[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies demonstrate that the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators determines the stable or progressive nature of periapical granulomas by modulating the balance of the osteoclastogenic factor RANKL and its antagonist OPG. However, the cytokine networks operating in the development of periapical lesions are quite more complex than what the simple pro- versus anti-inflammatory mediators' paradigm suggests. Here we simultaneously investigated the patterns of Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Thf, Tr1 and Tregs cytokines/markers expression in human periapical granulomas. Methods: The expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL23, IL21, IL-33, IL-10, IL-4, IL-9, IL-22, FOXp3 markers (via RealTimePCR array) was accessed in active/progressive (N=40) versus inactive/stable (N=70) periapical granulomas (as determined by RANKL/OPG expression ratio), and also to compare these samples with a panel of control specimens (N=26). A cluster analysis of 13 cytokine levels was performed to examine possible clustering between the cytokines in a total of 110 granulomas. Results: The expression of all target cytokines was higher in the granulomas than in control samples. TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17A and IL-21 mRNA levels were significantly higher in active granulomas, while in inactive lesions the expression levels of IL-4, IL-9, IL-10, IL-22 and FOXp3 were higher than in active granulomas. Five clusters were identified in inactive lesion groups, being the variance in the expression levels of IL-17, IL-10, FOXp3, IFN-γ, IL-9, IL-33 and IL-4 statistically significant (KW p<0.05). Three clusters were identified in active lesions, being the variance in the expression levels of IL-22, IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-33, FOXp3, IL-21 and RANKL statistically significant (KW p<0.05). Conclusion: There is a clear dichotomy in the profile of cytokine expression in inactive and active periapical lesions. While the widespread cytokine expression seems to be a feature of chronic lesions, hierarchical cluster analysis demonstrates the association of TNF-α, IL-21, IL-17 and IFN-γ with lesions activity, and the association of FOXP3, IL-10, IL-9, IL-4 and IL-22 with lesions inactivity.
Journal of applied oral science: revista FOB 07/2014; 22(4):336-346. · 0.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Previous studies describe contrasting molecular profiles of active and inactive periapical granulomas characterized by distinct expression of cytokines, osteoclastogenic factors, and wound healing markers. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying such dichotomy remain unknown, in this study, we investigated the potential involvement of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in determining human and murine periapical lesion activity and outcomes.
Periapical granulomas (n = 83) and control samples (n = 24) were comparatively assessed for the expression levels of 11 mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Experimental periapical lesions induced in mice were evaluated for MSC marker expression and the effects of AMD3100 treatment on lesion outcomes.
MCS marker expression was prevalent in periapical granulomas compared with controls, whereas CD29, CD73, CD90, CD146, CD166, NANOG, Stro-1, and CXCR4 expressions were higher in inactive than active lesions. Experimental periapical lesion inactivity was also associated with an increased expression of MSC markers. The inhibition of MSC mobilization to the periapex by AMD3100 resulted in increased lesion sizes; decreased expression of MSCs and wound healing markers; and increased expression of interleukin 1 beta (IL-17β), interleukin 17 (IL-17), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL).
Our results show that MSC markers are overexpressed in inactive human and experimental periapical lesions and that MSC mobilization results in the attenuation of experimental lesion progression associated with immunosuppressive and prohealing mechanisms.
Journal of Endodontics 01/2014; · 2.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of periapical granulomas is dependent on the host response and involves Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg-related cytokines. The discovery of new Th9 and Th22 subsets, with important immunomodulatory roles mediated by interleukin (IL)-9 and IL-22, respectively, emphasizes the need for reevaluation of current cytokine paradigms in context of periapical lesions. We investigated the expression of IL-9 and IL-22 in active and stable human granulomas and throughout experimental lesion development in mice.
Periapical granulomas (N = 83) and control specimens (N = 24) were evaluated regarding the expression of IL-9 and IL-22 via real-time polymerase chain reaction. Experimental periapical lesions were induced in mice (pulp exposure and bacterial inoculation) and the lesions evolution correlation with IL-9 and IL-22 expression kinetics was evaluated.
IL-9 and IL-22 mRNA expression was higher in periapical lesions than in control samples; higher levels of IL-9 and IL-22 were observed in inactive than in active lesions. In the experimental lesions model, increasing levels of IL-9 and IL-22 mRNA were detected in the lesions, and inverse correlations were found between IL-9 and IL-22 and the increase of lesion area in the different time point intervals.
