[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vialinin A, a small compound isolated from the Chinese mushroom Thelephora vialis, exhibits more effective anti-inflammatory activity than the widely used immunosuppressive drug tacrolimus (FK506). Here, we show that ubiquitin-specific peptidase 5/isopeptidase T (USP5/IsoT) is a target molecule of vialinin A, identified by using a beads-probe method. Vialinin A inhibited the peptidase activity of USP5/IsoT and also inhibited the enzymatic activities of USP4 among deubiquitinating enzymes tested. Although USPs are a member of thiol protease family, vialinin A exhibited no inhibitions for other thiol proteases, such as calpain and cathepsin.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The first total synthesis of virgineone aglycone has been achieved employing the tandem O-acylation–migration reaction and the olefin cross-metathesis as key steps for fragment couplings. The left-hand segment of virgineone was also synthesized. The absolute configuration of the reported virgineone aglycone was determined to be (2S,7RS,26S) based on NMR analyses and the specific rotation values of the synthetic compounds. The absolute configuration of the natural virgineone was presumed to be (2S,7S,26S) based on NMR analyses of the synthetic virgineone aglycone.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synthesis of 2-homoprenyl-1-methyl-3-(5-methylfuran-2-yl)cyclopenta-2,4-dien-1-ol, the core framework of the proposed structure of the brown alga derived natural product sargafuran, was achieved in six steps from the commercially available 5-methylfurfural via the Piancatelli rearrangement of furylcarbinol. The concise synthetic route to the 1,2,3-trisubstituted cyclopentadienol is established. However, the 1H and 13C NMR spectral data of the synthetic analog of sargafuran suggest that the originally proposed structure of sargafuran must be incorrect. In addition, the structure of the natural sargafuran is also discussed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), a central mediator of the inflammatory response, is released from basophilic cells and other cells in response to a variety of proinflammatory stimuli. Vialinin A is a potent inhibitor of TNF-α production and is released from RBL-2H3 cells. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 5 (USP5), a deubiquitinating enzyme, was identified as a target molecule of vialinin A and its enzymatic activity was inhibited by vialinin A. Here we report production of TNF-α is decreased in USP5 siRNA-knockdown RBL-2H3 cells, compared with control cells. The finding of the present study strongly suggests that USP5 is one of the essential molecules for the production of TNF-α in RBL-2H3.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e80931. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A secondary metabolite of Streptomyces versipelis, versipelostatin(VST) A is a down-regulator of grp78 gene expression. This compound consists of a trisaccharide attached to a seventeen-membered macrocycle fused to spirotetronate and octalin units. Our interest in the its structural features and biological activity led us to pursue to its synthesis. In this study, we achieved the effective synthesis of the eastern unit of VST 4 via a coupling reaction of units 2 and 3. The spirotetronate unit 2 was synthesized from pulegone via tetronate formation and installation and quarterly center by Johnson-Claisen rearrangement. Syntheses of these units were accomplished in each ten or eleven steps, and provide good overall yields. Further synthetic studies toward the total synthesis of versipelostatin A are now in progress. O OH O OMe O Et O O NaPh CO 2 Me
The Twelfth International Conference of New Aspects of Organic Chemistry (IKCOC-12), Kyoto, JAPAN; 11/2012
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vialinin A is an extremely potent inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α release from RBL-2H3 cells. The present study investigated in detail the inhibitory effects of vialinin A and its analog, 5',6'-dimethyl-1,1':4',1″-terphenyl-2',3',4,4″-tetraol (DMT), on TNF-α. Vialinin A and DMT inhibited the release of TNF-α from RBL-2H3 cells in a dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on β-hexosaminidase activity. Also, vialinins had little effect on TNF-α mRNA levels. Intriguingly, vialinins inhibited TNF-α production at low concentrations, but not shown a dose-dependency. The potent inhibitory activities of vialinins against TNF-α production and release suggest promising new candidate pathways for anti-inflammatory agents.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synthesis of two potent osteoclast-forming suppressing agents isolated from the Chinese mushroom Agrocybe chaxingu, demethylincisterol A3 and chaxine A, was accomplished using ergocalciferol as the starting material. Our methodology for the synthesis of demethylincisterol A3 and chaxine A featured the construction of a butenolide moiety by the intramolecular Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons reaction under Masamune–Roush conditions. This is the first reported synthesis of chaxine A.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synthesis of the spirotetronate unit of versipelostatin A, a down-regulator of molecular chaperone GRP78, was achieved in ten steps starting from pulegone, via the Johnson-Claisen rearrangement. A model study of the coupling reaction with the octalin unit was also performed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mating hormones α1 and α2 induce sexual reproduction of the phytopathogenic genus Phytophthora. To demonstrate the structural elements responsible to hormonal activity, 17 derivatives of α1 and α2 were synthesized and their hormonal activity (oospore-inducing activity) was evaluated. The terminal ester derivatives of α1 (diacetate and dibenzoate) retained the hormonal activity, whereas a dicarbamate derivative completely suppressed the activity. Even monocarbamates showed weak activities; among them the 1-O-carbamate was less active than 16-O-carbamate, suggesting that the 1-OH group is a little more important than 16-OH. Dihydro, dehydro, and demethyl derivatives exhibited the minimum level of activity. Surviving activity of 15-epi-α1 suggested a less importance of this stereochemistry. Contrary to α1, not only the terminal diacetate derivative but also monoacetates of α2 exhibited no or little activity. Among the monoacetates, 1-O-acetyl-α2 exhibited little yet relatively better activity than the others. No activity was observed for mono- and dicarbamoyl derivatives of α2. Dihydro α2 with the saturated double bond lost most of the activity. These findings suggest that both the mating hormones α1 and α2 require most of the functional (hydroxyl, keto, and olefinic) groups they possess in their natural form for inducing the sexual reproduction of Phytophthora.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four stereoisomers of Phytophthora mating hormone α2 were synthesized using both enantiomers of citronellol as starting materials. The absolute configuration of the natural product was determined to be 7S,11R,15R by oospore-inducing assays of the synthetic isomers. A concise synthetic procedure of α1 was also established using a common synthetic intermediate of α2.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The first synthesis of (±)-cyclic dehypoxanthine futalosine (cyclic DHFL), a biosynthetic intermediate in the futalosine pathway for menaquinones operating in microorganisms, has been achieved. Efficient growth of the Streptomyces coelicolor mutant, which lacks the cyclic DHFL synthetase gene (mqnC gene) was observed in the presence of synthetic (±)-cyclic DHFL.
