[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-1 family members are central mediators of host defense. In this article, we show that the novel IL-1 family member IL-36γ was expressed during experimental colitis and human inflammatory bowel disease. Germ-free mice failed to induce IL-36γ in response to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced damage, suggesting that gut microbiota are involved in its induction. Surprisingly, IL-36R-deficient (Il1rl2(-/-)) mice exhibited defective recovery following DSS-induced damage and impaired closure of colonic mucosal biopsy wounds, which coincided with impaired neutrophil accumulation in the wound bed. Failure of Il1rl2(-/-) mice to recover from DSS-induced damage was associated with a profound reduction in IL-22 expression, particularly by colonic neutrophils. Defective recovery of Il1rl2(-/-) mice could be rescued by an aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist, which was sufficient to restore IL-22 expression and promote full recovery from DSS-induced damage. These findings implicate the IL-36/IL-36R axis in the resolution of intestinal mucosal wounds.
The Journal of Immunology 11/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1501312 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regulatory CD4 T (Treg) cells are comprised of a heterogeneous population of cells that play a vital role in suppressing inflammation and maintaining immune tolerance. The immunoregulatory function of Treg cells is especially important in the intestine where the mucosa is exposed to a diverse array of foreign antigens-including those derived from food and commensal bacteria. Treg cells are enriched in the intestinal lamina propria and provide a crucial function in promoting tolerance to enteric antigens while modulating tissue inflammation. Correspondingly, Treg cell dysfunction is associated with a breakdown in intestinal tolerance and the induction of aberrant immune responses that may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. This review will provide a brief overview of Treg cell biology with a focus on Foxp3 Treg and type 1 regulatory (Tr1) cells and summarize the evidence for defective Treg cells in experimental and human inflammatory bowel disease. The potential application of Treg cells as a treatment for inflammatory bowel disease will also be discussed in the context of Treg infusion therapy and the in vivo induction/expansion of intestinal Treg cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are commonly used in clinical medicine, cause erosion, ulcers, and bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract. No effective agent for the prevention and treatment of small intestinal injury by NSAIDs has been established. This study investigates the effects of agaro-oligosaccharides (AGOs) on NSAID-induced small intestinal injury in mice.
Mice were treated with indomethacin, an NSAID, to induce intestinal injury. The respective degrees of mucosal injury of mice that received AGO and control mice were compared. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry were measured. The expression of keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) was measured using qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
AGO administration induced HO-1 expression in mouse small intestinal mucosa. Induction was observed mainly in F4/80 positive macrophages. The increased ulcers score, myeloperoxidase activity, and KC expression by indomethacin were inhibited by AGO administration. Conversely, HO inhibitor cancelled AGO-mediated prevention of intestinal injury. In mouse peritoneal macrophages, AGOs enhanced HO-1 expression and suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced KC expression. Furthermore, AGOs enhanced the expressions of alternatively activated macrophage markers arginase-1, mannose receptor-1, and chitinase 3-like 3.
Results suggest that oral administration of AGOs prevents NSAID-induced intestinal injury.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 08/2013; 29(2). DOI:10.1111/jgh.12373 · 3.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
BTB and CNC homolog 1 (Bach1) is a transcriptional repressor of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which plays an important role in the protection of cells and tissues against acute and chronic inflammation. However, the role of Bach1 in the gastrointestinal mucosal defense system remains little understood. HO-1 supports the suppression of experimental colitis and localizes mainly in macrophages in colonic mucosa. This study was undertaken to elucidate the Bach1/HO-1 system's effects on the pathogenesis of experimental colitis.
This study used C57BL/6 (wild-type) and homozygous Bach1-deficient C57BL/6 mice in which colonic damage was induced by the administration of an enema of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Subsequently, they were evaluated macroscopically, histologically, and biochemically. Peritoneal macrophages from the respective mice were isolated and analyzed. Then, wild-type mice were injected with peritoneal macrophages from the respective mice. Acute colitis was induced similarly.
