Robert D Brown

Mayo Clinic - Rochester, Rochester, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (156)896.44 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Object The aim of this study was to determine age-related differences in short-term (1-year) outcomes in patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). Methods Four thousand fifty-nine patients prospectively enrolled in the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms were categorized into 3 groups by age at enrollment: < 50, 50-65, and > 65 years old. Outcomes assessed at 1 year included aneurysm rupture rates, combined morbidity and mortality from aneurysm procedure or hemorrhage, and all-cause mortality. Periprocedural morbidity, in-hospital morbidity, and poor neurological outcome on discharge (Rankin scale score of 3 or greater) were assessed in surgically and endovascularly treated groups. Univariate and multivariate associations of each outcome with age were tested. Results The risk of aneurysmal hemorrhage did not increase significantly with age. Procedural and in-hospital morbidity and mortality increased with age in patients treated with surgery, but remained relatively constant with increasing age with endovascular treatment. Poor neurological outcome from aneurysm- or procedure-related morbidity and mortality did not differ between management groups for patients 65 years old and younger, but was significantly higher in the surgical group for patients older than 65 years: 19.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 13.9%-24.4%), compared with 8.0% (95% CI 2.3%-13.6%) in the endovascular group and 4.2% (95% CI 2.3%-6.2%) in the observation group. All-cause mortality increased steadily with increasing age, but differed between treatment groups only in patients < 50 years of age, with the surgical group showing a survival advantage at 1 year. Conclusions Surgical treatment of UIAs appears to be safe, prevents 1-year hemorrhage, and may confer a survival benefit in patients < 50 years of age. However, surgery poses a significant risk of morbidity and death in patients > 65 years of age. Risk of endovascular treatment does not appear to increase with age. Risks and benefits of treatment in older patients should be carefully considered, and if treatment is deemed necessary for patients older than 65 years, endovascular treatment may be the best option.
    Journal of neurosurgery. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) is an uncommon condition that affects the brain and the spinal cord. It is heterogeneous in presenting characteristics and outcomes. We report a patient with a catastrophic rapidly progressive course refractory to intensive treatment with pulses of methylprednisolone and iv cyclophosphamide. The condition rapidly deteriorated and the patient died 6 weeks after presentation. Rapidly progressive PCNSV represents the worst end of the clinical spectrum of PCNSV. These patients are characterised by bilateral, multiple, large cerebral vessel lesions on angiograms and multiple bilateral cerebral infarctions.
    Clinical and experimental rheumatology 05/2014; 32(3 Suppl 82):3-4. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The chronological development and natural history of cerebral aneurysms (CAs) remain incompletely understood. We used (14)C birth dating of a main constituent of CAs, that is, collagen type I, as an indicator for biosynthesis and turnover of collagen in CAs in relation to human cerebral arteries to investigate this further. Forty-six ruptured and unruptured CA samples from 43 patients and 10 cadaveric human cerebral arteries were obtained. The age of collagen, extracted and purified from excised CAs, was estimated using (14)C birth dating and correlated with CA and patient characteristics, including the history of risk factors associated with atherosclerosis and potentially aneurysm growth and rupture. Nearly all CA samples contained collagen type I, which was <5 years old, irrespective of patient age, aneurysm size, morphology, or rupture status. However, CAs from patients with a history of risk factors (smoking or hypertension) contained significantly younger collagen than CAs from patients with no risk factors (mean, 1.6±1.2 versus 3.9±3.3 years, respectively; P=0.012). CAs and cerebral arteries did not share a dominant structural protein, such as collagen type I, which would allow comparison of their collagen turnover. The abundant amount of relatively young collagen type I in CAs suggests that there is an ongoing collagen remodeling in aneurysms, which is significantly more rapid in patients with risk factors. These findings challenge the concept that CAs are present for decades and that they undergo only sporadic episodes of structural change.
    Stroke 04/2014; · 6.16 Impact Factor
  • Robert D Brown, Joseph P Broderick
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    ABSTRACT: Intracranial saccular or berry aneurysms are common, occurring in about 1-2% of the population. Unruptured intracranial aneurysms are increasingly being detected as cross-sectional imaging techniques are used more frequently in clinical practice. Once an unruptured intracranial aneurysm is detected, decisions regarding optimum management are made on the basis of careful comparison of the short-term and long-term risks of aneurysmal rupture with the risk associated with the intervention, whether that be surgical clipping or endovascular management. Several factors need to be carefully considered, including aneurysm size and location, the patient's family history and medical history, and the availability of an interventional option that has an acceptable risk. The patient's knowledge that they have an unruptured intracranial aneurysm can lead to substantial stress and anxiety, and their perspective regarding treatment, after hearing an unbiased appraisal of the rupture risks and the risk of interventional treatment, is of the utmost importance. Controversy remains regarding optimum management, and thorough assessments of the risks and benefits of contemporary management options, specific to aneurysm size, location, and many other aneurysm and patient factors, are needed.
