S D Emr

Cornell University, New York City, NY, United States

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Publications (224)2389.82 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Down-regulation (degradation) of cell surface proteins within the lysosomal lumen depends on the function of the multivesicular body (MVB) sorting pathway. The function of this pathway requires the class E vacuolar protein sorting (Vps) proteins. Of the class E Vps proteins, both the ESCRT-I complex (composed of the class E proteins Vps23, 28, and 37) and Vps27 (mammalian hepatocyte receptor tyrosine kinase substrate, Hrs) have been shown to interact with ubiquitin, a signal for entry into the MVB pathway. We demonstrate that activation of the MVB sorting reaction is dictated largely through interactions between Vps27 and the endosomally enriched lipid species phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate via the FYVE domain (Fab1, YGL023, Vps27, and EEA1) of Vps27. ESCRT-I then physically binds to Vps27 on endosomal membranes via a domain within the COOH terminus of Vps27. A peptide sequence in this domain, PTVP, is involved in the function of Vps27 in the MVB pathway, the efficient endosomal recruitment of ESCRT-I, and is related to a motif in HIV-1 Gag protein that is capable of interacting with Tsg101, the mammalian homologue of Vps23. We propose that compartmental specificity for the MVB sorting reaction is the result of interactions of Vps27 with phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and ubiquitin. Vps27 subsequently recruits/activates ESCRT-I on endosomes, thereby facilitating sorting of ubiquitinated MVB cargoes.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 09/2003; 162(3):413-23. · 10.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multivesicular bodies are late endosomal compartments containing lumenal vesicles that are formed by inward budding of the limiting endosomal membrane. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, integral membrane proteins are sorted into the lumenal vesicles of multivesicular bodies, and this process requires the class E subset of VPS genes. We show that one of the class E VPS genes, BRO1/VPS31, encodes a cytoplasmic protein that associates with endosomal compartments. The dissociation of Bro1 from endosomes requires another class E Vps protein, Vps4, which is an ATPase that also regulates the endosomal dissociation of ESCRT-III, a complex of four class E Vps proteins (Vps2, Vps20, Vps24 and Snf7/Vps32) that oligomerize at the endosomal membrane. We also show that the endosomal association of Bro1 is specifically dependent on one of the ESCRT-III components, Snf7. Our data suggest that the function of Bro1 in the MVB pathway takes place on endosomal membranes and occurs in concert with or downstream of the function of the ESCRT-III complex.
    Journal of Cell Science 06/2003; 116(Pt 10):1893-903. · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The sorting of proteins into the inner vesicles of multivesicular bodies is required for many key cellular processes, which range from the downregulation of activated signalling receptors to the proper stimulation of the immune response. Recent advances in our understanding of the multivesicular-body sorting pathway have resulted from the identification of ubiquitin as a signal for the efficient sorting of proteins into this transport route, and from the discovery of components of the sorting and regulatory machinery that directs this complex process.
    Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 01/2003; 3(12):893-905. · 37.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The LSB6 gene product was identified from the Saccharomyces Genome Data Base (locus YJL100W) as a putative member of a novel type II phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4-kinase family. Cell extracts lacking the LSB6 gene had a reduced level of PI 4-kinase activity. In addition, multicopy plasmids containing the LSB6 gene directed the overexpression of PI 4-kinase activity in cell extracts of wild-type cells, in an lsb6Delta mutant, in a pik1(ts) stt4(ts) double mutant, and in an pik1(ts) stt4(ts) lsb6Delta triple mutant. The heterologous expression of the S. cerevisiae LSB6 gene in Escherichia coli resulted in the expression of a protein that possessed PI 4-kinase activity. Although the lsb6Delta mutant did not exhibit a growth phenotype and failed to exhibit a defect in phosphoinositide synthesis in vivo, the overexpression of the LSB6 gene could partially suppress the lethal phenotype of an stt4Delta mutant defective in the type III STT4-encoded PI 4-kinase indicating that Lsb6p functions as a PI 4-kinase in vivo. Lsb6p was localized to the membrane fraction of the cell, and when overexpressed, GFP-tagged Lsb6p was observed on both the plasma membrane and the vacuole membrane. The enzymological properties (pH optimum, dependence on magnesium or manganese as a cofactor, the dependence of activity on Triton X-100, the dependence on the PI surface concentration, and temperature sensitivity) of the LSB6-encoded enzyme were very similar to the membrane-associated 55-kDa PI 4-kinase previously purified from S. cerevisiae.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2003; 277(49):47709-18. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A direct role for phosphoinositides in vesicular trafficking has been demonstrated by the identification of the yeast VPS34 gene encoding the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase responsible for the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P). Vps34p binds the protein kinase Vps15p, and it has recently been shown that Vps15p and Vps34p associate with Vps30p and Vps38p to form a multimeric complex, termed complex II. We observed that mutations in the VPS30 and VPS38 genes led to a selective sorting and maturation phenotype of the soluble vacuolar protease CPY. Localization studies revealed that the CPY receptor Vps10p and the Golgi-endoprotease Kex2p were mislocalized to vacuolar membranes in strains deficient for either Vps30p or Vps38p, respectively. Interestingly, we measured decreased PtdIns3P levels in Deltavps30 and Deltavps38 cells and observed redistribution of Vps5p and Vps17p to the cytoplasm in these mutants. Vps5p and Vps17p are subunits of the retromer complex that is required for endosome-to-Golgi retrograde transport. Both proteins contain the Phox homology (PX) domain, a recently identified phosphoinositide-binding motif. We demonstrate that the PX domains of Vps5p and Vps17p specifically bind to PtdIns3P in vitro and in vivo. On the basis of these and other observations, we propose that the PtdIns 3-kinase complex II directs the synthesis of a specific endosomal pool of PtdIns3P, which is required for recruitment/activation of the retromer complex, thereby ensuring efficient endosome-to-Golgi retrograde transport.
    Journal of Cell Science 11/2002; 115(Pt 20):3889-900. · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    Vivek Malhotra, Scott D Emr
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    ABSTRACT: This year, the recipients of the Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research are James Rothman and Randy Schekman. This highly anticipated honor highlights their unique contributions to our understanding of the mechanisms of membrane traffic.
    Cell 11/2002; 111(1):1-3. · 31.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sorting of ubiquitinated endosomal membrane proteins into the MVB pathway is executed by the class E Vps protein complexes ESCRT-I, -II, and -III, and the AAA-type ATPase Vps4. This study characterizes ESCRT-II, a soluble approximately 155 kDa protein complex formed by the class E Vps proteins Vps22, Vps25, and Vps36. This protein complex transiently associates with the endosomal membrane and thereby initiates the formation of ESCRT-III, a membrane-associated protein complex that functions immediately downstream of ESCRT-II during sorting of MVB cargo. ESCRT-II in turn functions downstream of ESCRT-I, a protein complex that binds to ubiquitinated endosomal cargo. We propose that the ESCRT complexes perform a coordinated cascade of events to select and sort MVB cargoes for delivery to the lumen of the vacuole/lysosome.