TNBS-induced colitis was inhibited in Bach1-deficient mice. TNBS administration increased the expression of HO-1 messenger RNA and protein in colonic mucosa in Bach1-deficient mice. The expression of HO-1 mainly localized in F4/80-immunopositive and CD11b-immunopositive macrophages. Isolated peritoneal macrophages from Bach1-deficient mice highly expressed HO-1 and also manifested M2 macrophage markers, such as Arginase-1, Fizz-1, Ym1, and MRC1. Furthermore, TNBS-induced colitis was inhibited by the transfer of Bach1-deficient macrophages into wild-type mice.
Deficiency of Bach1 ameliorated TNBS-induced colitis. Bach1-deficient macrophages played a key role in protection against colitis. Targeting of this mechanism is applicable to cell therapy for human inflammatory bowel disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aim:
Although non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can induce intestinal injury, the mechanisms are not fully understood, and treatment has yet to be established. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has recently gained attention for anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of hemin, an HO-1 inducer, on indomethacin-induced enteritis in mice.
Enteritis was induced by single subcutaneous administration of indomethacin (10 mg/kg) in male C57BL/6 mice. Hemin (30 mg/kg) was administered by intraperitoneal administration 6 h before indomethacin administration. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: (i) sham + vehicle; (ii) sham + hemin; (iii) indomethacin + vehicle; or (iv) indomethacin + hemin. Enteritis was evaluated by measuring ulcerative lesions. Myeloperoxidase activity was measured as an index of neutrophil accumulation. The mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and keratinocyte chemoattractant, were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction.
The area of ulcerative lesions, myeloperoxidase activity, and mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were significantly increased in mice administrated with indomethacin compared with vehicle-treated sham mice. Development of intestinal lesions, increased levels of myeloperoxidase activities, and mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were significantly suppressed in mice treated with hemin compared with vehicle-treated mice. Protective effects of hemin were reversed by co-administration of tin protoporphyrin, an HO-1 inhibitor.
Induction of HO-1 by hemin inhibits indomethacin-induced intestinal injury through upregulation of HO-1. Pharmacological induction of HO-1 may offer a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 12/2012; 28(4). DOI:10.1111/jgh.12074 · 3.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Agarose is hydrolyzed easily to yield oligosaccharides, designated as agaro-oligosaccharides (AGOs). Recently, it has been demonstrated that AGOs induce heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in macrophages and that they might lead to anti-inflammatory property. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism of AGO-mediated HO-1 induction remains unknown, as does AGOs' ability to elicit anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. This study was undertaken to uncover the mechanism of AGO-mediated HO-1 induction and to investigate the therapeutic effect of AGOs on intestinal inflammation.
Mice were treated with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) to induce colitis. The respective degrees of mucosal injury of mice that had received AGO and control mice were compared. We investigated HO-1 expression using Western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was measured using qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
AGO administration induced HO-1 expression in colonic mucosa. The induction was observed mainly in F4/80 positive macrophages. Increased colonic damage and myeloperoxidase activity after TNBS treatment were inhibited by AGO administration. TNBS treatment induced TNF-α expression, and AGO administration suppressed induction. However, HO inhibitor canceled AGO-mediated amelioration of colitis. In RAW264 cells, AGOs enhanced HO-1 expression time-dependently and concentration-dependently and suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α expression. Furthermore, agarotetraose-mediated HO-1 induction required NF-E2-related factor 2 function and phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinase.
We infer that AGO administration inhibits TNBS-induced colitis in mice through HO-1 induction in macrophages. Consequently, oral administration of AGOs might be an important therapeutic strategy for inflammatory bowel disease.
Journal of Gastroenterology 11/2012; 48(8). DOI:10.1007/s00535-012-0719-4 · 4.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)-induced small intestinal lesions remains unclear, although it is considered to be quite different from that of upper gastrointestinal tract ulcers due to the absence of acid and the presence of bacteria and bile in the small intestine. The aim of this study was to characterize specific gene expression profiles of intestinal mucosa in indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury, and to investigate the effects of rebamipide on the expression of these genes.
