[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcoholic liver disease is a leading cause of mortality. Chronic alcohol consumption is accompanied by intestinal dysbiosis, and development of alcoholic liver disease requires gut-derived bacterial products. However, little is known about how alterations to the microbiome contribute to pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about how weight loss affects magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of liver fat and volume or liver histology in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We measured changes in liver fat and liver volume associated with weight loss using an advanced MRI method.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intestinal barrier dysfunction is an important contributor to alcoholic liver disease. Translocated microbial products trigger an inflammatory response in the liver and contribute to steatohepatitis. Our aim was to investigate mechanisms of barrier disruption following chronic alcohol feeding. A Lieber-DeCarli model was used to induce intestinal dysbiosis, increased intestinal permeability and liver disease in mice. Alcohol feeding for 8 weeks induced intestinal inflammation in the jejunum, which is characterized by an increased number of TNFα producing monocytes and macrophages. These findings were confirmed in duodenal biopsies from patients with chronic alcohol abuse. Intestinal decontamination with non-absorbable antibiotics restored eubiosis, decreased intestinal inflammation and permeability, and reduced alcoholic liver disease in mice. TNF-receptor I (TNFRI) mutant mice were protected from intestinal barrier dysfunction and alcoholic liver disease. To investigate whether TNFRI on intestinal epithelial cells mediates intestinal barrier dysfunction and alcoholic liver disease, we used TNFRI mutant mice carrying a conditional gain-of-function allele for this receptor. Reactivation of TNFRI on intestinal epithelial cells resulted in increased intestinal permeability and liver disease that is similar to wild type mice after alcohol feeding, suggesting that enteric TNFRI promotes intestinal barrier dysfunction. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is a downstream target of TNFα and was phosphorylated in intestinal epithelial cells following alcohol administration. Using MLCK deficient mice, we further demonstrate a partial contribution of MLCK to intestinal barrier dysfunction and liver disease following chronic alcohol feeding. In conclusion, dysbiosis-induced intestinal inflammation and TNFRI signaling on intestinal epithelial cells are mediating a disruption of the intestinal barrier. Therefore, intestinal TNFRI is a crucial mediator of alcoholic liver disease. (Hepatology 2014)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background & aims
Chronic liver disease is characterized by fibrosis that may progress to cirrhosis. Nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (Nod2), a member of the Nod-like receptor (NLR) family of intracellular immune receptors, plays an important role in the defense against bacterial infection through binding to the ligand muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Here, we investigated the role of Nod2 in the development of liver fibrosis.
We studied experimental cholestatic liver disease induced by bile duct ligation or toxic liver disease induced by carbon tetrachloride in wild type and Nod2-/- mice.
Nod2 deficiency protected mice from cholestatic but not toxin-induced liver injury and fibrosis. Most notably, the hepatic bile acid concentration was lower in Nod2-/- mice than wild type mice following bile duct ligation for 3 weeks. In contrast to wild type mice, Nod2-/- mice had increased urinary excretion of bile acids, including sulfated bile acids, and an upregulation of the bile acid efflux transporters MRP2 and MRP4 in tubular epithelial cells of the kidney. MRP2 and MRP4 were downregulated by IL-1β in a Nod2 dependent fashion.
Our findings indicate that Nod2 deficiency protects mice from cholestatic liver injury and fibrosis through enhancing renal excretion of bile acids that in turn contributes to decreased concentration of bile acids in the hepatocyte.
Journal of Hepatology 06/2014; · 9.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcoholic liver disease is a leading cause of morbidity and liver-related death worldwide. Intestinal bacterial overgrowth and dysbiosis induced by ethanol ingestion play an important role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. After exposure to alcohol in the lumen, enteric bacteria alter their metabolism and thereby disturb intestinal homeostasis. Disruption of the mucosal barrier results in the translocation of microbial products that contribute to liver disease by inducing hepatic inflammation. In this review, we will discuss the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiome, and in particular, its effects on bacterial metabolism, bacterial translocation and ecological balance. A better understanding of the interactions among alcohol, the host and the microbiome will reveal new targets for therapy and lead to new treatments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial infections are very common and represent one of the most important reasons of progression of liver failure, development of liver-related complications, and mortality in patients with cirrhosis. In fact, bacterial infections may be a triggering factor for the occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding, hypervolemic hyponatremia, hepatic encephalopathy, kidney failure, and development of acute-on-chronic liver failure. Moreover, infections are a very common cause of repeated hospitalizations, impaired health-related quality of life, and increased healthcare costs in cirrhosis. Bacterial infections develop as a consequence of immune dysfunction that occurs progressively during the course of cirrhosis. In a significant proportion of patients, infections are caused by gramnegative bacteria from intestinal origin, yet grampositive bacteria are a frequent cause of infection, particularly in hospitalized patients. In recent years, infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria are becoming an important clinical problem in many countries. The reduction of the negative clinical impact of infections in patients with cirrhosis may be achieved by a combination of prophylactic measures, such as administration of antibiotics, to reduce the occurrence of infections in high-risk groups together with early identification and management of infection once it has developed. Investigation on the mechanisms of altered gut microflora, translocation of bacteria, and immune dysfunction may help develop more effective and safe methods of prevention compared to those that are currently available. Moreover, research on biomarkers of early infection may be useful in early diagnosis and treatment of infections. The current manuscript reports and in-depth review and a position statement on bacterial infections in cirrhosis.