    Developmental Cell 09/2002; 3(2):283-9. · 12.86 Impact Factor
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    Andrew E Wurmser, Scott D Emr
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    ABSTRACT: Autophagy is the process whereby cytoplasmic cargo (e.g., protein and organelles) are sequestered within a double membrane-enclosed transport vesicle and degraded after vesicle fusion with the vacuole/lysosome. Current evidence suggests that the Vps34 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is essential for macroautophagy, a starvation-induced autophagy pathway (Kihara et al., 2001). Here, we characterize a requirement for Vps34 in constitutive autophagy by the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway. First, we show that transient disruption of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3-phosphate (PtdIns[3]P) synthesis through inactivation of temperature-sensitive Vps34 or its upstream activator, Vps15, blocks the Cvt and macroautophagy pathways. Yet, PtdIns(3)P-binding FYVE domain-containing proteins, which mediate carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) transport to the vacuole by the CPY pathway, do not account for the requirement of Vps34 in autophagy. Using a genetic selection designed to isolate PtdIns(3)P-binding effectors of Vps34, we identify Etf1, an uncharacterized type II transmembrane protein. Although Etf1 does not contain a known 3-phosphoinositide-binding domain (i.e., FYVE or Phox), we find that Etf1 interacts with PtdIns(3)P and that this interaction requires a basic amino acid motif (KKPAKK) within the cytosolic region of the protein. Moreover, deletion of ETF1 or mutation of the KKPAKK motif results in strong sorting defects in the Cvt pathway but not in macroautophagy or in CPY sorting. We propose that Vps34 regulates the CPY, Cvt, and macroautophagy pathways through distinct sets of PtdIns(3)P-binding effectors and that Vps34 promotes protein trafficking in the Cvt pathway through activation/localization of the effector protein Etf1.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 09/2002; 158(4):761-72. · 10.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The sorting of transmembrane proteins (e.g., cell surface receptors) into the multivesicular body (MVB) pathway to the lysosomal/vacuolar lumen requires the function of the ESCRT protein complexes. The soluble coiled-coil-containing proteins Vps2, Vps20, Vps24, and Snf7 are recruited from the cytoplasm to endosomal membranes where they oligomerize into a protein complex, ESCRT-III. ESCRT-III contains two functionally distinct subcomplexes. The Vps20-Snf7 subcomplex binds to the endosomal membrane, in part via the myristoyl group of Vps20. The Vps2-Vps24 subcomplex binds to the Vps20-Snf7 complex and thereby serves to recruit additional cofactors to this site of protein sorting. We provide evidence for a role for ESCRT-III in sorting and/or concentration of MVB cargoes.
    Developmental Cell 09/2002; 3(2):271-82. · 12.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a catabolic membrane-trafficking mechanism involved in cell maintenance and development. Most components of autophagy also function in the cytoplasm to vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway, a constitutive biosynthetic pathway required for the transport of aminopeptidase I (Ape1). The protein components of autophagy and the Cvt pathway include a putative complex composed of Apg1 kinase and several interacting proteins that are specific for either the Cvt pathway or autophagy. A second required complex includes a phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3-kinase and associated proteins that are involved in its activation and localization. The majority of proteins required for the Cvt and autophagy pathways localize to a perivacuolar pre-autophagosomal structure. We show that the Cvt13 and Cvt20 proteins are required for transport of precursor Ape1 through the Cvt pathway. Both proteins contain phox homology domains that bind PtdIns(3)P and are necessary for membrane localization to the pre-autophagosomal structure. Functional phox homology domains are required for Cvt pathway function. Cvt13 and Cvt20 interact with each other and with an autophagy-specific protein, Apg17, that interacts with Apg1 kinase. These results provide the first functional connection between the Apg1 and PtdIns 3-kinase complexes. The data suggest a role for PtdIns(3)P in the Cvt pathway and demonstrate that this lipid is required at the pre-autophagosomal structure.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2002; 277(33):30198-207. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are 17 human members of the sorting nexin (SNX) family of proteins that contain Phox (PX) domains. Yeast orthologs function in vesicular trafficking and mammalian proteins have been implicated in endocytic trafficking of cell surface receptors. The first member of this family, SNX1, was identified via interaction with the epidermal growth factor receptor. The present studies indicate that SNX1 and SNX2 are colocalized to tubulovesicular endosomal membranes and this localization depends on PI 3-kinase activity. Point mutations in the PX domain that abolish recognition of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) in vitro abolish vesicle localization in vivo indicating that lipid binding by the PX domain is necessary for localization to vesicle membranes. Deletion of a predicted coiled-coil region in the COOH terminus of SNX1 also abolished vesicle localization, indicating that this helical domain, too, is necessary for SNX1 localization. Thus, both PX domain recognition of PtdIns and COOH terminal helical domains are necessary for localization of SNX1 with neither alone being sufficient. Regulated overexpression of the NH(2) terminus of SNX1 containing the PX domain decreased the rate of ligand-induced epidermal growth factor receptor degradation, an effect consistent with inhibition of endogenous SNX1 function in the endosome compartment. SNX1 thus functions in regulating trafficking in the endosome compartment via PX domain recognition of phosphorylated PtdIns and via interaction with other protein components.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2002; 99(10):6767-72. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    Anjon Audhya, Scott D Emr
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    ABSTRACT: Production of the essential phospholipid PI4P at the Golgi by the Pik1 kinase is required for protein secretion, while a distinct pool of PI4P generated by the Stt4 kinase is critical for normal actin cytoskeleton organization. We identify a transmembrane protein that stabilizes Stt4 at the plasma membrane where it directs synthesis of PI4P, which is required for activation of the Rho1/Pkc1-mediated MAP kinase cascade. Inactivation of Stt4 or the PI4P 5-kinase Mss4 results in mislocalization of the Rho-GTPase GEF Rom2. Rom2 binds PI4,5P(2) through its PH domain and represents the first identified effector in the Stt4-Mss4 pathway. Based on these results, we propose that Stt4-Mss4 generates PI4,5P(2) at the plasma membrane, required to recruit/activate effector proteins such as Rom2.