    The Lancet Neurology 04/2014; 13(4):393-404. · 23.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To address the increasing need to counsel patients about treatment indications for unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA), we endeavored to develop a consensus on assessment of UIAs among a group of specialists from diverse fields involved in research and treatment of UIAs. After composition of the research group, a Delphi consensus was initiated to identify and rate all features, which may be relevant to assess UIAs and their treatment by using ranking scales and analysis of inter-rater agreement (IRA) for each factor. IRA was categorized as very high, high, moderate, or low. Ultimately, 39 specialists from 4 specialties agreed (high or very high IRAs) on the following key factors for or against UIA treatment decisions: (1) patient age, life expectancy, and comorbid diseases; (2) previous subarachnoid hemorrhage from a different aneurysm, family history for UIA or subarachnoid hemorrhage, nicotine use; (3) UIA size, location, and lobulation; (4) UIA growth or de novo formation on serial imaging; (5) clinical symptoms (cranial nerve deficit, mass effect, and thromboembolic events from UIAs); and (6) risk factors for UIA treatment (patient age and life expectancy, UIA size, and estimated risk of treatment). However, IRAs for features rated with low relevance were also generally low, which underlined the existing controversy about the natural history of UIAs. Our results highlight that neurovascular specialists currently consider many features as important when evaluating UIAs but also highlight that the appreciation of natural history of UIAs remains uncertain, even within a group of highly informed individuals.
    Stroke 03/2014; · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Object The aim of this study was to determine the prospective hemorrhage rate in a group of retrospectively identified patients in whom symptoms had an unclear relationship to an intracerebral cavernous malformation (ICM) or the malformation itself was an incidental finding. Methods Patients with incidentally discovered ICMs diagnosed between 1989 and 1999 were identified from a previously published cohort. Those with ICMs having an unclear relationship with existing symptoms were also eligible for analysis. Updated clinical and radiographic data pertaining to symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage related to the ICM or new seizures were obtained through medical chart review and mail survey. In select patients, phone calls were made and death certificates were obtained when possible. The prospective hemorrhage rate was calculated as the number of prospective hemorrhages divided by the number of patient-years of follow-up. Results There were 1311 patient-years of follow-up among the 107 patients (49.5% male; mean age at diagnosis 52 years) eligible for this study. Forty-four patients died in the follow-up period, and the cause of death could be determined in 34 (77%). Two patients had a prospective hemorrhage, which was definitively related to the ICM in only one. Thus, the definitive prospective bleed rate was 0.08% per patient-year. No new seizures developed in any of the patients during the follow-up period. Conclusions The risk of prospective hemorrhage in patients presenting asymptomatically with ICM is very low. This information can be useful in managing such patients and may be most applicable to those with a single ICM.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 03/2014; · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary CNS vasculitis (PCNSV) is an uncommon disorder of unknown cause that is restricted to brain and spinal cord. Glucocorticoids alone or in combination with cyclophosphamide achieve a favorable response in most patients.(1,2) However, some patients are intolerant or respond poorly to cyclophosphamide, therefore there is the need for new treatment options. We report a patient with PCNSV who appeared to respond to treatment with corticosteroids and rituximab. This study was approved by the Mayo Clinic Institutional Review Board and written informed patient consent to perform the study was obtained.
    Neurology 03/2014; · 8.25 Impact Factor
  • Clinical and experimental rheumatology 02/2014; · 2.66 Impact Factor
  • Giuseppe Lanzino, Robert D Brown
    Neurosurgical FOCUS 01/2014; 36(1):Introduction. · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The decision of whether to treat incidental intracranial saccular aneurysms is complicated by limitations in current knowledge of their natural history. We combined individual patient data from prospective cohort studies to determine predictors of aneurysm rupture and to construct a risk prediction chart to estimate 5-year aneurysm rupture risk by risk factor status. We did a systematic review and pooled analysis of individual patient data from 8382 participants in six prospective cohort studies with subarachnoid haemorrhage as outcome. We analysed cumulative rupture rates with Kaplan-Meier curves and assessed predictors with Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis. Rupture occurred in 230 patients during 29 166 person-years of follow-up. The mean observed 1-year risk of aneurysm rupture was 1·4% (95% CI 1·1-1·6) and the 5-year risk was 3·4% (2·9-4·0). Predictors were age, hypertension, history of subarachnoid haemorrhage, aneurysm size, aneurysm location, and geographical region. In study populations from North America and European countries other than Finland, the estimated 5-year absolute risk of aneurysm rupture ranged from 0·25% in individuals younger than 70 years without vascular risk factors with a small-sized (<7 mm) internal carotid artery aneurysm, to more than 15% in patients aged 70 years or older with hypertension, a history of subarachnoid haemorrhage, and a giant-sized (>20 mm) posterior circulation aneurysm. By comparison with populations from North America and European countries other than Finland, Finnish people had a 3·6-times increased risk of aneurysm rupture and Japanese people a 2·8-times increased risk. The PHASES score is an easily applicable aid for prediction of the risk of rupture of incidental intracranial aneurysms. Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development.