Intestinal injury was induced in male Wistar rats by subcutaneous administration of indomethacin. Total RNA of the intestinal mucosa was extracted 24 h after indomethacin administration, gene expression was investigated using microarray analysis, and the identified genes were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, we investigated whether the treatment with rebamipide altered the expression of these identified genes.
The administration of indomethacin induced small intestine injuries, and these lesions were significantly inhibited by the treatment with rebamipide. Microarray analysis showed that the genes for several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and several chemokine-related genes were significantly upregulated, and metallothionein 1a (MT1a) was downregulated in the intestinal mucosa after administration of indomethacin. The expressions of these genes were reversed by the treatment with rebamipide.
These data suggest that MMPs, chemokines, and MT1a may play an important role in the intestinal mucosal injury induced by indomethacin. In particular, the inhibition of MMP genes and chemokine-related genes by rebamipide may be important for the therapeutic effect against NSAIDs-induced small intestinal injury.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 09/2012; 27(12). DOI:10.1111/j.1440-1746.2012.07275.x · 3.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serpin B1 is a monocyte neutrophil elastase (NE) inhibitor and is one of the most efficient inhibitors of NE. In the present study, we investigated the role of serpin B1 in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis by using clinical samples and an experimental model. The colonic expression of serpin B1 was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blot analysis, and immunohistological studies in both normal and inflamed mucosa from patients with ulcerative colitis. Serpin B1 mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR in the mouse dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model. Young adult mouse colonic epithelial (YAMC) cells were used to determine the role of serpin B1. Serpin B1 gene transfected YAMC cells were treated with H(2)O(2) to measure cell viability. The expression of NE was determined in YAMC cells treated with H(2)O(2). NE-silenced YAMC cells were also treated with H(2)O(2) and then measured for viability. Upregulated expression of serpin B1 in colonic mucosa was confirmed from patients with active ulcerative colitis. Immunohistochemical studies showed that serpin B1 expression was localized not only in inflammatory infiltration cells but also in epithelial cells. Serpin B1 mRNA expression was also increased in colonic mucosa of mouse DSS-induced colitis. Serpin B1-transfected YAMC cells were resistant against the treatment of H(2)O(2). H(2)O(2) treatment significantly induced NE in YAMC cells, and NE-silenced YAMC cells were also resistant against the treatment of H(2)O(2). These results suggest that serpin B1 may be a novel marker of active ulcerative colitis and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heat shock protein (HSP) 47 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of intestinal fibrosis. Daikenchuto (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, has been reported to ameliorate intestinal inflammation. The aims of this study were to determine time-course profiles of several parameters of fibrosis in a rat model, to confirm the HSP47-expressing cells in the colon, and finally to evaluate DKT's effects on intestinal fibrosis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats weighing 200 g using an enema of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). HSP47 localization was determined by immunohistochemistry. Colonic inflammation and fibrosis were assessed by macroscopic, histological, morphometric, and immunohistochemical analyses. Colonic mRNA expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), HSP47, and collagen type I were assessed by real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DKT was administered orally once a day from 8 to 14 d after TNBS administration. The colon was removed on the 15th day. HSP47 immunoreactivity was coexpressed with α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells located in the subepithelial space. Intracolonic administration of TNBS resulted in grossly visible ulcers. Colonic inflammation persisted for 6 weeks, and fibrosis persisted for 4 weeks after cessation of TNBS treatment. The expression levels of mRNA and proteins for TGF-β1, HSP47, and collagen I were elevated in colonic mucosa treated with TNBS. These fibrosis markers indicated that DKT treatment significantly inhibited TNBS-induced fibrosis. These findings suggest that DKT reduces intestinal fibrosis associated with decreasing expression of HSP47 and collagen content in the intestine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BTB and CNC homologue 1 (Bach1) is a transcriptional repressor of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). This study hypothesized that Bach1 plays an important role in the indomethacin-induced apoptosis in the case of small-intestinal mucosal injury. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 (wild-type) and homozygous Bach1-deficient C57BL/6 mice were included in this study. Mucosal injuries induced by subcutaneously administering indomethacin were evaluated macroscopically, histologically and biochemically. Indomethacin-induced injuries were improved in Bach1-deficient mice. Immunohistochemistry showed an increase in the number of HO-1-positive cells, which were mainly F4/80 positive macrophages, in Bach1-deficient mice. Indomethacin administration increased the expression of HO-1 mRNA and protein in the small intestine in Bach1-deficient mice. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) staining showed that the extent of apoptosis was suppressed in Bach1-deficent mice. In conclusion, deficiency of the Bach1 gene inhibited apoptosis and thus suppressed mucosal injury, indicating that Bach1 is a novel therapeutic target for indomethacin-induced intestinal injury.