    Developmental Cell 06/2002; 2(5):593-605. · 12.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ubiquitin functions as a signal for sorting cargo at multiple steps of the endocytic pathway and controls the activity of trans-acting components of the endocytic machinery (reviewed in refs 1, and 2). By contrast to proteasome degradation, which generally requires a polyubiquitin chain that is at least four subunits long, internalization and sorting of endocytic cargo at the late endosome are mediated by mono-ubiquitination. Here, we demonstrate that ubiquitin-interacting motifs (UIMs) found in epsins and Vps27p (ref. 9) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae are required for ubiquitin binding and protein transport. Epsin UIMs are important for the internalization of receptors into vesicles at the plasma membrane. Vps27p UIMs are necessary to sort biosynthetic and endocytic cargo into vesicles that bud into the lumen of a late endosomal compartment, the multivesicular body. We propose that mono-ubiquitin regulates internalization and endosomal sorting by interacting with modular ubiquitin-binding domains in core components of the protein transport machinery. UIM domains are found in a broad spectrum of proteins, consistent with the idea that mono-ubiquitin can function as a regulatory signal to control diverse biological activities.
    Nature Cell Biology 06/2002; 4(5):389-93. · 20.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Saccharomyces cerevisiae FAB1 gene encodes the sole phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P] 5-kinase responsible for synthesis of the polyphosphoinositide PtdIns(3,5)P(2). VAC7 encodes a 128-kDa transmembrane protein that localizes to vacuolar membranes. Both vac7 and fab1 null mutants have dramatically enlarged vacuoles and cannot grow at elevated temperatures. Additionally, vac7Delta mutants have nearly undetectable levels of PtdIns(3,5)P(2), suggesting that Vac7 functions to regulate Fab1 kinase activity. To test this hypothesis, we isolated a fab1 mutant allele that bypasses the requirement for Vac7 in PtdIns(3,5)P(2) production. Expression of this fab1 allele in vac7Delta mutant cells suppresses the temperature sensitivity, vacuolar morphology, and PtdIns(3,5)P(2) defects normally exhibited by vac7Delta mutants. We also identified a mutant allele of FIG4, whose gene product contains a Sac1 polyphosphoinositide phosphatase domain, which suppresses vac7Delta mutant phenotypes. Deletion of FIG4 in vac7Delta mutant cells suppresses the temperature sensitivity and vacuolar morphology defects, and dramatically restores PtdIns(3,5)P(2) levels. These results suggest that generation of PtdIns(3,5)P(2) by the Fab1 lipid kinase is regulated by Vac7, whereas turnover of PtdIns(3,5)P(2) is mediated in part by the Sac1 polyphosphoinositide phosphatase family member Fig4.