Our results suggest that Th9 and Th22 pathways may contribute to human and experimental periapical lesion stability.
Journal of endodontics 01/2013; 39(1):83-7. · 2.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wound healing process involves the activation of extracellular matrix components, remodeling enzymes, cellular adhesion molecules, growth factors, cytokines and chemokines genes. However, the molecular patterns underlying the healing process at the periapical environment remain unclear. Here we hypothesized that endodontic infection might result in an imbalance in the expression of wound healing genes involved in the pathogenesis of periapical lesions. Furthermore, we suggest that differential expression of wound healing markers in active and latent granulomas could account for different clinical outcomes for such lesions.
Study samples consisted of 93 periapical granulomas collected after endodontic surgeries and 24 healthy periodontal ligament tissues collected from premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes as control samples. Of these, 10 periapical granulomas and 5 healthy periapical tissues were used for expression analysis of 84 wound healing genes by using a pathway-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction array. The remaining 83 granulomas and all 24 control specimens were used to validate the obtained array data by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Observed variations in expression of wound healing genes were analyzed according to the classification of periapical granulomas as active/progressive versus inactive/stable (as determined by receptor activator for nuclear factor kappa B ligand/osteoprotegerin expression ratio).
We observed a marked increase of 5-fold or greater in SERPINE1, TIMP1, COL1A1, COL5A1, VTN, CTGF, FGF7, TGFB1, TNF, CXCL11, ITGA4, and ITGA5 genes in the periapical granulomas when compared with control samples. SERPINE1, TIMP1, COL1A1, TGFB1, and ITGA4 mRNA expression was significantly higher in inactive compared with active periapical granulomas (P < .001), whereas TNF and CXCL11 mRNA expression was higher in active lesions (P < .001).
The identification of novel gene targets that curb the progression status of periapical lesions might contribute to a more accurate diagnosis and lead to treatment modalities more conducive to endodontic success.
Journal of endodontics 02/2012; 38(2):185-90. · 2.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Periodontitis comprises a group of multifactorial diseases in which periodontopathogens accumulate in dental plaque and trigger host chronic inflammatory and immune responses against periodontal structures, which are determinant to the disease outcome. Although unusual cases of non-inflammatory destructive periodontal disease (NIDPD) are described, their pathogenesis remains unknown. A unique NIDPD case was investigated by clinical, microbiological, immunological and genetic tools. The patient, a non-smoking dental surgeon with excessive oral hygiene practice, presented a generalized bone resorption and tooth mobility, but not gingival inflammation or occlusion problems. No hematological, immunological or endocrine alterations were found. No periodontopathogens (A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum and T. denticola) or viruses (HCMV, EBV-1 and HSV-1) were detected, along with levels of IL-1β and TNF-a in GCF compatible with healthy tissues. Conversely ALP, ACP and RANKL GCF levels were similar to diseased periodontal sites. Genetic investigation demonstrated that the patient carried some SNPs, as well HLA-DR4 (*0404) and HLA-B27 alleles, considered risk factors for bone loss. Then, a less vigorous and diminished frequency of toothbrushing was recommended to the patient, resulting in the arrest of alveolar bone loss, associated with the return of ALP, ACP and RANKL in GCF to normality levels. In conclusion, the unusual case presented here is compatible with the previous description of NIDPD, and the results that a possible combination of excessive force and frequency of mechanical stimulation with a potentially bone loss prone genotype could result in the alveolar bone loss seen in NIDPD.
Journal of applied oral science: revista FOB 02/2012; 20(1):113-21. · 0.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current literature on chronic periodontitis genetics encompasses numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms-focused case-control studies with inconsistent and controversial results, which typically disregards the exposure concept embraced by case-control definition. Herein, we propose a case-control design reappraisal by clear phenotype selection, where chronic gingivitis represents a genetically resistant phenotype/genotype opposing the susceptible cohort.
The hypothesis was tested in healthy, chronic periodontitis and gingivitis groups through Real-time PCR-based allelic discrimination of classic variants IL1B-3954, IL6-174, TNFA-308, IL10-592 and TLR4-299.
Observed allele/genotype frequencies characterize the healthy group with an intermediate genetic profile between periodontitis and gingivitis cohorts. When comparing genotype/allele frequencies in periodontitis versus healthy and periodontitis versus gingivitis scenarios, the number of positive associations (2-4) and the degree of association (p and odds ratio values) were significantly increased by the new approach proposed (periodontitis versus gingivitis), suggesting the association of IL1B-3954, TNFA-308, IL10-592 and TLR4-299 with periodontitis risk. Power study was also significantly improved by the new study design proposed when compared to the traditional approach.
