Yoshiyuki Moriyama

Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science, Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan

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Publications (7)13.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Although functional disruption of the cerebrovasculature, which is called the "neurovascular unit (NVU)", may lead to amplification of ischemia-induced injury, changes in the gap junctional proteins within the NVU and their pathophysiological roles after brain injury remain controversial. We previously demonstrated that the intravenous injection of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) have therapeutic potential for improving the spatial learning dysfunction and depression-like behaviors observed after cerebral ischemia. In this study, we investigated whether severe cerebral ischemia would alter the expression of gap junctional proteins in isolated brain capillaries and examined the effect of intravenous injection of NPCs on the levels of these proteins. Cerebral ischemia induced a sustained decrease in the level of the gap junctional protein connexin43 (Cx43) in the isolated brain capillaries, whereas the level of aquaporin 4 (AQP-4) was transiently increased. The injection of NPCs increased the level of Cx43 compared that of vehicle in the microsphere embolism (ME) rats, suggesting this decrease to be a possible mechanism for disruption of the astrocyte-endothelial cell interface within the NVU without causing any changes in the level of AQP-4 and N-cadherin. We also demonstrated that some of the intravenously injected NPCs migrated into the blood vessels in the peri-infarct area. These results suggest that the intravenous injection of the NPCs would remodel the NVU after severe cerebral ischemia, which remodeling might be associated with functional improvement following the NPC injection.
    Neuroscience Letters 04/2013; · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Earlier we demonstrated that the injection of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) has therapeutic potential for the improvement of learning dysfunction after cerebral ischemia. However, it remained to be clarified how transplantation of NPCs can improve ischemia-induced dysfunction. In this study, we examined whether intravenous injection of NPCs after cerebral ischemia could enhance angiogenesis by affecting the expression of angiogenic factors. The injection of NPCs on day 7 after cerebral ischemia enhanced angiogenesis on day 28. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor VEGFR2 were increased in expression by the NPC injection. The level of angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), an angiogenic factor, but not that of Ang-2, which acts as an antagonist for the Ang-1 receptor, was also increased on day 28. In addition, the expression of Ang-1 receptor Tie2 was enhanced in brain capillaries. Furthermore, the amounts of tight junctional proteins, which are in the blood-brain barrier and whose expression occurs downstream of Ang-1/Tie2 signaling, were increased by the NPC injection. These results suggest that the NPC injection promoted angiogenesis through Ang-1/Tie2 and/or VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling in brain capillaries after cerebral ischemia. Such signaling might have the potential for causing vascular stabilization and maturation for a long period after cerebral ischemia.
    Brain and behavior. 03/2013; 3(2):43-53.
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    Y Moriyama, N Takagi, K Tanonaka
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    ABSTRACT: Poststroke depression (PSD) occurs in approximately one-third of stroke survivors and is one of the serious sequelae of stroke. The onset of PSD causes delayed functional recovery by rehabilitation and also increases cognitive impairment. However, appropriate strategies for the therapy against ischemia-induced depression-like behaviors still remain to be developed. Such behaviors have been associated with a reduced level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In addition, accumulating evidence indicates the ability of stem cells to improve cerebral ischemia-induced brain injuries. However, it remains to be clarified as to the effect of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) on PSD and the association between BDNF level and PSD. Using NPCs, we investigated the effect of intravenous injection of NPCs on PSD. We showed that injection of NPCs improved ischemia-induced depression-like behaviors in the forced-swimming test and sucrose preference test without having any effect on the viable area between vehicle- and NPC-injected ischemic rats. The injection of NPCs prevented the decrease in the level of BDNF in the ipsilateral hemisphere. The levels of phosphorylated CREB, ERK and Akt, which have been implicated in events downstream of BDNF signaling, were also decreased after cerebral ischemia. NPC injection inhibited these decreases in the phosphorylation of CREB and ERK, but not that of Akt. Our findings provide evidence that injection of NPCs may have therapeutic potential for the improvement of depression-like behaviors after cerebral ischemia and that these effects might be associated with restoring BDNF-ERK-CREB signaling.
    Translational psychiatry. 01/2011; 1:e29.