    Molecular Biology of the Cell 05/2002; 13(4):1238-51. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns[3,5]P(2)) was first identified as a non-abundant phospholipid whose levels increase in response to osmotic stress. In yeast, Fab1p catalyzes formation of PtdIns(3,5)P(2) via phosphorylation of PtdIns(3)P. We have identified Vac14p, a novel vacuolar protein that regulates PtdIns(3,5)P(2) synthesis by modulating Fab1p activity in both the absence and presence of osmotic stress. We find that PtdIns(3)P levels are also elevated in response to osmotic stress, yet, only the elevation of PtdIns(3,5)P(2) levels are regulated by Vac14p. Under basal conditions the levels of PtdIns(3,5)P(2) are 18-28-fold lower than the levels of PtdIns(3)P, PtdIns(4)P, and PtdIns(4,5)P(2). After a 10 min exposure to hyperosmotic stress the levels of PtdIns(3,5)P(2) rise 20-fold, bringing it to a cellular concentration that is similar to the other phosphoinositides. This suggests that PtdIns(3,5)P(2) plays a major role in osmotic stress, perhaps via regulation of vacuolar volume. In fact, during hyperosmotic stress the vacuole morphology of wild-type cells changes dramatically, to smaller, more highly fragmented vacuoles, whereas mutants unable to synthesize PtdIns(3,5)P(2) continue to maintain a single large vacuole. These findings demonstrate that Vac14p regulates the levels of PtdIns(3,5)P(2) and provide insight into why PtdIns(3,5)P(2) levels rise in response to osmotic stress.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 04/2002; 156(6):1015-28. · 10.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phosphoinositides (PI) are synthesized and turned over by specific kinases, phosphatases, and lipases that ensure the proper localization of discrete PI isoforms at distinct membranes. We analyzed the role of the yeast synaptojanin-like proteins using a strain that expressed only a temperature-conditional allele of SJL2. Our analysis demonstrated that inactivation of the yeast synaptojanins leads to increased cellular levels of phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)), accompanied by defects in actin organization, endocytosis, and clathrin-mediated sorting between the Golgi and endosomes. The phenotypes observed in synaptojanin-deficient cells correlated with accumulation of PtdIns(4,5)P(2), because these effects were rescued by mutations in MSS4 or a mutant form of Sjl2p that harbors only PI 5-phosphatase activity. We utilized green fluorescent protein-pleckstrin homology domain chimeras (termed FLAREs for fluorescent lipid-associated reporters) with distinct PI-binding specificities to visualize pools of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate in yeast. PtdIns(4,5)P(2) localized to the plasma membrane in a manner dependent on Mss4p activity. On inactivation of the yeast synaptojanins, PtdIns(4,5)P(2) accumulated in intracellular compartments, as well as the cell surface. In contrast, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate generated by Pik1p localized in intracellular compartments. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the yeast synaptojanins control the localization of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) in vivo and provide further evidence for the compartmentalization of different PI species.
    Molecular Biology of the Cell 03/2002; 13(2):542-57. · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • Article: Escrt-III
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    ABSTRACT: The sorting of transmembrane proteins (e.g., cell surface receptors) into the multivesicular body (MVB) pathway to the lysosomal/vacuolar lumen requires the function of the ESCRT protein complexes. The soluble coiled-coil-containing proteins Vps2, Vps20, Vps24, and Snf7 are recruited from the cytoplasm to endosomal membranes where they oligomerize into a protein complex, ESCRT-III. ESCRT-III contains two functionally distinct subcomplexes. The Vps20-Snf7 subcomplex binds to the endosomal membrane, in part via the myristoyl group of Vps20. The Vps2-Vps24 subcomplex binds to the Vps20-Snf7 complex and thereby serves to recruit additional cofactors to this site of protein sorting. We provide evidence for a role for ESCRT-III in sorting and/or concentration of MVB cargoes.
    Developmental Cell - DEV CELL. 01/2002; 3(2):271-282.
  • T K Sato, M Overduin, S D Emr
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    ABSTRACT: Phosphoinositide (PI)-binding domains play critical roles in the intracellular localization of a variety of cell-signaling proteins. The 120-amino acid Phox homology (PX) domain targets proteins to organelle membranes through interactions between two conserved basic motifs within the PX domain and specific PIs. The combination of protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions ensures the proper localization and regulation of PX domain-containing proteins. Upon proper localization, PX domain-containing proteins can then bind to additional proteins and execute their functions in a diverse set of biological pathways, including intracellular protein transport, cell growth and survival, cytoskeletal organization, and neutrophil defense.