The data presented herein support the use of new case-control study design based on the case-control definition and clear resistance/susceptibility phenotypes selection, which can significantly impact the study power and odds of identification of genetic factors involved in PD.
Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 01/2012; 39(4):323-32. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: periodontal disease (PD) and airway allergic inflammation (AL) present opposing inflammatory immunological features and clinically present an inverse correlation. However, the putative mechanisms underlying such opposite association are unknown.
Balb/C mice were submitted to the co-induction of experimental PD (induced by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans oral inoculation) and AL [induced by sensitization with ovalbumin (OVA) and the subsequent OVA challenges], and evaluated regarding PD and AL severity, immune response [cytokine production at periodontal tissues, and T-helper transcription factors in submandibular lymph nodes (LNs)] and infection parameters.
PD/AL co-induction decreased PD alveolar bone loss and periodontal inflammation while experimental AL parameters were unaltered. An active functional interference was verified, because independent OVA sensitization and challenge not modulate PD outcome. PD+AL group presented decreased tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, interferon-γ, IL-17A, receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells ligand and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 levels in periodontal tissues, while IL-4 and IL-10 levels were unaltered by AL co-induction. AL co-induction also resulted in upregulated T-bet and related orphan receptor γ and downregulated GATA3 levels expression in submandibular LNs when compared with PD group.
our results demonstrate that the interaction between experimental periodontitis and allergy involves functional immunological interferences, which restrains experimental periodontitis development by means of a skewed immune response.
Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 02/2011; 38(2):131-41. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemokines and chemokine receptors have been implicated in the selective migration of leukocyte subsets to periodontal tissues, which consequently influences the disease outcome. Among these chemoattractants, the chemokines CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5 and its receptors, CCR1 and CCR5, have been associated with increased disease severity in mice and humans. Therefore, in this study we investigated the modulation of experimental periodontitis outcome by the treatment with a specific antagonist of CCR1 and 5 receptors, called met-RANTES. C57Bl/6 mice was orally infected with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and treated with 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.5 and 5 mg doses of met-RANTES on alternate days, and evaluated by morphometric, cellular, enzymatic and molecular methods. At 0.5 mg up to 5 mg doses, a strong reduction in the alveolar bone loss and inflammatory cell migration were observed. Interestingly, 5 mg dose treatment resulted in the maximum inhibition of inflammatory cell migration, but resulted in a similar inhibition of bone loss when compared with the lower doses, and also resulted in increased bacterial load and CRP response. When 0.5 and 5 mg therapy regimens were compared it was observed that both therapeutic protocols were able to downregulate the levels of pro-inflammatory, Th1-type and osteoclastogenic cytokines, and CD3+ and F4/80+ cells migration to periodontal tissues, but the high dose modulates host response in a more pronounced and unspecific and excessive way, interfering also with the production of antimicrobial mediators such as MPO, iNOS and IgG, and with GR1+ and CD19+ cells migration. Our results demonstrate a thin line between beneficial immunoregulation and impaired host defense during experimental periodontitis, and the determination of the exact equilibrium point is mandatory for the improvement of immune-targeted therapy of periodontitis.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(7):e22526. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: mRNAs are highly versatile, non-toxic molecules that are easy to produce and store, which can allow transient protein expression in all cell types. The safety aspects of mRNA-based treatments in gene therapy make this molecule one of the most promising active components of therapeutic or prophylactic methods. The use of mRNA as strategy for the stimulation of the immune system has been used mainly in current strategies for the cancer treatment but until now no one tested this molecule as vaccine for infectious disease.
We produce messenger RNA of Hsp65 protein from Mycobacterium leprae and show that vaccination of mice with a single dose of 10 μg of naked mRNA-Hsp65 through intranasal route was able to induce protection against subsequent challenge with virulent strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Moreover it was shown that this immunization was associated with specific production of IL-10 and TNF-alpha in spleen. In order to determine if antigen presenting cells (APCs) present in the lung are capable of capture the mRNA, labeled mRNA-Hsp65 was administered by intranasal route and lung APCs were analyzed by flow cytometry. These experiments showed that after 30 minutes until 8 hours the populations of CD11c+, CD11b+ and CD19+ cells were able to capture the mRNA. We also demonstrated in vitro that mRNA-Hsp65 leads nitric oxide (NO) production through Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7).