    The Lancet Neurology 11/2013; · 23.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To analyze the clinical findings, response to therapy, and outcomes of patients with cerebral vascular amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition with and without inflammatory vascular infiltration. We report 78 consecutive patients with cerebral vascular Aβ deposition examined at Mayo Clinic Rochester over 25 years (1987 through 2011). Specimens reviewed by a neuropathologist showed 40 with vascular Aβ peptide without inflammation (cerebral amyloid angiopathy [CAA]), 28 with granulomatous vasculitis (Aβ-related angiitis or ABRA), and 10 with perivascular CAA-related inflammation. We also matched findings in 118 consecutive patients with primary CNS vasculitis (PCNSV) without Aβ seen over 25 years (1983 through 2007). Compared to the 40 with CAA, the 28 with ABRA were younger at diagnosis (p = 0.05), had less altered cognition (p = 0.02), fewer neurologic deficits (p = 0.02), and fewer intracranial hemorrhages (<0.001), but increased gadolinium leptomeningeal enhancement (p = 0.01) at presentation, and less mortality and disability at last follow-up (p < 0.001). Compared with PCNSV, the 28 patients with ABRA were older at diagnosis (p < 0.001), had a higher frequency of altered cognition (p = 0.05), seizures/spells (p = 0.006), gadolinium leptomeningeal enhancement (p < 0.001), and intracerebral hemorrhage (p = 0.02), lower frequency of hemiparesis (p = 0.01), visual symptoms (p = 0.04), and MRI evidence of cerebral infarction (p = 0.003), but higher CSF protein levels (p = 0.03). Results of treatment and outcomes in ABRA and PCNSV were similar. ABRA appears to represent a distinct subset of PCNSV.
    Neurology 09/2013; · 8.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Meta-analyses of extant genome-wide data illustrate the need to focus on subtypes of ischemic stroke for gene discovery. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke SiGN (Stroke Genetics Network) contributes substantially to meta-analyses that focus on specific subtypes of stroke. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke SiGN includes ischemic stroke cases from 24 genetic research centers: 13 from the United States and 11 from Europe. Investigators harmonize ischemic stroke phenotyping using the Web-based causative classification of stroke system, with data entered by trained and certified adjudicators at participating genetic research centers. Through the Center for Inherited Diseases Research, the Network plans to genotype 10 296 carefully phenotyped stroke cases using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism arrays and adds to these another 4253 previously genotyped cases, for a total of 14 549 cases. To maximize power for subtype analyses, the study allocates genotyping resources almost exclusively to cases. Publicly available studies provide most of the control genotypes. Center for Inherited Diseases Research-generated genotypes and corresponding phenotypes will be shared with the scientific community through the US National Center for Biotechnology Information database of Genotypes and Phenotypes, and brain MRI studies will be centrally archived. The Stroke Genetics Network, with its emphasis on careful and standardized phenotyping of ischemic stroke and stroke subtypes, provides an unprecedented opportunity to uncover genetic determinants of ischemic stroke.
    Stroke 09/2013; · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The successful treatment of intracranial aneurysms is dependent on a full understanding of the anatomic relationship of a given aneurysm to its parent artery(s) and nearby branches. Furthermore, new endovascular technologies are often limited by size constraints. Currently, there is no complete atlas describing diameters for each major intracranial arterial segment. We sought to obtain these data by performing a systematic analysis of selected cerebral angiography images from the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms (ISUIA). Four hundred and forty-five patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms from the ISUIA database were reviewed. Using previously described techniques, artery diameters were measured for all arteries involved in the aneurysm neck for each patient. Measurements were obtained from 695 different aneurysm-associated arterial segments among 445 patient angiograms (mean 1.6 measurements per aneurysm). Artery diameters, mean, median, SEM and IQRs based upon the different arterial segments are presented. This angiographic almanac of aneurysm-associated intracranial arterial diameters may be of benefit in establishing standard norms through which devices, protocols and research aims may be developed.
