). It concerned the MSM that benefited from at least one of services of an MSM association. Studied variables included socio demographic characteristics, sexual practices, as well as knowledge and attitudes related to STDs and VIH/AIDS. Interviews took place during appointments obtained by direct phone call or by two MSM leaders intermediary. Data were seized and analyzed with Epi2000 Software. Among 245 registered MSM, 63 had a precise contact (address and/or phone number), and 49 aged in average of 25 years were investigated. Among them, one was illiterate, five studied Koran, seven Arab and 36 French. The socio-professional categories differentiated two officials, two merchants, one mechanic, one fighter, five artists, five restorers, seven tailors, 11 students, and 15 unemployed. The associations, to which 35 HSH belonged, were related to sexuality (66%), religion (20%), social matters (8%) and economy (6%). Sexual habits, according to anal intercourse, differentiated the "Ubbi" or receptive/passive (57%), the "Yoos" or incertif/active (25%), the "Ubbi/Yoos" who play the two roles (14%) and the "neitherUbbi/norYoos" who had other practices than anal (4%). Practices between men, concerned mutual strokes (100%), fellatio (61%) and anal intercourse (49%), counted 45% for remuneration, 35% of multi-unprotected partnership, and 12% of breaking condom. Practices with women were reported by 15 MSM (31%). Concerning STDs, at least one sign was reported by 43 MSM, one transmission way by 42, one mean of protection by 47; and the first recourse was a health system for 36 MSM. The test of HIV/AIDS screening was done by 38 HSH among which 30 withdrew the results. The "Ubby" adhered much more to associations, and practiced less unprotected vaginal intercourses and multi partnerships. Sexual relations between men, in Senegal, constitute a factor of propagation for STDs and HIV/AIDS. Beliefs, values, and popular reactions still limit the big principles (liberty, equality, solidarity, and participation) of preventive and curative care. Therefore, ethics and effectiveness must be conciliated to face more MSM needs, for a better health of the populations.
    Revue d Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique 09/2011; 59(5):305-11. · 0.69 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUD: Home birth remains a major cause of maternal and neonatal deaths in Senegal. The objective of this study was to identify the determinants of home birth in women who attended at least one antenatal consultation during their last pregnancy. The study was cross-sectional and analytical. It covered a sample of 380 women selected at random among those who have given birth in the last 12 months in the health district Gossas. Data were collected at home using a questionnaire during an interview after informed consent. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore the determinants of childbirth at home using the Andersen model. The mean age was 26.2 ± 6.1 years. Women were married (97.3%), illiterate (81.8%) and lived in rural areas (78.4%). Available means of transportation at home were car (7.6%), cart (62.9%) or none 29.5%. In addition, 52.2% of the women lived more than 5 km from a health facility. For 59.0% of the women, the prenatal exam was considered satisfactory. The prevalence of home birth was 24%. Factors related to birth at home are polygamous marriage (OR=2.04 [1.13-3.70]), lack of transportation (OR=2.11 [1.13-5.01]) and residence more than 5 km from a health facility (OR=2.68 [1.56-4.16]). Late (3.90 [2.30-6.65]) or low quality (4.27 [2.25-8.10]) prenatal exams were also risk factors. Home birth is linked to access to health facilities but also to the prenatal consultation. Particular emphasis should be placed on training health care providers to improve the quality of the patients in the structures.
    Revue d Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique 09/2010; 58(5):323-9. · 0.69 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The SESAME plan has been implemented at the Thies Regional Hospital Center (TRHC) for one year. The purpose of this study was to analyze the financial implications of the plan on the hospital budget for the sustainability of care for persons aged 60 and over. This descriptive study included analysis of budget data from October 2006 to September 2007 plus information obtained by interviewing the accountant and head of SESAME plan. The number of patients managed, sources of CHRT funding, grants from various SESAME plan partners, and expenditures for each partner were determined. The weight of the SESAME plan in the CHRT operating budget was determined by calculating the ratio of the overall cost of care for elderly persons in relation to the hospital's revenues and SESAME grants. During the study period, the CHRT received a total of 17375 elderly persons including 89% with no pension or social security. The institute pension scheme (IPRES) covered 21% of the plan as compared to 79% for the state. Utilization plan grants in relation to funding source was 41% for IPRES and 124% for the State. The total cost of services provided to beneficiaries of the SESAME plan exceeded the aggregate amount by 26 083 847 CFA francs. The weight of the SESAME plan in the operating cost of the CHRT was 17%. Prefinancing a plan to cover elderly care in hospitals should be sufficient to prevent deficits from impacting negatively on the operating budget of the hospital.
