Naoki Yoshimura

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (325)938.08 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives:This study investigated the mechanisms inducing autonomic dysreflexia due to enhanced bladder-to-vascular reflexes in rats with spinal cord injury (SCI).Methods:SCI was produced by the transection of the Th4-5 spinal cord in female Sprague-Dawley rats. At 4 weeks after SCI, changes in blood pressure during graded increases in intravesical pressure (20-60 cm H2O) were measured in spinal-intact (SI) and SCI rats under urethane anesthesia. In five animals, effects of C-fiber desensitization induced by intravesical application of resiniferatoxin (RTX), a TRPV1 agonist, on the bladder-to-vascular reflex were also examined. Nerve growth factor (NGF) levels of mucosa and detrusor muscle layers of the bladder were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression levels of TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels were also examined in laser captured bladder afferent neurons obtained from L6 DRG, which were labeled by DiI injected into the bladder wall.Results:In SI and SCI rats, systemic arterial blood pressure was increased in a pressure-dependent manner during increases in the intravesical pressure, with significantly higher blood pressure elevation at the intravesical pressure of 20 cm H2O in SCI rats vs SI rats. The arterial blood pressure responses to bladder distention were significantly reduced by RTX-induced desensitization of C-fiber bladder afferent pathways. SCI rats had higher NGF protein levels in the bladder and higher TRPV1 and TRPA1 mRNA levels in bladder afferent neurons compared with SI rats.Conclusions:The bladder-to-vascular reflex induced by TRPV1-expressing C-fiber afferents during bladder distention is enhanced after SCI in association with increased expression of NGF in the bladder and TRP channels in bladder afferent neurons.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 23 December 2014; doi:10.1038/sc.2014.233.
    Spinal Cord 12/2014; 189(4):e13–e14. · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Prostatic inflammation is reportedly associated with the development of prostatic hyperplasia. We investigated the effects of prostatic inflammation on expression levels of androgen-responsive genes and growth factors in the rat prostate.METHODS Prostatic inflammation was induced by Escherichia coli (strain 1677) injection (0.2 ml of 1 × 108 CFU/ml) into the prostatic urethra of male Sprague–Dawley rats, and ventral lobes of the prostate were harvested on day 84. Rats were given 10 mg/kg celecoxib during the last month in the COX-2 inhibitor treated group. Histopathology and multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for inflammation-related proteins were performed. Glandular epithelial cells and stromal regions were separately isolated using laser-capture microdissection (LCM). Real-time RT-PCR was performed to examine mRNA levels of androgen-responsive genes in the epithelium and tumor growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) cascade genes in the stroma.RESULTSHematoxylin and eosin staining showed that mild inflammation was distributed diffusely throughout the prostate. Polymorphonuclear cells infiltrated the slightly edematous stroma, but no morphological changes were observed in the epithelium. Immunohistochemically, expression of androgen receptor and TGF-β1 in addition to IL-6 and cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) were enhanced in the E. coli inoculated rats. All of these factors were suppressed in the celecoxib-treated rats. Upregulation of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and RANTES in the E. coli-inoculated rats was normalized by celecoxib treatment. Significant upregulation of androgen receptor and androgen-responsive genes such as Eaf2, ELL2, FKBP5, calreticulin, and ornithine decarboxylase was observed in the LCM-dissected epithelium. Also TGF-β1 and its downstream cascade genes such as Hic-5, collagen 1, and fibronectin were upregulated significantly in the LCM-dissected stroma. The COX-2 inhibitor treatment suppressed upregulation of these genes.CONCLUSIONS Prostatic inflammation changed the expression of androgen-responsive genes in the epithelium and TGF-β1 cascade genes in the stroma. Activation of TGF-β1 cascade genes in the inflamed stroma, as well as altered androgen-responsive gene expression in the epithelium, might be involved in the development of BPH. Prostate © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Prostate 11/2014; · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neural cross-sensitization has been postulated as a mechanism underlying overlaps of chronic pelvic pain disorders such as bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Animals with experimental colitis have been used to study the underlying mechanisms for overlapped pelvic pain symptoms, and shown to exhibit bladder overactivity evidenced by frequent voiding; however, it has not directly been evaluated whether pain sensation derived from the lower urinary tract is enhanced in colitis models. Also, the cross-sensitization between