Journal of Hepatology 02/2014; · 9.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human intestine harbors a diverse community of microbes that promote metabolism and digestion in their symbiotic relationship with the host. Disturbance of its homeostasis can result in disease. We review factors that disrupt intestinal homeostasis and contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), steatohepatitis (NASH), alcoholic liver disease, and cirrhosis. Liver disease has long been associated with qualitative and quantitative (overgrowth) dysbiotic changes in the intestinal microbiota. Extrinsic factors, such as the Western diet and alcohol, contribute to these changes. Dysbiosis results in intestinal inflammation, a breakdown of the intestinal barrier, and translocation of microbial products in animal models. However, the contribution of the intestinal microbiome to liver disease goes beyond simple translocation of bacterial products that promote hepatic injury and inflammation. Microbial metabolites produced in a dysbiotic intestinal environment and host factors are equally important in the pathogenesis of liver disease. We review how the combination of liver insult and disruptions in intestinal homeostasis contribute to liver disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Interactions of the gut microbiome with the host are important in health and disease. Microbial translocation releases bacterial products that play a key role in progression of chronic liver disease by promoting hepatic injury and inflammation. Although this has long been recognized, we are just beginning to understand the circumstances under which the gut becomes leaky and to discover bacterial metabolites that promote liver disease. In this review, we will summarize recent findings from the last 2 years. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic liver disease is associated with an altered microbiome with both qualitative (dysbiosis) and quantitative (overgrowth) differences. This can be viewed as a loss of the symbiotic relationship between the microflora and the host. An imbalanced intestinal homeostasis results in a breach of the gut barrier and subsequent microbial translocation. However, the contribution of the intestinal microflora is beyond simple microbial translocation as a pathogenic factor. Bacterial metabolites resulting from an imbalanced homeostasis and dysbiosis play also a crucial role in liver disease. SUMMARY: A combination between an initiating liver insult and a disturbance of the gut-host symbiosis synergize in progression of liver disease.
Current opinion in gastroenterology 03/2013; · 4.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intestinal mucus layer protects the epithelium from noxious agents, viruses, and pathogenic bacteria present in the gastrointestinal tract. It is composed of mucins, predominantly mucin-2 (Muc2), secreted by goblet cells of the intestine. Experimental alcoholic liver disease requires translocation of bacterial products across the intestinal barrier into the systemic circulation, which induces an inflammatory response in the liver and contributes to steatohepatitis. We investigated the roles of the intestinal mucus layer, and in particular Muc2, in development of experimental alcohol-associated liver disease in mice. We studied experimental alcohol-induced liver disease, induced by the Tsukamoto-French method (which involves continuous intragastric feeding of an isocaloric diet or alcohol) in wild-type and Muc2(-/-) mice. Muc2(-/-) mice showed less alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis that developed in wild-type mice. Most notably, Muc2(-/-) mice had significantly lower plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide than wild-type mice after alcohol feeding. In contrast to wild-type mice, Muc2(-/-) mice were protected from alcohol-associated microbiome changes that are dependent on intestinal mucins. The anti-microbial proteins Reg3b and Reg3g were expressed at significantly higher levels in the jejunum of Muc2(-/-) mice fed the isocaloric diet or alcohol, compared with wild-type mice. Consequently, Muc2(-/-) mice showed increased killing of commensal bacteria and prevented intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Conclusion: Muc2(-/-) mice are protected from intestinal bacterial overgrowth and dysbiosis in response to alcohol feeding. Subsequently, lower amounts of bacterial products such as endotoxin translocate into the systemic circulation, decreasing liver disease. (HEPATOLOGY 2013.).