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 08/2013; · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Goal: Evidence-based guidelines exist for the prevention and treatment of patients with cerebral ischemia. Despite these guidelines, there are gaps in clinical practice. Our study aimed to determine if a physician-directed, nurse-case-management program could reduce individual patient vascular risk factors. Methods: Patients hospitalized with atherosclerotic cerebral ischemia with ≥ 1 major uncontrolled risk factor for stroke (hypertension, tobacco use, dyslipidemia, diabetes) were eligible to enroll in our study. Patients were randomized to management by the nurse-prevention program or usual care. Patients in the usual-care group received their initial risk-factor assessment and a scheduled follow-up at 1 year. Patients in the usual-care group underwent further follow-up by primary care and/or neurology as recommended during their hospitalization or outpatient visit. Patients assigned to the prevention group received individualized education, motivational interviewing, and were aided in setting up their risk-factor modification goal plan. Additional education was tailored to each patient based on individualized risk factors. Prevention-group patients also underwent consultation with a registered dietitian and an exercise physiologist. The primary endpoint of the study was improvement of ≥ 1 major patient risk factor for occurrence of stroke to goal at 1 year. Results: At 1-year post-hospitalization, patients in the nurse-care-management group were 42% more likely to have met the primary endpoint (n = 18; 61% nurse-managed patients) compared with 33% (n = 18) of patients undergoing usual care (P = 0.09). There was no significant reduction in minor risk factors for either patient group. Patients in the prevention group had greater reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (-38 vs -4; P = 0.0083), changes in cardiovascular risk score (-5.2 vs 1.3; P = 0.0033), and had a greater reductions in systolic blood pressure (-12.2 vs -0.105; P = 0.07) than their usual-care counterparts (changes shown respectively). Patients in the prevention group were more likely to follow a prescribed diet than those in the usual-care group (50% vs 7%, respectively; P = 0.0070) and maintain an exercise program (83% vs 33%, respectively; P = 0.0018). Summary: A physician-directed, nurse case-management system for patients post-hospitalization for cerebral ischemia is feasible and may help improve long-term control of major patient risk factors for stroke. A larger trial is needed to verify trends noted in our study.
    Hospital practice (1995). 08/2013; 41(3):70-9.
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    International Journal of Stroke 06/2013; 8(4):E9. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Bleeding events are the major obstacle to the widespread use of warfarin for secondary stroke prevention. Previous studies have not examined the use of risk stratification scores to estimate lifetime bleeding risk associated with warfarin treatment in a population-based setting. The purpose of this study is to determine the lifetime risk of bleeding events in ischemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing warfarin treatment in a population-based cohort and to evaluate the use of bleeding risk scores to identify patients at high risk for lifetime bleeding events. METHODS: The resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project Medical Linkage System were used to identify acute ischemic stroke patients with AF undergoing warfarin treatment for secondary stroke prevention from 1980 to 1994. Medical information for patients seen at Mayo Clinic and at Olmsted Medical Center was used to retrospectively risk-stratify stroke patients according to bleeding risk scores (including the HAS-BLED and HEMORR2HAGES scores) before warfarin initiation. These scores were reassessed 1 and 5 years later and compared with lifetime bleeding events. RESULTS: One hundred patients (mean age, 79.3 years; 68% women) were studied. Ninety-nine patients were observed until death. Major bleeding events occurred in 41 patients at a median of 19 months after warfarin initiation. Patients with a history of hemorrhage before warfarin treatment were more likely to develop major hemorrhage (15% versus 3%, P = .04). Patients with baseline HAS-BLED scores of 2 or more had a higher lifetime risk of major bleeding events compared with those with scores of 1 or less (53% versus 7%, P < .01), whereas those with HEMORR2HAGES scores of 2 or more had a higher lifetime risk of major bleeding events compared with those with scores of 1 or less (52% versus 16%, P = .03). Patients with an increase in the HAS-BLED and HEMORR2HAGES scores during follow-up had a higher remaining lifetime risk of major bleeding events compared with those with no change. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate high lifetime bleeding risk associated with warfarin treatment for patients with ischemic stroke. Risk stratification scores are useful to identify patients at high risk of developing bleeding complications and should be recalculated at regular intervals to evaluate the bleeding risk in anticoagulated patients with ischemic stroke.
    Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. The purpose of our study was to understand the association between serum triglycerides and outcomes in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Methods. A cohort of all adult patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) with an AIS from March 2004 to December 2005 were selected. The lipid profile levels were measured within 24 hours of stroke onset. Demographics, admission stroke severity (NIHSS), functional outcome at discharge (modified Rankin Scale (mRS)), and mortality at 3 months were recorded. Results. The final cohort consisted of 334 subjects. A lower level of triglycerides at presentation was found to be significantly associated with worse National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) (), worse mRS (), and death at 3 months (). After adjusting for age and gender and NIHSS, the association between triglyceride and mortality at 3 months was not significant (). Conclusion. Lower triglyceride levels seem to be associated with a worse prognosis in AIS.
    Neuroscience Journal. 02/2013; 2013.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke and may increase the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) by up to fourfold. Given these relationships, it is possible that OSA may provide a link between stroke and AF. A case-control study was conducted to examine the association between AF and stroke in patients with OSA. METHODS: Olmsted County, MN, USA, residents with a new diagnosis of OSA based on polysomnography (PSG) between 2005 and 2010 (N=2980) who suffered a first-time ischemic stroke during the same period were identified as cases. Controls with no history of stroke were randomly chosen from the same database. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed with age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and coronary artery disease (CAD) as co-variates, with the diagnosis of AF as the variable of interest. RESULTS: A total of 108 subjects were studied. Mean age of cases (n=34) was 73±12years and 53% were men. Among controls (n=74), mean age was 61±16years and 55% were male. On univariate analyses, AF was significantly more common in the cases than among controls (50.0% vs 10.8%, p<0.01). On multivariate regression analyses, the association between AF and stroke was significant after controlling for age, BMI, coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and smoking status (corrected odds ratio (OR): 5.34; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.79-17.29). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with OSA who had a stroke had higher rates of AF even after accounting for potential confounders.
    Sleep Medicine 01/2013; · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • Bruce E Pollock, Michael J Link, Robert D Brown
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The best management of patients with unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM) is controversial. In this study, we analyzed the stroke rate and functional outcomes of patients having stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for unruptured BAVM using the same eligibility criteria and primary end points as the ARUBA trial. METHODS: Retrospective observational study of 174 ARUBA-eligible patients having SRS from 1990 to 2005. RESULTS: The median follow-up after SRS was 64 months. Fifteen patients (8.7%) had a hemorrhagic stroke at a median of 21 months after SRS. Six patients (3.5%) had a focal neurological deficit and 4 patients died (2.3%). The risk of stroke or death was 10.3% at 5 years and 11.5% at 10 years. Twelve additional patients (6.9%) had a focal neurological deficit from either radiation-related complications (n=7) or subsequent resection (n=5). The risk of patients' having clinical impairment (modified Rankin Score ≥2) was 8.4% at 5 years and 12.0% at 10 years. Increasing BAVM volume was associated with both stroke or death (hazard ratio=1.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.11; P=0.04) and clinical impairment (hazard ratio=1.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.09; P=0.01). The 10-year risk of stroke or death and clinical impairment for patients with BAVM ≤5.6 cm(3) was 5% and 4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The observed risk of stroke or death after SRS was approximately 2% per year for the first 5 years after SRS, declining to 0.2% annually for years 6 to 10. Patients with small volume BAVM may benefit from SRS compared with the natural history of unruptured BAVM over the planned follow-up interval of the ARUBA trial (5-10 years).
    Stroke 01/2013; · 6.16 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
896.44 Total Impact Points


  • 2002–2014
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Radiology
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
  • 2013
    • Vanderbilt University
      Nashville, Michigan, United States
  • 2012
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      • Department of Neurology
      Indianapolis, IN, United States
    • Azienda Ospedaliera Santa Maria Nuova di Reggio Emilia
      Reggio nell'Emilia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
    • University of Florida
      • Department of Emergency Medicine
      Gainesville, FL, United States
  • 2005–2012
    • University of Cincinnati
      • Department of Neurology
      Cincinnati, OH, United States
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • • Division of Epidemiology
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Emergency Medicine
      Jacksonville, FL, United States
  • 2011
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Surgery
      Tucson, AZ, United States
  • 2010
    • Rowe Neuroscience Institute
      Lenexa, Kansas, United States
  • 2007–2009
    • National Institutes of Health
      • • Section on Mammalian Molecular Genetics
      • • Section on Molecular Genetics of Immunity
      Bethesda, MD, United States
    • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
      Manhattan, New York, United States
  • 2008
    • National Institute on Aging
      • Laboratory of Neurogenetics (LNG)
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2003–2008
    • University of Virginia
      • • Department of Public Health Sciences
      • • Department of Neurology
      Charlottesville, VA, United States