the colon and urethra has not been studied previously. In the present study, we therefore investigated pain behaviors induced by nociceptive stimuli in the lower urinary tract and the involvement of C-fiber afferent pathways using rats with colitis induced by intracolonic application of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). In TNBS-induced colitis rats at 10days, intravesical application of resiniferatoxin (RTx) induced a significantly greater number of episodes of both licking and freezing behaviors, which were reduced by capsaicin-sensitive C-fiber afferent desensitization. Histochemical studies using fluorescent dye tracers injected into the colon, bladder or urethra showed that dichotomized afferent neurons comprised 6.9-14.5% of L1, L6 and S1 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons innervating the colon or the lower urinary tract. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) mRNA expression was significantly increased in, the bladder, urethra and S1 DRG in colitis rats. An increase in myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was found in the colon, but not in the bladder or urethra after intracolonic TNBS treatment. These results indicate that TNBS-induced colitis increased pain sensitivity in the bladder and urethra via activation of C-fiber afferent pathways due to colon-to-bladder and colon-to-urethral cross-sensitization, suggesting the contribution of pelvic organ cross-sensitization mechanisms to overlapped pain symptoms in BPS/IC and IBS. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Neuroscience 10/2014; 284C:422-429. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AimsStress urinary incontinence (SUI) is common in post-menopausal women. The present study therefore examined how aging and estrogen deficiency induced by ovariectomy (OVX) affect the urethral continence mechanism that prevents sneeze-induced SUI in rats.Methods Young (3 months old) and middle-aged (12 months old) female rats underwent bilateral OVX or sham operation. Urethral activity was measured by the amplitude of urethral responses during sneezing (A-URS) and urethral baseline pressure (UBP). Apoptotic changes in urethral tissue sections were examined by the TUNEL method.ResultsIn middle-aged rats, UBP, but not A-URS, was significantly decreased compared to young rats. In 3-week OVX rats, A-URS was significantly decreased compared to sham rats in both young and middle-aged groups, and the OVX-induced reduction in A-URS was more pronounced in middle-aged rats. Neither young 3-week OVX nor sham rats leaked during sneezing; however, SUI occurred in 2/8 middle-aged rats with 3-week OVX, and after 6 weeks of OVX, SUI was observed in 5/8 young rats and 6/8 middle-aged rats. In middle-aged rats, TUNEL positive cells were significantly increased in urethral striated muscles whereas, after OVX, the increased number of positive cells was also found in the mucosa.Conclusions These results indicate that aging is more likely to impair baseline urethral function than striated muscle-mediated reflex activity although apoptotic changes are found in urethral striated muscle. Estrogen deficiency additionally impairs the striated muscle-mediated continence reflex. Thus, aging and estrogen deficiency differently and additively affect baseline urethral function and neurally-evoked, striated muscle-mediated urethral continence mechanisms to induce SUI. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Neurourology and Urodynamics 10/2014; · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While the symptomology of underactive bladder (UAB) may imply a primary dysfunction of the detrusor muscle, insights into pathophysiology indicate that both myogenic and neurogenic mechanisms need to be considered. Due to lack of proper animal models, the current understanding of the UAB pathophysiology is limited, and much of what is known about the clinical etiology of the condition has been derived from epidemiological data. We hereby review current state of the art in the understanding of the pathophysiology of and animal models used to study the UAB.
    International Urology and Nephrology 09/2014; 46(Supplement 1):11-21. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Muscarinic agonists are the most commonly used agents for treating the underactive bladder (UAB). However, because of the absence of pharmacologic specificity for bladder-only effects and possibly as a result of degenerative and other post-synaptic changes involving detrusor smooth muscle cells, they are simply not effective and side effects are common. If safe and effective therapy for UAB is made available, then most experts agree that the potential market would exceed industry expectations, just as antimuscarinic agents for overactive bladder did in the late 1990s. The pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries that have a pipeline to urology and women's health should consider UAB as a potential target condition. A rational approach to treating the pathology of UAB is presented with a discussion of potential targets that may allow the development of safe and effective agents for the treatment of UAB.