    Médecine tropicale: revue du Corps de santé colonial 04/2010; 70(2):205-7.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate collaboration between traditional healers (TH) and registered nurses (RN) in the care of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the health district N'Gourma Fada, Burkina Faso. A survey was conducted among 26 RN, 33 TH working in the health district and 96 PLHIV under treatment at the Fada N'Gourma Regional Hospital. Survey data showed that only 9.1% had sound knowledge about HIV/AIDS and 18.2% about prevention methods. Conversely 84.8% had a good knowledge about clinical manifestations. Among TH, 84.8% claimed to refer patients to health facilities that provided no support for HIV/AIDS, 51.1% called for establishment of a framework of cooperation and 21.2% asked for reciprocity. Among nurses, 85.2% did not consider TH as part of the health community fighting against HIV/AIDS. Proposals focused on association of TH, frameworks of cooperation, and coordination of TH activities in the fight against HIV/AIDS.
    Médecine tropicale: revue du Corps de santé colonial 02/2010; 70(1):96-7.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BackgroudHome birth remains a major cause of maternal and neonatal deaths in Senegal. The objective of this study was to identify the determinants of home birth in women who attended at least one antenatal consultation during their last pregnancy.
    Revue D Epidemiologie Et De Sante Publique - REV EPIDEMIOL SANTE PUBL. 01/2010; 58(5):323-329.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A program to eliminate obstetric urogenital fistula (OUGF) was set up on February 19, 2004 in Niger. Though the consultations were free of charge, there was a cost involved, which constitutes the objective of this study. The data were obtained from a documentary study completed by discussions with the principal management participants and interviews targeting the women suffering from OUGF attending the national hospital of Niamey during the surgery sessions of April and November 2006. Cost assessment included all resources devoted to activities involved in the program: hospital stay, hygiene education, medical and surgical treatment, social rehabilitation interventions (preparation for revenue generating activities and return to residence). Data analysis was performed with Excel and Epi2000 software. Average cost per item and patient was determined. The cost of the stay at the National hospital of Niamey was 96,445 francs CFA divided between transportation (4,688), room and board (21,572), assistance bonus (3,708) and indirect costs (66,477). The hygiene education cost 194,140 francs CFA: 30,150 for human resources, 143,965 for material resources and 20,025 for operational costs. The medical and surgery treatment had a cost of 144,009 francs CFA divided between consultations (15,000), complementary explorations (44,900), surgical operation (50,000) and consumables (34,109). The preparation for revenue generating activities had a cost of 118,244 francs CFA including training for clothes dying (22,084), soap manufacture (46,160) and the financial supportive grant (50,000). The return to the community cost 295,000 francs CFA, included room and board (2,500), human resources (65,000) and material resources (227,500). Altogether, the cost of the OUGF program came up to 742,018 francs CFA for our sample (76% of women with revenue generating activity), and was assessed at a maximum of 781,362 francs CFA if none of the woman had a revenue generating activity, and a minimum of 729,594 francs CFA if all of them did. Without the free consultations, the high cost of the OUGF program at the national hospital of Niamey would be inaccessible to Nigerian women owing to poverty and ignorance. Because of this observation, a long-term program is warranted for the treatment of overt cases and the reduction of prevalence, to enable Nigerian women to contribute to the development activities of their country.
    Revue d Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique 09/2009; 57(5):374-9. · 0.69 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this epidemiological study was to determine factors influencing management of obstetrical fistula (OF) by attempting to understand the itinerary followed by women suffering from OF in Niger. Study was carried out during the surgery session that took place at the Niamey National Hospital from April 18 to 29, 2006. Study variables were socioeconomic profile, obstetric/surgical history, support resources, and level of education. Four trained investigators using a specially designed questionnaire carried out patient interviews. Data were analyzed using the Epi Info 3.3.1 software package. A total of 91 patients with average age of 27.30 years (+/- 8.94) were interviewed. Most patients had no schooling (95%), came from the southwest region of the country (85%), and belonged to the Djerma ethnic group (52%). Most were married (76%) or divorced (19%). In the majority of cases the age at the time of marriage and first childbirth was under 18 years (76% and 55% respectively). The delivery that resulted in OF was the first in 59%, took place in a health care facility in 88%, lasted more than 24 hours in 97%, and took place by the vaginal route in 71%. The delay for the first medical visit was at least 3 months in most cases (66%) usually due to a lack of awareness of treatment availability, or to unavailability of transportation. Most patients had a history of surgery (63%) and were unaware of the probable date of the treatment (99%) with many waiting more than 3 months (44%). Prevention of gainful activity was 4.79 times more frequent after occurrence of OF. Management of OF requires not only qualified personnel but also and especially access to the quality obstetric care and greater awareness among the population. Education for girls is a crucial factor for a better health in Niger.
    Médecine tropicale: revue du Corps de santé colonial 03/2009; 69(1):61-5.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Within the framework of HIV/AIDS epidemic control, a Center for Voluntary Anonymous Detection and Support (CDVAA) was opened in March 2003 in Pikine/Guediawaye, Senegal. The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence of the HIV infection among attendees at the center over a one-year period as a basis for targeting the services of the CDVAA towards improving public health. This retrospective epidemiological study based on analysis of CDVAA attendee records was carried out from April 8, 2003 to April 7, 2004. The CDVAA in Pikine/Guediawaye shares premises with the Departmental Center for Popular and Sports Education. Sampling was exhaustive with inclusion of all people that attended the CDVAA during the study period. Study variables were age, sex, family status, educational level, ethnic group, religion, reason for detection, knowledge about HIV/AIDS prevention methods, results of the test, and, in case of infection, acceptance/refusal of referral to an appropriate management facility. Data were computed and analyzed using EpiInfo 6.04d software. The most common reason for detection was curiosity to know serologic status (69%). Test results were positive in 3% of cases. Infection was due to HIV1 in 65% of cases, HIV2 in 24%, and both (HIV1-HIV2 co-infection) in 11%. Ninety-one percent of attendees that underwent testing returned to pick-up their results. Sixty-eight percent of attendees that tested positive accepted referral to an appropriate management facility. HIV infection was significantly more frequent in attendees who were 24 years old, married, or illiterate and in attendees reporting risky behavior. To further encouraging progress already achieved, the CDVAA must improve the quality of its services and promote its activities as a means of familiarizing the target population on prevention of sexual transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS, with a particular focus on safe behavior.
    Médecine tropicale: revue du Corps de santé colonial 07/2008; 68(3):277-82.
  • Revue D Epidemiologie Et De Sante Publique - REV EPIDEMIOL SANTE PUBL. 01/2008; 56(2):93-93.
  • Revue D Epidemiologie Et De Sante Publique - REV EPIDEMIOL SANTE PUBL. 01/2008; 56(2):87-87.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To provide rural populations with access to ultrasound scanning, a mobile ultrasound service was set up in the health districts of Sédhiou, Oussouye, Bignona and Ziguinchor in Casamance, Senegal. In 2001 the mobile unit performed a total of 56 missions and provided examinations to 1273 patients. The main indications were pregnancy assessment, amenorrhea, detection of pregnancy, painful pelvic tumors and hemorrhage. Findings allowed diagnosis of disorders in 25% cases. Disorders were pregnancy-related in 47% of cases and gynecological in 53%. Ultrasound examinations were performed for follow-up purposes in 15% cases, for therapeutic purposes in 24% and for referral to the regional hospital center in 61%. These findings demonstrate the utility of a mobile ultrasound service in managing health problems not only for the community but also for health-care structures. This service should be maintained until ultrasound equipment becomes available in district hospitals and personnel at those facilities have adequate training in ultrasound scanning.
    Médecine tropicale: revue du Corps de santé colonial 03/2007; 67(1):38-42.
  • P Ndiaye, A Faye, Dia A Tal
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the quality of malaria prevention during prenatal consultations, this study was carried out in Niakhar, one sub-prefecture of the Fatick region. It was a matter of a descriptive transverse study, based on the listens and the observation of 60 prenatal consultations carried out within three health posts. The studied variables were related to the criteria of a good quality of prophylaxis at three levels: questioning, examination, and attitude after consultation. Questioning was centred by frequency order on: the pregnancy antecedents (65%), the chloroquine direction for use (34.3%), the fever notion (6%), and the chloroquine secondary effects (3%). During the physical examination, all the providers looked for clinical signs of weakens, blood pressure, and presence of oedemas of the legs; but the temperature was taken only in 8.6% of the cases. At the end of the consultation, the chemoprophylaxis prescription and the next consultation appointment were systematic; the duration of the treatment recalled in 57% and malaria seriousness during the pregnancy in 3% of the cases; no one of the providers didn't evoked neither the methods of the treatment nor the attitude to hold in case of fever. The prevention of the malaria in pregnancy through the CPN necessitates a fitting formation supported by regular supervision of the health posts.
    Bulletin de la Société médicale d'Afrique noire de langue française 02/2007; 52(2):106-8.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In order to improve the quality of the microscopy in the context of tracking and following-up the pulmonary tuberculosis patients, a study of the determinants of the quality of microscopy was carried out in the laboratories of the health centres in Dakar Region, Senegal. We did an epidemiologic study, transversal type which proceeded during April 19th at May 05th, 2004. It consisted of a series of observations, interviews, review of the registers of laboratory and with a second reading and re staining, on the level of the National Laboratory of Reference of the National Programme of fight against Tuberculosis (LNR), of 50 blades collected blindly in the health centres of Dakar. It comes out from this study that there was no statistically significant link between the factors of risk of errors such as the overload of work, the bad condition of the microscope, the lack of competence and the errors observed in certain laboratories. On the other hand the aspect of the smears, the thickness of the smears and the presence of crystals could deteriorate the quality of microscopy because it was found that there was a statistically significant connection between the quality of microscopy and these various determinants. In addition we noted a good agreement of the results of these laboratories with those of the LNR (Kappa test = 0,981, p < 0,0001). According to these results, we recommend: a reinforcement of competences (training/recycling) regular of the laboratory assistants, and an installation of a system of quality control of microscopy, interns within the laboratories but also external by the National Laboratory of Reference.