    Science 12/2001; 294(5548):1881-5. · 31.03 Impact Factor
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    M Foti, A Audhya, S D Emr
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    ABSTRACT: Synthesis and turnover of phosphoinositides are tightly regulated processes mediated by a set of recently identified kinases and phosphatases. We analyzed the primary role of the phosphoinositide phosphatase Sac1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the use of a temperature-sensitive allele of this gene. Our analysis demonstrates that inactivation of Sac1p leads to a specific increase in the cellular levels of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns(4)P), accompanied by changes in vacuole morphology and an accumulation of lipid droplets. We have found that the majority of Sac1p localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum, and this localization is crucial for the efficient turnover of PtdIns(4)P. By generating double mutant strains harboring the sac1(ts) allele and one of two temperature-sensitive PtdIns 4-kinase genes, stt4(ts) or pik1(ts), we have demonstrated that the bulk of PtdIns(4)P that accumulates in sac1 mutant cells is generated by the Stt4 PtdIns 4-kinase, and not Pik1p. Consistent with these findings, inactivation of Sac1p partially rescued defects associated with stt4(ts) but not pik1(ts) mutant cells. To analyze potential overlapping functions between Sac1p and other homologous phosphoinositide phosphatases, sac1(ts) mutant cells lacking various other synaptojanin-like phosphatases were generated. These double and triple mutants exacerbated the accumulation of intracellular phosphoinositides and caused defects in Golgi function. Together, our results demonstrate that Sac1p primarily turns over Stt4p-generated PtdIns(4)P and that the membrane localization of Sac1p is important for its function in vivo. Regulation of this PtdIns(4)P pool appears to be crucial for the maintenance of vacuole morphology, regulation of lipid storage, Golgi function, and actin cytoskeleton organization.
    Molecular Biology of the Cell 09/2001; 12(8):2396-411. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phosphoinositides serve as intrinsic membrane signals that regulate intracellular membrane trafficking. Recently, phosphoinositides have been found to direct the localization and activity of effector proteins containing consensus sequence motifs such as FYVE, PH and ENTH domains. In addition, recent results show that regulated synthesis and turnover of phosphoinositides by membrane-associated phosphoinoside kinases and phosphatases spatially restrict the location of effectors critical for cellular transport processes, such as clathrin-mediated endocytosis, autophagy, phagocytosis, macropinocytosis and biosynthetic trafficking.
    Current Opinion in Cell Biology 09/2001; · 11.41 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

27k Citations
2,389.82 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2013
    • Cornell University
      • • Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics
      • • Weill Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology
      • • Department of Molecular Medicine
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2012
    • Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany
  • 2010
    • University of Innsbruck
      Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria
  • 2009
    • Institute of Molecular Biology
      Mayence, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
  • 1993–2008
    • University of California, San Diego
      • • Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine (CMM)
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Section of Cell and Developmental Biology
      San Diego, CA, United States
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Ashburn, Virginia, United States
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Molecular and Cell Biology
      Berkeley, MO, United States
  • 2006–2007
    • Medical Research Council (UK)
      • MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Laboratory of Molecular Biology
      Bethesda, MD, United States
    • University of Toronto
      • Banting and Best Department of Medical Research
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2003
    • University of Colorado at Boulder
      • Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology (MCDB)
      Boulder, CO, United States
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Scottsdale, AZ, United States
  • 2001
    • The Scripps Research Institute
      La Jolla, California, United States
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Biology
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • 1999
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Madison, MS, United States
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Biology
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 1994–1998
    • Vanderbilt University
      • Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics
      Nashville, Michigan, United States
  • 1997
    • Utah State University
      • Department of Biology
      Logan, OH, United States
  • 1995–1997
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Dallas, TX, United States
  • 1987–1993
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Division of Biology
      Pasadena, CA, United States
  • 1991
    • Hamilton College
      • Department of Biology
      Clinton, NY, United States