Taken together, our results showed a novel and efficient strategy to control experimental tuberculosis, besides opening novel perspectives for the use of mRNA in vaccines against infectious diseases and clarifying the mechanisms involved in the disease protection we noticed as well.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Periodontitis (PD) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been found to be clinically associated and to share the chronic nature of the inflammatory reaction associated with bone resorption activity. However, the mechanisms underlying such association are unknown. Therefore, we examined the basis of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans- and Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced PD and pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) interaction in mice. Higher severity PD in the genetically inflammation prone acute inflammatory reactivity maximum (AIRmax) mice strain was associated with higher levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-17, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, and RANKL, whereas PD/PIA co-induction resulted in even higher levels of IL-1beta, IFN-gamma, IL-17, RANKL, and MMP-13 levels. Conversely, PD/PIA co-induction in AIRmin strain did not alter the course of both pathologies. PIA/PD co-induction resulted in altered expression of T-cell subsets transcription factors expression, with T-bet and RORgamma levels being upregulated, whereas GATA-3 levels were unaltered. Interestingly, PIA induction resulted in alveolar bone loss, such response being highly dependent on the presence of commensal oral bacteria. No differences were found in PIA severity parameters by PD co-induction. Our results show that the interaction between experimental PD and arthritis in mice involves a shared hyper-inflammatory genotype and functional interferences in innate and adaptive immune responses.
Genes and immunity 09/2010; 11(6):479-89. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Periodontal diseases (PDs) are infectious diseases in which periodontopathogens trigger chronic inflammatory and immune responses that lead to tissue destruction. Recently, viruses have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PDs. Individuals infected with human T lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) present with abnormal oral health and a marked increased prevalence of periodontal disease.
In this study, we investigated the patterns of periodontopathogen infection and local inflammatory immune markers in HTLV-1-seropositive individuals with chronic periodontitis (CP/HTLV-1 group) compared with HTLV-1-seronegative individuals with chronic periodontitis (CP group) and periodontally healthy, HTLV-1-seronegative individuals (control group).
Patients in the CP/HTLV-1 group had significantly higher values of bleeding on probing, mean probing depth, and attachment loss than patients in the CP group. The expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin (IL) 4 was found to be similar in the CP and CP/HTLV-1 groups, whereas IL-12 and IL-17 levels trended toward a higher expression in the CP/HTLV-1 group. A significant increase was seen in the levels of IL-1beta and interferon gamma in the CP/HTLV-1 group compared with the CP group, whereas expression of the regulatory T cell marker FOXp3 and IL-10 was significantly decreased in the lesions from the CP/HTLV-1 group. Interestingly, similar frequency and/or load of periodontopathogens (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans) and frequency of viruses (herpes simplex virus 1, human cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus) characteristically associated with PDs were found in the CP/HTLV and CP groups.
HTLV-1 may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease through the deregulation of the local cytokine network, resulting in an exacerbated response against a standard periodontopathogen infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our objective was to evaluate the association between the MMP1-1607 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), periodontopathogens and inflammatory cytokines with matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) mRNA levels in vitro and in vivo.
This study investigated the influence of genetic (MMP1-1607 SNP), microbial (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans) and inflammatory [tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)] factors on the determination of MMP-1 mRNA levels in periodontal tissues of non-smoker chronic periodontitis (CP, N=178) and control (C, N=190) groups. The effects of single and repeated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and inflammatory cytokine stimulation of macrophages with distinct MMP1-1607 SNP genotypes were also investigated.
In healthy tissues, the MMP1-1607 2G allele was associated with higher MMP-1 levels while in CP MMP-1 levels were associated with the presence and load of periodontopathogens, and also with TNF-alpha and IL-1beta expression irrespective of the MMP1-1607 genotype. In vitro data demonstrate that in 2G macrophages low- and intermediate-dose LPS and TNF-alpha+IL-1beta stimulation was associated with increased MMP-1 expression, while strong and repeated stimulation resulted in higher MMP-1 levels irrespective of the MMP1-1607 genotype.
Our data demonstrate a limited role for MMP1-1607 SNP in periodontitis, where the extensive chronic antigenic challenge exposure overcomes the genetic control and plays a major role in the determination of MMP-1 expression.
Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 08/2009; 36(9):726-38. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a comparative study of the physico-chemical properties, in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antibody production of surface-complexed DNA in EPC/DOTAP/DOPE (50/25/25% molar) liposomes and DOTAP/DOPE (50/50% molar) lipoplexes. The study aims to correlate the biological behavior and structural properties of the lipid carriers. We used DNA-hsp65, whose naked action as a gene vaccine against tuberculosis has already been demonstrated. Additionally, surface-complexed DNA-hsp65 in EPC/DOTAP/DOPE (50/25/25% molar) liposomes was effective as a single-dose tuberculosis vaccine. The results obtained showed that the EPC inclusion stabilized the DOTAP/DOPE structure, producing higher melting temperature and lower zeta potential despite a close mean hydrodynamic diameter. Resemblances in morphologies were identified in both structures, although a higher fraction of loaded DNA was not electrostatically bound in EPC/DOTAP/DOPE. EPC also induced a striking reduction in cytotoxicity, similar to naked DNA-hsp65. The proper immune response lead to a polarized antibody production of the IgG2a isotype, even for the cytotoxic DOTAP/DOPE. However, the antibody production was detected at 15 and 30 days for DOTAP/DOPE and EPC/DOTAP/DOPE, respectively. Therefore, the in vivo antibody production neither correlates with the in vitro cytotoxicity, nor with the structural stability alone. The synergistic effect of the structural stability and DNA electrostatic binding upon the surface of structures account for the immunological effects. By adjusting the composition to generate proper packing and cationic lipid/DNA interaction, we allow for the optimization of liposome formulations for required immunization or gene therapy. In a specific manner, our results contribute to studies on the tuberculosis therapy and vaccination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha are involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. A high between-subject variation in the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA has been verified, which may be a result of genetic polymorphisms and/or the presence of periodontopathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola (called the red complex) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. In this study, we investigated the effect of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFA) -308G/A gene polymorphism and of periodontopathogens on the tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in the periodontal tissues of nonsmoking patients with chronic periodontitis (n = 127) and in control subjects (n = 177).
The TNFA -308G/A single nucleotide polymorphism was investigated using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, whereas the tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels and the periodontopathogen load were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction.
No statistically significant differences were found in the frequency of the TNFA -308 single nucleotide polymorphism in control and chronic periodontitis groups, in spite of the higher frequency of the A allele in the chronic periodontitis group. The concomitant analyses of genotypes and periodontopathogens demonstrated that TNFA -308 GA/AA genotypes and the red-complex periodontopathogens were independently associated with increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in periodontal tissues, and no additive effect was seen when both factors were present. P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and T. denticola counts were positively correlated with the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. TNFA -308 genotypes were not associated with the periodontopathogen detection odds or with the bacterial load.
Our results demonstrate that the TNFA -308 A allele and red-complex periodontopathogens are independently associated with increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in diseased tissues of nonsmoking chronic periodontitis patients and consequently are potentially involved in determining the disease outcome.
Journal of Periodontal Research 01/2009; 44(5):598-608. · 1.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory cytokines contribute to periapical tissue destruction. Their activity is potentially regulated by suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS), which downregulate signal transduction as part of an inhibitory feedback loop. We investigated the expression of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha); interleukin (IL)-10 and RANKL; and SOCS-1, -2, and -3 by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 57 periapical granulomas and 38 healthy periapical tissues. Periapical granulomas exhibited significantly higher SOCS-1, -2, and -3, TNF-alpha, IL-10, and RANKL messenger RNA levels when compared with healthy controls. Significant positive correlations were found between SOCS1 and IL-10 and between SOCS3 and IL-10. Significant inverse correlations were observed between SOCS1 and TNF-alpha, SOCS1 and RANKL, and SOCS3 and TNF-alpha. Increased SOCS-1, -2, and -3 messenger RNA levels in periapical granulomas may be related to the downregulation of inflammatory cytokines in these lesions; therefore, SOCS molecules may play a role in the dynamics of periapical granulomas development.
Journal of endodontics 01/2009; 34(12):1480-4. · 2.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory immune reactions that occur in response to periodontopathogens are thought to protect the host against infection, but may trigger periodontal destruction. However, the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying host susceptibility to periodontal infection and to periodontitis development have still not been established in detail.
In this study, we examined the mechanisms that modulate the outcome of Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans-induced periodontal disease in mice mouse strains selected for maximal (AIRmax) or minimal (AIRmin) inflammatory reactions.