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of stem cells to enhance neurological recovery seen after cerebral ischemia has been reported. However, it remains to be clarified whether neural progenitor cells (NPCs) improve cerebral ischemia-induced learning dysfunction. We found in an earlier study that the direct injection of NPCs into the hippocampus prevents spatial learning dysfunction after cerebral ischemia. As the intravascular injection of cells represents a minimally invasive therapeutic approach, we sought to determine whether the intravenous injection of NPCs also would improve ischemia-induced spatial learning dysfunction. Cerebral ischemia was produced by the injection of 700 microspheres into the right hemisphere of rats. The injection of NPCs via a femoral vein on day 7 after the induction of ischemia improved the modified neurological severity score and reduced the prolongation of the escape latency seen in the water maze task on days 12-28 after cerebral ischemia. The intravenous injection of NPCs on day 7 did not affect the viable area of the ipsilateral hemisphere on day 28 compared with that of the non-treated ischemic rats. Furthermore, the NPCs injected via the vein were detected in the ipsilateral hemisphere; and they expressed brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on day 28. The decrease in the BDNF level in the ipsilateral hemisphere was also inhibited by the injection of NPCs. These results suggest that the NPCs injected via the vein after cerebral ischemia improved spatial learning dysfunction, but without having any restorative effect on the damaged areas, possibly by acting as a source of neurotrophic factors.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 01/2011; 34(2):260-5. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after cerebral ischemia is considered to be the initial step in the development of brain injuries, and an increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation of the tight junctional protein occludin has been shown to cause an increase in BBB permeability. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) appears to be associated with both toxic and protective effects on neuronal survival in vitro. However, it remains to be determined whether the prostanoid EP1 receptor is involved in the disruption of the BBB after cerebral ischemia. So we examined the effect of a prostanoid EP1 receptor antagonist, SC51089, on BBB leakage and tyrosine phosphorylation of occludin after cerebral ischemia. We demonstrated that SC51089 attenuated the increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation of occludin in isolated brain capillaries, which was coincident with a decrease in BBB leakage. These results suggest that the prostanoid EP1 receptor is involved in the tyrosine phosphorylation of occludin at tight junction, which may lead to disruption of the BBB and be linked to the development of cerebral infarctions.
    European journal of pharmacology 08/2010; 640(1-3):82-6. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence indicates that stem cells have the ability to improve neurological deficits seen after cerebral ischemia. However, the effects of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) on cerebral ischemia-induced learning and memory dysfunction remain to be clarified. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the injection of exogenous NPCs could prevent learning and memory dysfunction after cerebral ischemia. Sustained cerebral ischemia was produced by the injection of 700 microspheres into the right hemisphere of each rat. We demonstrated that injection of NPCs into the hippocampus at 10 min after the induction of cerebral ischemia reduced prolongation of the escape latency seen in acquisition and retention tests of the water maze task on Days 12-28 after cerebral ischemia. Injection of NPCs partially attenuated the decrease in viable areas of the ipsilateral hemisphere on Day 28 after the cerebral ischemia. We also demonstrated that injection of NPCs prevented the decrease in the level of BDNF seen at the early period after cerebral ischemia. These results suggest that the injection of exogenous NPCs into the hippocampus can prevent cerebral ischemia-induced learning and memory dysfunction, possibly through maintenance of the BDNF level.
    Experimental Neurology 06/2008; 211(1):194-202. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although stem cells are likely to improve neurological deficits seen after cerebral ischemia, the effects of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) on cerebral ischemia-induced learning dysfunction remain to be clarified. We tested whether the delayed injection of exogenous NPCs could prevent learning dysfunction after cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia was produced by the injection of microspheres into the right hemisphere of each rat. Injection of NPCs obtained from green fluorescent protein transgenic rats into the hippocampus on Day 7 after the induction of cerebral ischemia improved the modified neurological severity score and reduced the prolongation of the escape latency seen in the water maze task. A few of the injected NPCs were positive for mature neuronal markers. In addition, the injected NPCs expressed BDNF on Day 28 after cerebral ischemia. Thus, the exogenous NPCs delivered by injection could act as a source of neurotrophic factors and prevent cerebral ischemia-induced learning dysfunction.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2008; 368(1):151-6. · 2.41 Impact Factor