[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Headache disorders cause substantial productivity losses through absenteeism and impaired effectiveness at work (presenteeism).
We used the HALT Index as the survey instrument. We first assessed productivity losses by surveying the entire workforce. Because we anticipated much non-participation, we also applied HALT at the annual health-checks provided to all employees by the company's onsite health clinic.
Mean age of the workforce (N = 7,200) was 31 yr. About two thirds (90% male) were manual workers rotating weekly through early, late and night shifts. One third (50% male) were clerical/managerial, working a standard 5-day week. In the first assessment, 3,939 questionnaires (54.7%) were returned with usable data. In the previous 3 months, absenteeism of [greater than or equal to]1 day was reported by 360 respondents (9.1%), of whom 4 (0.10%) recorded [greater than or equal to]45 days (average per worker: 0.92 days/yr). Presenteeism equivalent to [greater than or equal to]1 day's absence was reported by 1,187 respondents (29.4%) (average per worker: 6.0 days/yr). We estimated that 23,519 days/yr were lost in total among respondents (2.3% of workforce capacity). In the first 6 months of annual health-checks, 2,691 employees (37.4%) attended (94.4% male). Absenteeism was reported by 40 (1.5%), with 74 days lost, presenteeism by 348 (12.9%), with 1,240 days lost. We estimated that, altogether, 41,771 man-days/yr were lost in the entire workforce (2.4% of capacity; 94% due to presenteeism), closely matching the earlier estimate. A small minority (5.7%) of those with headache, who were only 2.5% of the workforce, accounted for >45% of presenteeism-related lost productivity.
The high productivity losses in a largely male workforce were surprising. Possible factors were the nature of the work - manual labour for two thirds, often heavy - and the recurring schedule disturbances of shift-work. There was a highly-disabled minority.
The Journal of Headache and Pain 10/2013; 14(1):88. · 2.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a type of REM parasomnia characterized by complex motor activity during REM sleep. In this study, cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in patients with idiopathic RBD was analyzed to evaluate the expression of arousal instability of NREM sleep. METHODS: A total of 31 idiopathic RBD patients and age- and gender-matched 21 control subjects were consecutively recruited. Conventional sleep polysomnographic recording parameters and CAP parameters were compared between RBD and the control group. RESULTS: The number of CAP cycles (120.13 ± 113.56, p = 0.007), CAP sequences (20.9 ± 18.15, p < 0.001), CAP index (25.14 ± 24.44, p = 0.017), and CAP rate (24.07 ± 13.22, p = 0.016) were all significantly higher in RBD patients compared to the control group. The increase in CAP sequences was observed in phase A2 and A3 subtypes while phase A1 subtype was significantly lower in RBD patients. A significant positive correlation was observed between disease duration with total CAP time (r = 0.289, p = 0.042) and A3 index (r = 0.32, p = 0.024). There was a negative correlation between the age and A1 index (r = -0.4491, p = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first polysomnographic clinical study which evaluated CAP parameters in RBD. Increased CAP rate found may be considered as a sign showing that NREM sleep may also be affected in RBD patients. Therefore, CAP analysis may be important to enlighten the pathogenesis of parasomnias.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some studies have found elevated alexithymia among patients with chronic pain, but the correlations between alexithymia and the severity of pain, depression, and anxiety among migraine patients are unclear. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether individuals suffering from episodic migraine (EM) differ from those with chronic migraine (CM) in regards to depression, anxiety, and alexithymia measures and to investigate the association of alexithymia with the results of depression and anxiety test inventories and illness characteristics.
A total of 165 subjects with EM and 135 subjects with CM were studied. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) were administered to all subjects. The correlation between alexithymia and sociodemographic variables, family history of migraine and illness characteristics (pain severity, frequency of episode, duration of illness) were evaluated.
Compared with EM patients, the CM patients had significantly higher scores on measures of depression but not alexithymia and anxiety. There was a positive correlation between TAS scores and age and education in both migraine groups, but there was no correlation between TAS scores and other demographic variables. Depression and anxiety were significantly correlated with alexithymia in both migraine groups.
Our results indicate that CM patients are considerably more depressive than EM patients. In this study, depression and anxiety were significantly correlated with alexithymia in both migraine groups. Our results demonstrate a positive association between depression, anxiety, and alexithymia in migraine patients.
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 06/2010; 64(3):231-8. · 2.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In researches where two or more groups are desired to be compared, observational and randomized experiments are very frequently used. As the subjects are randomly assigned to the groups in randomized experiments, balance is provided in observed/unobserved covariates of subjects in different groups. As the subjects cannot be randomly distributed into groups in observational studies, balance of observed/unobserved covariates between groups is not provided. This situation causes a biased estimate of the treatment effect. In this research, it is focused on different matching methods in observational studies and elimination of observed covariate effects confounding in the group effect, and these methods are examined comparatively. For this purpose, the effect of depression in 300 migraine patients, obtained from an observational study, on State continuous anxiety scale scores is taken and compared with the five different matching methods. Sensitivity of results is examined and it is researched whether the effect of treatment contains any bias. When results are examined, it is seen that matching methods produce similar results due to the overlap of propensity distribution in groups, high and balanced number of subjects in groups and covariates being not so many in number. The effects of unobserved covariates do not change the effect of treatment significantly. In conclusion, it is seen that, in the estimation of group effect in observational studies, it is possible to eliminate the effects of observed covariates using matching methods and matching quality of matching methods based on the propensity score is high.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a male with headache related to sexual activity. An injection of steroid and local anesthetic combination was applied to the greater occipital nerve of the symptomatic site. The orgasmic headache stopped after the procedure.
Headache The Journal of Head and Face Pain 10/2008; 49(1):130-1. · 2.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) may have a high incidence of clinically asymptomatic silent cerebral infarction (SCI). Prevalence of SCI and its risk factors may differ between ischemic and nonischemic DCM. The purpose of this study was to evaluate prevalence and related parameters of silent cerebral infarction in patients with ischemic and nonischemic DCM.
Patients with ischemic and nonischemic DCM (53 male, 19 female, aged 62 +/- 12 years) were included in the study. Etiology of DCM was ischemic in 46 and nonischemic in 26 patients. Fifty-six age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers served as a control group for comparison of SCI prevalence.
Prevalence of SCI was 39%, 27%, and 3.6% in ischemic, nonischemic DCM, and control group, respectively (ischemic DCM vs control group, p < 0.001, nonischemic DCM vs control group, p = 002). In patients with nonischemic DCM, the mean age of the subjects with SCI was significantly higher than that of subjects without lesions (67 +/- 5 years vs 53 +/- 13, p < 0.001), whereas in ischemic DCM NHYA Functional Class was statistically higher in patients with SCI than without SCI (p = 0.03). In both groups, patients with SCI had lower systolic functions than patients with normal MRI findings. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, restrictive type of diastolic filling pattern was found as an independent factor for SCI occurrence on the whole patient population (OR: 16.5, 95% CI: 4.4-61.8, p < 0.001).
SCI is common in patients with both ischemic and nonischemic DCM. In univariate analysis, both groups have similar systolic and diastolic characteristics in the occurrence of SCI. Logistic regression analysis revealed that restrictive diastolic filling pattern is an independent risk factor in the occurrence of SCI for the whole patient population.
Vascular Health and Risk Management 01/2008; 4(2):463-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Migraine is an episodic headache disorder accompanied by various neurological, gastrointestinal and autonomic changes. In one fifth of the migraineurs, a neurological disturbance (visual, sensory or motor) appears during or before the development of the headache called migraine aura. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a transient neuronal depolarization that spreads across unilateral hemisphere from a focus and is followed by a long-lasting depression of neuronal activity. CSD was proposed to be the underlying phenomenon of the migraine aura as it propagates at a similar velocity with visual scotomata and the transient cortical oligemia seen in migraineurs during the aura phase. This data, enabling a better understanding of migraine pathophysiology, will result in new insights into the treatment of other neurological disorders such as cerebrovascular disorders, transient global amnesia, traumatic brain injury, in whose pathophysiology CSD is supposed to take part, beside the treatment of migraine itself.
Agri: Agri (Algoloji) Dernegi'nin Yayin organidir = The journal of the Turkish Society of Algology 11/2006; 18(4):24-30.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) have an increased risk of thromboembolic events. Incidence of silent cerebral infarction (SCI) has not been investigated in these patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of SCI in patients with DCM and to determine its associations with echocardiographic parameters.
Seventy-two patients (mean age 62+/-12 years) with DCM underwent cranial magnetic resonance imaging in addition to transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiographic examination. A total of 56 age-matched healthy volunteers served as a control group for comparison SCI prevalence. Prevalence of SCI was significantly higher in patients with DCM (35% vs. 3.6%; p<0.001). In DCM group, patients with SCI had significantly impaired left ventricular systolic function, higher frequency of restrictive diastolic filling, moderate to severe left atrial spontaneous echo contrast (SEC), aortic SEC, and complex atherosclerosis or calcified plaques in the aorta. In logistic regression analysis, type of diastolic filling emerged as the only independent risk factor for SCI (p<0.001). When the type of diastolic filling was removed from the analysis, ejection fraction, marked left atrial SEC, complex-calcified aortic atheroma and age appeared as the other independent risk factors (p = 0.003, p = 0.009, p = 0.013 and p = 0.018, respectively).
SCI is a frequent finding in DCM patients. Impaired systolic function, restrictive filling pattern, presence of moderate to severe left atrial SEC, and complex atherosclerosis in the aorta are the factors contributing to the development of SCI.
International Journal of Cardiology 04/2006; 107(3):376-81. · 6.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Migraine and cortical spreading depression Migraine is an episodic headache disorder accompanied by various neurological, gastrointestinal and autonomic changes. In one fifth of the migraineurs, a neurological disturbance (visual, sensory or motor) appears during or before the development of the headache called migraine aura. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a transient neuronal depolarization that spreads across unilateral hemisphere from a focus and is followed by a long-lasting depression of neuronal activity. CSD was proposed to be the underlying phenomenon of the migraine aura as it propagates at a similar velocity with visual scotomata and the transient cortical oligemia seen in migraineurs during the aura phase. This data, enabling a better understanding of migraine pathophysiology, will result in new insights into the treatment of other neurological disorders such as cerebrovascular disorders, transient global amnesia, traumatic brain injury, in whose pathophysiology CSD is supposed to take part, beside the treatment of migraine itself.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias; cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania, hemicrania continua and SUNCT (short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjuctival injection and tearing) syndrome are characterized by unilateral trigeminal distribution of pain and accompanying ipsilateral autonomic symptoms. Other than cluster headache, all of these syndromes have been described within last twenty years, and are found relatively less frequent and less known forms. Diagnosis of paroxysmal hemicrania and hemicrania continua, especially atypical forms, essentially depends on indomethacin responsiveness. For SUNCT syndrome, there is not such a drug which provides a practical approach to both diagnosis and therapy and its diagnosis depends on clinical features. So far, case reports from various countries helped us realize the existence of secondary forms of these syndromes and the necessity of imaging techniques, especially for recently described autonomic cephalgias.
Agri: Agri (Algoloji) Dernegi'nin Yayin organidir = The journal of the Turkish Society of Algology 10/2004; 16(4):17-27.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a patient with 7-year history of short-lasting paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia. The episodes occurred 100 to 125 times per day, lasted from 5 seconds to 3 minutes, and were not suppressed with sleeping, underlining the heterogeneity of phenomenology in paroxysmal dyskinesias. Neuroimaging studies showed calcifications in the basal ganglia, thalamus, brain stem, and subcortical and cerebellar regions. He was diagnosed with idiopathic hypoparathyroidism. After failure of valproate, he responded well to levetiracetam (1000 mg/d). This report revealed that intracerebral calcifications secondary to hypoparathyroidism could present as paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia, and levetiracetam could be effective in this particular entity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The purpose of this report is to evaluate the clinical signs, manipulations in emergency room and cranial imaging findings in the cases with brain stem infarction. Method: The signs and symptoms, underlying risk factors, manipulations in emergency ro- om, cranial imaging findings and prognosis of six patients who admitted to the Hospital of Kocaeli University, Faculty of Medicine with brain stem infarction are evaluated. Results: All of six patients had a known vascular risk factor such as DM, hypertension, smoking and one patient also had a cardiac risk factor. Three of them were first manipula- ted by the consultants from the departments other than neurology, because the medical doctor first examined these patients had not attributed symptoms of the patients to a neuro- logical pathology. The two patients with the history of cerebro-vascular diseases and one patient presented with hemiplegia had been first consulted to a neurologist. All of the pati- ents reported here had a good prognosis and clear improvements in neurological deficits were observed in follow up examinations. Discussion: High frequency of systemic disorders such as DM, hypertension accompani- ed to cerebro-vascular diseases and the presentations with the symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, hipophonia, diplopia, vertigo, difficulty in swallowing cause the medical doctors in emergency rooms to focus on the systemic examination and laboratory findings rather than the neurological ones. It was interesting that the cerebro-vascular complications were not prevented even if all of the known risk factors had been regulated or eliminated in these ca- ses. Conclusions: The need for postgraduate educational programs about the neurological examination for the medical doctors worked in emergency rooms and about the neurologi- cal complications of the systemic disorders for the consultant specialists is so obvious.