Our results showed that AIRmax mice developed a more severe periodontitis than AIRmin mice in response to A. actinomycetemcomitans infection, and this periodontitis was characterized by increased alveolar bone loss and inflammatory cell migration to periodontal tissues. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays demonstrated that the levels of the cytokines interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-17 were higher in AIRmax mice, as were the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-13 and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) mRNA levels. However, the more intense inflammatory immune reaction raised by the AIRmax strain, in spite of the higher levels of antimicrobial mediators myeloperoxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase, did not enhance the protective immunity to A. actinomycetemcomitans infection, because both AIRmax and AIRmin strains presented similar bacterial loads in periodontal tissues. In addition, the AIRmax strain presented a trend towards higher levels of serum C-reactive protein during the course of disease.
Our results demonstrate that the intensity of the inflammatory immune reaction is associated with the severity of experimental periodontitis, but not with the control of A. actinomycetemcomitans periodontal infection, suggesting that the occurrence of hyperinflammatory genotypes may not be an evolutionary advantage in the complex host-pathogen interaction observed in periodontal diseases.
Journal of Periodontal Research 11/2008; 44(4):443-51. · 1.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Periodontal diseases are infectious diseases, in which periodontopathogens trigger chronic inflammatory and immune responses that lead to tissue destruction. It occurs through the generation of metalloproteinases and the activation of bone resorption mechanisms. Anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 seem to attenuate periodontal tissue destruction through the induction of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and the inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis osteoprotegerin (OPG). A high individual variation in levels of IL-10 mRNA is verified in periodontitis patients, which is possibly determined by genetic polymorphisms. In this study, the IL-10 promoter -592C/A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), which is associated with a decrease in IL-10 production, was analyzed by RFLP in 116 chronic periodontitis (CP) patients and 173 control (C) subjects, and the IL-10, TIMPs, and OPG mRNA expression levels in diseased gingival tissues were determined by real-time-PCR. The IL-10-592 SNP CA (P=0.0012/OR=2.4/CI:1.4-4.1), AA (P=0.0458/OR=2.3/CI:1.1-4.9), and CA+AA (P=0.0006/OR=2.4/CI:1.4-3.4) genotypes and the allele A (P=0.0036/OR=1.7/CI:1.2-2.4) were found to be significantly more prevalent in the CP group when compared with control subjects. Both CA and AA genotypes were associated with lower levels of IL-10, TIMP-3, and OPG mRNA expression in diseased periodontal tissues and were also associated with disease severity as mean pocket depth. Taken together, the results presented here demonstrate that IL10-592 SNP is functional in CP, being associated with lower levels of IL-10 mRNA expression, which is supposed to consequently decrease the expression of the downstream genes TIMP-3 and OPG, and influence periodontal disease outcome.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology 09/2008; 84(6):1565-73. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) are involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. A high individual variation in the levels of IL-1beta mRNA has been verified, which is possibly determined by genetic polymorphisms and/or by the presence of periodontopathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. In this study, we investigated the role of an IL-1beta promoter single-nucleotide polymorphism at position 3954 [IL-1beta(3954) SNP] and the presence of the periodontopathogens in the determination of the IL-1beta levels in the periodontal tissues of nonsmoking chronic periodontitis (CP) patients (n = 117) and control (C) subjects (n = 175) and the possible correlations with the clinical parameters of the disease. IL-1beta(3954) SNP was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism, while the IL-1beta levels and the presence of the periodontopathogens were determined by real-time PCR. Similar frequencies of IL-1beta(3954) SNP were found in the C and CP groups, in spite of a trend toward a higher incidence of T alleles in the CP group. The IL-1beta(3954) SNP CT and TT genotypes, as well as P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and T. denticola, were associated with higher IL-1beta levels and with higher values of the clinical parameters of disease severity. Concomitant analyses demonstrate that IL-1beta(3954) and the red complex periodontopathogens were found to independently and additively modulate the levels of IL-1beta in periodontal tissues. Similarly, the concurrent presence of both factors was associated with increased scores of disease severity. IL-1beta(3954) genotypes and red complex periodontopathogens, individually and additively, modulate the levels of IL-1beta in the diseased tissues of nonsmoking CP patients and, consequently, are potentially involved in the determination of the disease outcome.
Infection and immunity 09/2008; 76(8):3725-34. · 4.21 Impact Factor