Free Radical Research 06/2011; 45(6):717-27. DOI:10.3109/10715762.2011.574287 · 2.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of small intestinal damage caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as indomethacin is still unclear. For this reason, there is currently no therapeutic strategy for ameliorating such damage. On the other hand, molecular treatment strategies targeting tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α exert beneficial effects on intestinal lesions in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To clarify the participation of TNF-α in NSAID-induced small intestinal damage, we investigated the effects of indomethacin administration in mice with targeted deletion of the TNF-α gene. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously to male C57BL/6 (wild-type: WT) mice and TNF-α-deficient (TNF-α-/-) mice to induce small intestinal damage. The ulcer score, the tissue-associated myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity as an index of neutrophil infiltration, and the expression of keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) mRNA in the small intestinal mucosa were measured. In addition, we performed a TUNEL assay to evaluate indomethacin-induced apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells and measured the expression of caspase-3 protein and Bcl-2 mRNA. The ulcer score, MPO activity, and expression of KC mRNA were significantly increased after indomethacin administration. These increases were significantly inhibited in TNF-α-/- mice compared with WT mice. Apoptotic cells were observed by the TUNEL assay in the area of the ulcerative lesion, and they were significantly fewer in TNF-α-/- mice compared with WT mice. The expression of cleaved caspase-3 protein was induced by indomethacin administration, and significantly inhibited in TNF-α-/- mice compared with that of WT mice. The expression level of Bcl-2 mRNA in indomethacin-treated TNF-α-/- mice was significantly higher than that in WT mice. TNF-α plays an important role in the pathogenesis of indomethacin-induced small intestinal damage. These results suggest that TNF-α could become a new therapeutic target for NSAID-induced small intestinal damage.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine 03/2011; 27(3):353-9. DOI:10.3892/ijmm.2011.602 · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of enteropathy induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is still unclear, and there are no established treatments. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been associated with the development of chronic inflammatory diseases, including autoimmune diseases. To define the role of IL-17A in small intestinal injury and inflammation, we studied the effects of indomethacin administration in mice with targeted deletions of the IL-17A gene.
Male C57BL/6 (wild-type) and homozygous IL-17A(-/-) C57BL/6 mice were subjected to this study. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg) was subcutaneously administered to induce small-intestinal damage. Indomethacin-induced lesions in the small intestine were evaluated by measuring the injured area and by histopathology. Also assessed were myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as an index of neutrophil accumulation, and intestinal mRNA expression for inflammatory cytokines.
The area of macroscopic ulcerative lesions, the MPO activity and the mRNA expression of inflammatory-associated chemokines, such as keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), were significantly increased in indomethacin-treated groups compared with the sham groups. The development of intestinal lesions by indomethacin was inhibited in IL-17A(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice, together with significant suppression of the increased levels of MPO activities and KC, MCP-1, and G-CSF levels.
These findings demonstrate that IL-17A contributes to the development of indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury through upregulation of G-CSF, KC, and MCP-1. IL-17A might be a promising new therapeutic target to treat NSAID-induced enteritis.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 02/2011; 26(2):398-404. DOI:10.1111/j.1440-1746.2010.06496.x · 3.50 Impact Factor