Tetrahedron Letters - TETRAHEDRON LETT. 01/2011; 52(38):4934-4937.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The total synthesis of (±)-3β-hydroxy-9β-pimara-7,15-diene (1), a putative biosynthetic intermediate of the momilactones, was accomplished stereoselectively. Our methodology for the synthesis of 1 featured the stereoselective construction of the C-13 quaternary carbon center via the aldol-Tishchenko reaction. 3β-Hydroxy-9β-pimara-7,15-diene (1) was identified by full-scan GC–MS analysis as an endogenous compound in elicited rice cells.
Tetrahedron Letters - TETRAHEDRON LETT. 01/2011; 52(25):3212-3215.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The heterothallic species of the agricultural pest Phytophthora use mating hormones α1 and α2 to regulate their sexual reproduction. Here we describe the absolute stereostructure of the second mating hormone α2 as defined by spectroscopic analysis and total synthesis. We have uncovered not only the interspecies universality of α hormones but also the pathway by which α2 is biosynthesized from phytol by A2-mating type strains and metabolized to α1 by A1 strains.
Nature Chemical Biology 01/2011; 7(9):591-3. · 12.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Short-step syntheses of (2RS,8R,10R)-YM-193221 (1) and tyroscherin (2), which are biologically active compounds isolated from Pseudallescheria sp., were accomplished in six and eight steps from L-tyrosine. The relative stereochemistry of natural YM-193221 was determined to be 8R*,10R*.
Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 10/2010; 74(10):2056-9. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Callosobruchus analis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), found throughout tropical Asia and Africa, is a pest of stored legumes. Previous work has shown that females of this species produce a contact sex pheromone that elicits copulatory behavior in males. Comparisons of copulatory activity between any two of four congeneric species suggest that the contact sex pheromones are species specific. In laboratory bioassays, male C. analis exhibited copulatory behavior to a female dummy to which a crude extract of virgin females was applied. The extract had been collected by a filter paper method and was purified by acid-base partition and chromatographic techniques. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses of active fractions revealed that the active compounds were 2,6-dimethyloctane-1,8-dioic acid (1) and callosobruchusic acid, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2-octene-1,8-dioic acid (2), previously identified as contact sex pheromones of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and C. chinensis (L.), respectively. The stereoisomeric and chemical compositions were determined by the 2D-HPLC-Ohrui-Akasaka method as (2S,6R)-1:(S)-2=1.8:1, which meant that both compounds in C. analis were stereochemically pure, unlike the case of C. maculatus and C. chinensis. An examination of the influence of synthetic pheromone compounds on male copulatory activity revealed that (2S,6R)-1 is the main component, and that (S)-2 has an additive effect. In the examination of the stereochemistry-activity relationship, no copulatory behavior was elicited by (2R,6S)-1, and, furthermore, the enantiomer significantly masked the pheromonal activity of (2S,6R)-1. Glass rod dummy assays also suggested the presence of synergists. These results could elucidate the specificity of mate recognition in C. analis.
Journal of Chemical Ecology 09/2010; 36(9):955-65. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Callosobruchus rhodesianus (Pic) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is a pest of stored legumes through the Afro-tropical region. In laboratory bioassays, males of C. rhodesianus were attracted to volatiles collected from virgin females. Collections were purified by various chromatographic techniques, and the biologically active component isolated using gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection analysis. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR analyses suggested that the active compound was 2,3-dihydrohomofarnesal, i.e., 7-ethyl-3,11-dimethyl-6,10-dodecadienal. The structure was confirmed by non-stereoselective and enantioselective total synthesis. Using chiral gas chromatography, the absolute configuration of the natural compound was confirmed as (3S,6E)-7-ethyl-3,11-dimethyl-6,10-dodecadienal. Y-tube olfactomter assays showed that only the (S)-enantiomer attracted males of C. rhodesianus. The (R)-enantiomer and racemate did not attract males, suggesting that the (R)-enantiomer inhibits the activity of the natural compound. In combination with previous reports about sex attractant pheromones of congeners, we suggest that a saltational shift of the pheromone structure arose within the genus Callosobruchus.
Journal of Chemical Ecology 08/2010; 36(8):824-33. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A proposed structure for the diffusible extracellular factor (DF) of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) has been synthesized. Its MS spectrum and biological activity, however, contradict those of the natural product previously reported, suggesting that the structure for DF of Xcc must be reexamined.
Tetrahedron Letters - TETRAHEDRON LETT. 01/2010; 51(15):2074-2077.