    International Urology and Nephrology 09/2014; 46(Supplement 1):35-44. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about electrophysiological differences of A-type transient K(+) (KA) currents in nociceptive afferent neurons that innervate somatic and visceral tissues. Staining with isolectin B4 (IB4)-FITC classifies L6-S1 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons into three populations with distinct staining intensities: negative to weak, moderate, and intense IB4 staining. All IB4-intensely stained cells are negative for a fluorescent dye, Fast Blue (FB) injected into the bladder wall, whereas a fraction of somatic neurons labeled by FB injected to the external urethral dermis are intensely stained with IB4. In whole-cell patch clamp recordings, phrixotoxin 2, a Kv4 channel blocker, exhibits voltage-independent inhibition of the KA current in IB4-intensely stained cells, but not the one in bladder-innervating cells. The toxin also shows voltage-independent inhibition of heterologously-expressed Kv4.1 and Kv4.3 currents, whereas its inhibition of Kv4.2 current is totally voltage-dependent. Swapping four-amino acids at the carboxyl portion of the S3 region between Kv4.1 and Kv4.2 transfers this characteristic. RT-PCRs detected Kv4.1 and the long-isoform of Kv4.3 mRNAs without significant Kv4.2 mRNA in L6-S1 DRGs. Higher expression of Kv4.1 and Kv4.3 mRNA was also identified in laser-captured, IB4-stained neurons compared to bladder afferent neurons. These results indicate that phrixotoxin 2 differently acts on channels in the Kv4 family, and that Kv4.1 and/or Kv4.3 subunits functionally participate in the formation of KA channels in a subpopulation of somatic C-fiber neurons, but not in visceral C-fiber neurons innervating the bladder.
    Journal of Neurophysiology 08/2014; · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The functional and molecular alterations of nerve growth factor (NGF) and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and its receptors were studied in bladder and urine in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e102644. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We characterized TRK-130, N-[(5R, 6R, 14S)-17-(cyclopropylmethyl)-4, 5-epoxy-3, 14-dihydroxymorphinan-6-yl] phthalimide (naltalimide), an opioid ligand, to clarify the therapeutic potential for overactive bladder (OAB). In radioligand binding assays with cells expressing human μ-opioid receptors (MORs), δ-opioid receptors (DORs), or κ-opioid receptors (KORs), TRK-130 showed high selectivity for MORs (Ki for MORs, DORs, and KORs = 0.268, 121, and 8.97 nM, respectively). In a functional assay (cyclic AMP accumulation) with cells expressing each human opioid receptor subtype, TRK-130 showed potent but partial agonistic activity for MORs [EC50 (Emax) for MORs, DORs, and KORs = 2.39 nM (66.1%), 26.1 nM (71.0%), and 9.51 nM (62.6%), respectively]. In isovolumetric rhythmic bladder contractions (RBCs) in anesthetized guinea pigs, TRK-130 dose-dependently prolonged the shutdown time (the duration of complete cessation of the bladder contractions) (ED30 = 0.0034 mg/kg, i.v.) without affecting amplitude of RBCs. Furthermore, TRK-130 ameliorated formalin-induced frequent urination at doses of higher than 0.01 mg/kg, p.o. in guinea pigs under the freely moving condition. Meanwhile, TRK-130 showed only a negligible effect on the gastrointestinal transit at doses of up to 10 mg/kg, s.c. in mice. These results indicate that TRK-130 is a potent and selective human MOR partial agonist without undesirable opioid adverse effects such as constipation and enhance the storage function by suppressing the afferent limb of the micturition reflex pathway, suggesting that TRK-130 would be a new therapeutic agent for OAB.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 06/2014; · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze the mechanism underlying cross-sensitization between the colon and the bladder via activation of transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) channels. Using female Sprague-Dawley rats, polyethylene catheters were inserted into the colon between two ligations at the levels of 40 and 60 mm rostral to the anus and into the bladder. (1) We examined changes in colon and bladder activity after the application of allyl isothiocyanate (AI, 50 mM, 300 μl), a TRPA1 activator, into the colon or the bladder in an awake condition. Inhibitory effects of the pretreatment with HC-030031 (HC, 3 mg/kg), a TRPA1 inhibitor, on colon-to-bladder cross-sensitization induced by AI instilled in the colon were also investigated. (2) We examined Evans blue (EB) dye extravasation after TRPA1 stimulation in the colon or the bladder to evaluate vascular permeability due to tissue inflammation. (1) Intercontraction intervals during continuous saline infusion into the bladder (0.04 ml/min) were significantly decreased after the intracolonic AI application, which significantly increased mean intracolonic pressure, indicative of colon-to-bladder cross-sensitization. The AI-induced colon-to-bladder cross-sensitization was completely prevented by the pretreatment with intravenous application of HC. On the other hand, mean intracolonic pressure was significantly decreased after the intravesical AI application, which significantly increased mean intravesical pressure. (2) EB dye extravasation was significantly increased in the AI-treated inflamed organs and also in the bladder following intracolonic AI treatment. Colon-to-bladder cross-sensitization is mediated via TRPA1 stimulation in the colon, although TRPA1 expressed in the bladder does not seem to participate in bladder-to-colon cross-sensitization.