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Ectopic fat deposition in the pancreas and its relationship with hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance have not been compared between patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and healthy controls. Aim. Using a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based biomarker, the proton-density-fat-fraction (MRI-PDFF), we compared pancreatic fat content in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD to healthy controls and determined whether it is associated with insulin resistance and liver fat content. Methods. This nested case-control study was derived from two prospective studies including 43 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and 49 healthy controls who underwent biochemical testing and MRI. Results. Compared to healthy controls, patients with NAFLD had significantly higher pancreatic MRI-PDFF (3.6% versus 8.5%, P value <0.001), and these results remained consistent in multivariable-adjusted models including age, sex, body mass index, and diabetes (P value =0.03). We found a strong correlation between hepatic and pancreatic MRI-PDFF (Spearman correlation, P = 0.57, P value <0.001). Participants with increased insulin resistance determined by homeostatic-model-of-insulin-resistance (HOMA-IR) greater than 2.5 had higher pancreatic (7.3% versus 4.5%, P value =0.015) and liver (13.5% versus 4.0%, P value <0.001) MRI-PDFF. Conclusion. Patients with NAFLD have greater pancreatic fat than normal controls. Insulin resistance is associated with liver and pancreatic fat accumulation.
Gastroenterology Research and Practice 01/2013; 2013:498296. · 1.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Approximately 2% of colorectal cancer is linked to pre-existing inflammation known as colitis-associated cancer, but most develops in patients without underlying inflammatory bowel disease. Colorectal cancer often follows a genetic pathway whereby loss of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor and activation of β-catenin are followed by mutations in K-Ras, PIK3CA and TP53, as the tumour emerges and progresses. Curiously, however, 'inflammatory signature' genes characteristic of colitis-associated cancer are also upregulated in colorectal cancer. Further, like most solid tumours, colorectal cancer exhibits immune/inflammatory infiltrates, referred to as 'tumour-elicited inflammation'. Although infiltrating CD4(+) T(H)1 cells and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells constitute a positive prognostic sign in colorectal cancer, myeloid cells and T-helper interleukin (IL)-17-producing (T(H)17) cells promote tumorigenesis, and a 'T(H)17 expression signature' in stage I/II colorectal cancer is associated with a drastic decrease in disease-free survival. Despite its pathogenic importance, the mechanisms responsible for the appearance of tumour-elicited inflammation are poorly understood. Many epithelial cancers develop proximally to microbial communities, which are physically separated from immune cells by an epithelial barrier. We investigated mechanisms responsible for tumour-elicited inflammation in a mouse model of colorectal tumorigenesis, which, like human colorectal cancer, exhibits upregulation of IL-23 and IL-17. Here we show that IL-23 signalling promotes tumour growth and progression, and development of a tumoural IL-17 response. IL-23 is mainly produced by tumour-associated myeloid cells that are likely to be activated by microbial products, which penetrate the tumours but not adjacent tissue. Both early and late colorectal neoplasms exhibit defective expression of several barrier proteins. We propose that barrier deterioration induced by colorectal-cancer-initiating genetic lesions results in adenoma invasion by microbial products that trigger tumour-elicited inflammation, which in turn drives tumour growth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Progression of liver fibrosis in experimental models depends on gut-derived bacterial products, but little is known about mechanisms of disruption of the mucosal barrier or translocation. We used a mouse model of cholestatic liver disease to investigate mechanisms of intestinal barrier disruption following liver injury.
Liver fibrosis and bacterial translocation were assessed in Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-deficient and tumor necrosis factor receptor I (TNFRI)-deficient mice subjected to bile duct ligation. Epithelial and lamina propria cells were isolated and analyzed by immunoblot analyses and flow cytometry. We analyzed bone marrow chimeras and mice with a conditional gain-of-function allele for the TNFRI receptor. By crossing TNFRI(flxneo/flxneo) mice with mice that expressed the VillinCre transgene specifically in intestinal epithelial cells, we created mice that express functional TNFRI specifically on intestinal epithelial cells (VillinCreTNFRI(flxneo/flxneo) mice).
Following bile duct ligation, TLR2-deficient mice had less liver fibrosis and intestinal translocation of bacteria and bacterial products than wild-type mice. Mice with hematopoietic cells that did not express TLR2 also had reduced bacterial translocation, indicating that TLR2 expression by hematopoietic cells regulates intestinal barrier function. The number of TLR2(+) monocytes that produce tumor necrosis factor α increased in the intestinal lamina propria of wild-type mice following bile duct ligation; bacterial translocation was facilitated by TNFRI-mediated signals on intestinal epithelial cells.
Intestinal inflammation and bacterial translocation contribute to liver fibrosis via TLR2 signaling on monocytes in the lamina propria and TNFRI signaling on intestinal epithelial cells in mice. Therefore, enteric TNFRI is an important mediator of cholestatic liver fibrosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using an environmentally sensitized genetic screen we identified mutations that cause inflammatory colitis in mice. The X-linked Klein-Zschocher (KLZ) mutation created a null allele of Yipf6, a member of a gene family believed to regulate vesicular transport in yeast, but without known functions in mammals. Yipf6 is a five transmembrane-spanning protein associated with Golgi compartments. Klein-Zschocher mutants were extremely sensitive to colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and developed spontaneous ileitis and colitis after 16 mo of age in specific pathogen-free housing conditions. Electron microscopy, gene expression, and immunocytochemistry analyses provided evidence that impaired intestinal homeostasis stemmed from defective formation and secretion of large secretory granules from Paneth and goblet cells. These studies support a tissue- and organ-specific function for Yipf6 in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and implicate the orthologous human gene as a disease susceptibility locus.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2012; 109(31):12650-5. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most chronic liver diseases of all etiologies result in progressive liver fibrosis. Myofibroblasts produce the extracellular matrix, including type I collagen, which constitutes the fibrous scar in liver fibrosis. Normal liver has little type I collagen and no detectable myofibroblasts, but myofibroblasts appear early in experimental and clinical liver injury. The origin of the myofibroblast in liver fibrosis is still unresolved. The possibilities include activation of endogenous mesenchymal cells including fibroblasts and hepatic stellate cells, recruitment from the bone marrow, and transformation of epithelial or endothelial cells to myofibroblasts. In fact, the origin of myofibroblasts may be different for different types of chronic liver diseases, such as cholestatic liver disease or hepatotoxic liver disease. This review will examine our current understanding of the liver myofibroblast.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcoholic liver disease progresses through several stages of tissue damage, from simple steatosis to alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, or cirrhosis. Alcohol also affects the intestine, increases intestinal permeability and changes the bacterial microflora. Liver disease severity correlates with levels of systemic bacterial products in patients, and experimental alcoholic liver disease is dependent on gut derived bacterial products in mice. Supporting evidence for the importance of bacterial translocation comes from animal studies demonstrating that intestinal decontamination is associated with decreased liver fibrogenesis. In addition, mice with a gene mutation or deletion encoding receptors for either bacterial products or signaling molecules downstream from these receptors, are resistant to alcohol-induced liver disease. Despite this strong association, the exact molecular mechanism of bacterial translocation and of how changes in the intestinal microbiome contribute to liver disease progression remains largely unknown. In this review we will summarize evidence for bacterial translocation and enteric microbial changes in response to alcoholic liver injury and chronic alcoholic liver disease. We will further describe consequences of intestinal dysbiosis on host biology. We finally discuss how therapeutic interventions may modify the gastrointestinal microflora and prevent or reduce alcoholic liver disease progression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ), a member of the nuclear receptor family, is emerging as a key metabolic regulator with pleiotropic actions on various tissues including fat, skeletal muscle, and liver. Here we show that the PPARδ agonist KD3010, but not the well-validated GW501516, dramatically ameliorates liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) injections. Deposition of extracellular matrix proteins was lower in the KD3010-treated group than in the vehicle- or GW501516-treated group. Interestingly, profibrogenic connective tissue growth factor was induced significantly by GW501516, but not by KD3010, following CCl(4) treatment. The hepatoprotective and antifibrotic effect of KD3010 was confirmed in a model of cholestasis-induced liver injury and fibrosis using bile duct ligation for 3 wk. Primary hepatocytes treated with KD3010 but not GW501516 were protected from starvation or CCl(4)-induced cell death, in part because of reduced reactive oxygen species production. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that an orally active PPARδ agonist has hepatoprotective and antifibrotic effects in animal models of liver fibrosis, suggesting a possible mechanistic and therapeutic approach in treating patients with chronic liver diseases.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2012; 109(21):E1369-76. · 9.81 Impact Factor