    Bulletin de la Société médicale d'Afrique noire de langue française 01/2007; 52(1):46-52.
  • Médecine tropicale: revue du Corps de santé colonial 03/2006; 66(1):99-100.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Malaria is assimilated with its cardinal symptom, i.e., fever. Treatment of fever with antimalarial drugs is crucial to the prevention of malaria-related death in Senegal. The objective of this study was to analyze fever-treatment practices as a basis for making realistic recommendations for self-treatment in the northern health district of Dakar, Senegal. This cross-sectional study was conducted from March 1 to April 30, 2003. The population included all patients with body temperature higher or equal to 37.5 degrees C (99.5 degrees F) associated with at least one of the following symptoms: headache, shivering, vomiting and diarrhoea. Study endpoints included demographic data and fever treatment modalities including the nature, dosage, and duration of the drugs used. Malaria was suspected in 180 of the 271 patients enrolled in the study. Treatment had already been undertaken in 134 patients including 108 (81%) who had initiated self-treatment. Drugs included antipyretics, antibiotics, and/or antimalarials. Antimalarial drug dosage was incorrect in 84% of those who initiated self-treatment. Dosage errors involved number of daily doses (55%), duration of treatment (13%), or both (32%). Only 45% of patients fully completed treatment. Medical advice was sought in 30% of the cases and drugs were obtained over the counter in pharmacies in 59%. Patients under the age of 15 years were significantly more likely to initiate self-treatment (p=6.10-6), to treat symptoms early, and to use an antimalarial (p=4.10-6). Although self-treatment shortened the delay between onset of symptoms and initiation of treatment, it is likely that indiscriminate and incomplete treatment is responsible for development of resistance to chloroquine in the northern health district of Dakar. Strategies must be adapted to numerous local factors influencing self-treatment including the availability of health-care services and drugs of quality. Special attention must be given to the improvement of antimalarial drug packaging and of the awareness of people that provide self-treatment drugs.
    Médecine tropicale: revue du Corps de santé colonial 03/2006; 66(1):74-8.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: to evaluate the socio-cultural determinants of the delay in having the first pre-natal exam (CPN) in order to make recommendations which aim to reduce maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in the Richard-Toll health district in Senegal. the study was cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical, and was conducted on the entire population of pregnant women who came in for a CPN between March 1st and April 30th, 2003. A questionnaire which was developed on the basis of studied variables steered the interview process which was carried out upon completion of each pregnant woman's CPN in 15 different health facilities. Data were recorded and analysed using Epi Info 6.04d software. The sample population studied included 351 pregnant women. The cultural environment over the unexpected nature of the pregnancy, the discretion surrounding the pregnancy, the ignorance of the risks, and the refusal to be examined by male health workers all have a statistically significant influence on the tardiness of the first CPN. Similarly, the late CPN has a statistically strong link with three distinctive elements of the pregnant woman's social profile: namely, illiteracy, at risk age (< 18 or > 34 years old), and total number of deliveries (> 3 births). Illiteracy has a statistically significant link with the refusal to be examined by a male health worker, ignorance of the risks, unexpected pregnancies, and trying to hide one's pregnancy, which has an additional link with the age at risk. the social profile of the pregnant women studied is quite similar to that of greater population from which they come. The early CPN allows the care provider to forecast the delivery date with greater presicion and to estimate the delivery conditions more accurately at the time of the fourth CPN at which time the risk for potential complications which may necessitate a Ceasarean section is thoroughly assessed (DRS). Thus, the delay of the first CPN constitutes a limiting factor in the correct monitoring and surveillance of the pregnancy. The various social and cultural factors are intricately intertwined, and this interaction supports the need for multi-sectoral and multi-disciplinary actions which are generally necessary for the resolution of public health problems. Three recommendations are proposed which aim to improve the frequency of the early CPN. the influence of socio-cultural factors on the CPN requires that the CPN be fully integrated into a more advanced strategy and that a behaviour change within the community be influenced and take place through health education.
    Santé Publique 12/2005; 17(4):531-8. · 0.24 Impact Factor
  • P Ndiaye, M Ba, I Seck, I Wone, A Tal-Dia
    Médecine tropicale: revue du Corps de santé colonial 12/2005; 65(5):497.