    International Urogynecology Journal 05/2014; 25(11). · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of activation of sensory neuron-specific receptors (SNSRs) on cyclophosphamide (CYP) bladder overactivity in rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (235-258 g) were used. Rats were injected with either CYP (200 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or saline (control). Continuous cystometrograms (0.04 ml/min) were recorded 48 h after CYP or saline injection under urethane anesthesia. After stable micturition cycles were established, a selective rat SNSR1 agonist, bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 (BAM8-22), was administered intravenously or intrathecally. Cyclophosphamide treatment-induced higher baseline pressure and shorter intercontraction intervals compared with the control group. Intravenous administration of BAM8-22 at 10, 30 and 100 μg/kg significantly increased intercontraction intervals in the CYP-treated group. Intrathecal administration of BAM8-22 at 0.03, 0.1 and 0.3 μg also significantly increased intercontraction intervals in the CYP-treated group. Intravenous or intrathecal administration of BAM8-22 did not change baseline pressure or maximum voiding pressure in the CYP-treated group. These findings indicate that activation of SNSRs can suppress CYP-induced bladder overactivity, probably due to suppression of bladder afferent activity.
    International Urology and Nephrology 05/2014; 46(10). · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    The Journal of Urology 04/2014; 191(4):e1–e2. · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Urology 04/2014; 191(4):e3–e4. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an age-related disease frequently associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) that involves hyperplasia of both epithelial and stromal cells. Stromal fibrosis is a distinctive feature of BPH, but the exact mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood.METHODS In the current study, proteomics analyses were utilized to identify proteins altered in the BPH stromal compartment from patients with symptomatic BPH. Stromal cells were isolated from histological nodules of BPH by laser capture microdissection (LCM) and subjected to liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.RESULTSProteins identified included several stromal-specific proteins involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, focal adhesion, and cellular junctions. Additionally, the proteomics array identified the presence of luminal epithelial secretory protein PSA. Immunostaining, ELISA, and in situ hybridization analyses of BPH tissues verified the presence of PSA protein but absence of PSA mRNA in the stromal compartment. E-cadherin was down-regulated in BPH epithelial cells compared to normal adjacent tissues, suggesting that alteration of cellular junctions could contribute to the presence of luminal epithelial secreted proteins PSA and KLK2 in the stromal compartment.CONCLUSIONS The above findings suggest that the presence of secreted proteins PSA and KLK2 from prostate luminal epithelial cells in BPH stroma is a hallmark of BPH nodules, which could in part be due to alterations in cellular junction proteins and/or increased epithelial barrier permeability. Elucidating the cause and consequence of these secreted proteins in the stromal compartment of BPH may lead to new understanding of BPH pathogenesis as well as approaches to prevent and/or treat this common disease. Prostate © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Prostate 04/2014; · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostatic inflammation is associated with the development of prostatic hyperplasia. We investigated the effects of prostatic inflammation on expression levels of androgen-responsive genes and growth factors in the prostate. Prostatic inflammation was induced by formalin injection into bilateral ventral lobes of the prostate of male SD rats. After 28 days, the prostate was harvested for analyses of proinflammatory cytokines, androgen-responsive genes in the epithelium, and TGF-β1 cascade genes in the stroma. Some rats were given a COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib; 10 mg/kg/day) by oral gavage for 28 days. The formalin-injected prostate exhibited widespread low-grade inflammation (<50 leukocytes/10,000 μm(2) ) along with focal high-grade inflammation (>100 leukocytes/10,000 μm(2) ) in limited areas. Compared to control, formalin-injected prostate exhibited a 2.5-fold to sixfold increased protein expression of IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-6. In the low-grade inflammatory regions, threefold to ninefold and twofold to threefold upregulations of mRNA levels of androgen receptors/androgen-responsive genes and TGF-β1 cascade genes were respectively, observed in the epithelium and stroma obtained by laser-capture microdissection. Positive staining for androgen receptors in the epithelial nuclei, and TGF-β1, IL-6, and COX-2 in the stroma was increased in the low-grade inflammation area. COX-2 inhibitor treatment suppressed these upregulations of cytokines, androgen-responsive, and TGF-β1 cascade genes. Prostatic inflammation induced increased expression of androgen-responsive genes in the epithelium and TGF-β1 cascade genes in the stroma, which were suppressed by COX-2 inhibitors, suggesting that activation of these genes in the low-grade inflammatory region might be involved in the development of symptomatic BPH. Prostate 74:337-345, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Prostate 04/2014; 74(4):337-45. · 3.57 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Urology 04/2014; 191(4):e7–e8. · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Urology 04/2014; 191(4):e7. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is a disease with lower urinary tract symptoms, such as bladder pain and urinary frequency, which results in seriously impaired quality of life of patients. The extreme pain and urinary frequency are often difficult to treat. Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is still not known, there is increasing evidence showing that afferent hyperexcitability as a result of neurogenic bladder inflammation and urothelial dysfunction is important to the pathophysiological basis of symptom development. Further investigation of the pathophysiology will lead to the effective treatment of patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.
    International Journal of Urology 04/2014; 21 Suppl S1:18-25. · 1.80 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Urology 04/2014; 21 Suppl S1:1-2. · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of the glutamatergic pathway and its relationship to noradrenergic and serotonergic pathways in modulation of the urethral continence reflex during sneezing in rats. In female Sprague-Dawley rats under urethane anesthesia, the effects of an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-meth-ylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor antagonist, a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and a serotonin [5-hydeoxytripitamine (5-HT)]2B/2C agonist on the amplitude of urethral responses during sneezing (AURS), urethral baseline pressure (UBP), and sneeze-induced leak point pressure (S-LPP) were investigated. Intrathecal application (i.t.) of NBQX disodium salt (an AMPA receptor antagonist) decreased AURS dose-dependently by approximately 60% without affecting UBP and caused stress urinary incontinence (SUI) during sneezing in 60% of normal rats. Nisoxetine (i.t.), a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, and mCPP (i.t.), a 5-HT2B/2C , agonist increased AURS, and NBQX (i.t.) abolished these excitatory effects of nisoxetine (i.t.) and mCPP (i.t.), whereas nisoxetine (i.t.) and mCPP (i.t.) did not enhance AURS in the presence of NBQX (i.t.). These results indicate that the glutamatergic pathway acting through AMPA receptors plays a crucial role on the active urethral closure reflex during sneezing at the spinal level, and noradrenergic and serotonergic pathways modulate the reflex via the spinal glutamatergic system in rats. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Neurourology and Urodynamics 03/2014; · 2.67 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
938.08 Total Impact Points


  • 1994–2014
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • • Department of Urology
      • • Division of General Obstetrics and Gynecology
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2013
    • Kyushu University
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
    • Hokkaido University
      Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan
  • 2011–2013
    • Tottori University
      • Division of Urology
      Tottori, Tottori-ken, Japan
  • 2012
    • Nara Medical University
      • Department of Physiology II
      Nara-shi, Nara, Japan
  • 2009–2012
    • The Jikei University School of Medicine
      • Department of Urology
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Anesthesia
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 2003–2012
    • Chang Gung Memorial Hospital
      • Division of Urology
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2009–2010
    • William Beaumont Army Medical Center
      El Paso, Texas, United States
  • 2006–2009
    • Tokyo Medical and Dental University
      • Department of Urology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      North Carolina, United States
    • Chang Gung University
      Hsin-chu-hsien, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2008
    • Kyoto City Hospital
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
    • Eulji University
      • Department of Urology
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 2007
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2004
    • Kyungpook National University
      • Department of Physiology
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
  • 2000–2001
    • Kyoto University
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan