[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common childhood bacterial infections that may involve renal parenchymal infection (acute pyelonephritis [APN]) followed by late scarring. Prompt, high-quality diagnosis of APN and later identification of children with scarring are important for preventing future complications. Examination via dimercaptosuccinic acid scanning is the current clinical gold standard but is not routinely performed. A more accessible assay could therefore prove useful. Our goal was to study procalcitonin as a predictor for both APN and scarring in children with UTI.METHODS:A systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data were performed; all data were gathered from children with UTIs who had undergone both procalcitonin measurement and dimercaptosuccinic acid scanning.RESULTS:A total of 1011 patients (APN in 60.6%, late scarring in 25.7%) were included from 18 studies. Procalcitonin as a continuous, class, and binary variable was associated with APN and scarring (P < .001) and demonstrated a significantly higher (P < .05) area under the receiver operating characteristic curve than either C-reactive protein or white blood cell count for both pathologies. Procalcitonin ≥0.5 ng/mL yielded an adjusted odds ratio of 7.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.8-10.9) with 71% sensitivity (95% CI: 67-74) and 72% specificity (95% CI: 67-76) for APN. Procalcitonin ≥0.5 ng/mL was significantly associated with late scarring (adjusted odds ratio: 3.4 [95% CI: 2.1-5.7]) with 79% sensitivity (95% CI: 71-85) and 50% specificity (95% CI: 45-54).CONCLUSIONS:Procalcitonin was a more robust predictor compared with C-reactive protein or white blood cell count for selectively identifying children who had APN during the early stages of UTI, as well as those with late scarring.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the predictive value of procalcitonin, a serum inflammatory marker, in the identification of children with first urinary tract infection (UTI) who might have high-grade (≥3) vesicoureteral reflux (VUR).
We conducted a meta-analysis of individual data, including all series of children aged 1 month to 4 years with a first UTI, a procalcitonin (PCT) level measurement, cystograms, and an early dimercaptosuccinic acid scan.
Of the 152 relevant identified articles, 12 studies representing 526 patients (10% with VUR ≥3) were included. PCT level was associated with VUR ≥3 as a continuous (P = .001), and as a binary variable, with a 0.5 ng/mL preferred threshold (adjusted OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 5.4). The sensitivity of PCT ≥0.5 ng/mL was 83% (95% CI, 71 to 91) with 43% specificity rate (95% CI, 38 to 47). In the subgroup of children with a positive results on dimercaptosuccinic acid scan, PCT ≥0.5 ng/mL was also associated with high-grade VUR (adjusted OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.3 to 17.6).
We confirmed that PCT is a sensitive and validated predictor strongly associated with VUR ≥3, regardless of the presence of early renal parenchymal involvement in children with a first UTI.
The Journal of pediatrics 04/2011; 159(4):644-51.e4. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Predicting vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR) ≥3 at the time of the first urinary tract infection (UTI) would make it possible to restrict cystography to high-risk children. We previously derived the following clinical decision rule for that purpose: cystography should be performed in cases with ureteral dilation and a serum procalcitonin level ≥0.17 ng/mL, or without ureteral dilatation when the serum procalcitonin level ≥0.63 ng/mL. The rule yielded a 86% sensitivity with a 46% specificity. We aimed to test its reproducibility.
A secondary analysis of prospective series of children with a first UTI. The rule was applied, and predictive ability was calculated.
The study included 413 patients (157 boys, VUR ≥3 in 11%) from eight centers in five countries. The rule offered a 46% specificity (95% CI, 41-52), not different from the one in the derivation study. However, the sensitivity significantly decreased to 64% (95%CI, 50-76), leading to a difference of 20% (95%CI, 17-36). In all, 16 (34%) patients among the 47 with VUR ≥3 were misdiagnosed by the rule. This lack of reproducibility might result primarily from a difference between derivation and validation populations regarding inflammatory parameters (CRP, PCT); the validation set samples may have been collected earlier than for the derivation one.
The rule built to predict VUR ≥3 had a stable specificity (ie. 46%), but a decreased sensitivity (ie. 64%) because of the time variability of PCT measurement. Some refinement may be warranted.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(12):e29556. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been demonstrated that alkylating agents such as cyclophosphamide (CYP) are effective in reducing the risk of relapse in frequently relapsing (FRNS) and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS). Little is known about prognostic factors in SDNS and FRNS treated by CYP. The objectives of this study are to determine long-term outcomes and factors associated with sustained remission in these patients.
We retrospectively studied the data from 143 children (104 boys) with SDNS and FRNS treated with CYP in six centres over 15 years. Relapse-free survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method. The determinants of long-term remission were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses using Cox proportional hazard models.
Median age at diagnosis was 3.7 years (interquartile range: IQR 2.3-5.9), and median follow-up was 7.8 years (IQR 4.0-11.8). CYP treatment was introduced after a median time of 1.7 years (IQR 0.7-5.9) after diagnosis. Patients received a median cumulative dose of 168 mg/kg (IQR 157-197) body weight. Relapse-free survival was 65%, 44%, 27% and 13% after 6 months, 1 year, 2 years and 5 years, respectively. In multivariate analysis, sustained remission >2 years was associated with age at treatment >5 years (P = 0.02) and cumulative dose of CYP >170 mg/kg (P = 0.02). Frequently relapsing versus steroid-dependent status and female gender were predictors of borderline significance. Height and body mass index standard deviation score were significantly influenced by CYP treatment.
In our study, long-term efficacy of cyclophosphamide in steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome is disappointing. Further well-designed trials are required to evaluate the efficacy of other steroid-sparing agents.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this descriptive study was to evaluate the aetiology and the socioeconomic status in hospitalized children in Hanoi and propose solutions to improve prevention and basic health care of patients with chronic kidney disease in Hanoi City.
The records of all 152 hospitalized children with chronic kidney disease in the National Paediatric Hospital in Hanoi from January 2001 to December 2005 were analyzed.
The incidence of paediatric chronic kidney disease native to Hanoi City was estimated to be 5.1/million-child population (pmcp). Median age was 11.29 years; 60.5% were boys and 39.5% were girls; 65% of patients were in end-stage renal disease. Causes of chronic kidney disease included glomerulonephritis (66.4%) and congenital/hereditary anomalies (13%). In 19.8% of children, the aetiology was unavailable. During hospitalization, five patients died and 76 patients (50%) refused the treatment although beneficiaries of health insurance. Thirty patients (19.74%) received peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis, and seven patients received renal transplantation with a familial living donor.
Late referral, and limited facilities for renal replacement therapy explain the poor outcome in this study. We need a program to delineate the burden of chronic kidney disease and improve primary health care for health promotion and prevention of paediatric chronic kidney disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several case reports suggest that rituximab (RTX) could be effective in steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome, but RTX efficacy has not yet been studied in a series of patients. Safety and efficacy of RTX were assessed in a multicenter series of 22 patients aged 6.3-22 years with severe steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome or steroid-resistant but cyclosporin-sensitive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Patients were treated with two to four infusions of RTX. Seven patients were nephrotic at the time of RTX treatment. Peripheral B cells were depleted in all subjects. Remission was induced in three of the seven proteinuric patients. One or more immunosuppressive (IS) treatments could be withdrawn in 19 patients (85%), with no relapse of proteinuria and without increasing other IS drugs. RTX was effective in all patients when administered during a proteinuria-free period in association with other IS agents. When relapses occurred, they were always associated with an increase in CD19 cell count. Adverse effects were observed in 45% of cases, but most of them were mild and transient. This study suggests that RTX could be an effective treatment for severe steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial that compared the effect of 3 vs 8 days of intravenous ceftriaxone treatment on the incidence of renal scarring at 6 to 9 months of follow-up in 383 children with a first episode of acute pyelonephritis.
After initial treatment with intravenous netilmicin and ceftriaxone, patients were randomly assigned to either 5 days of oral antibiotics (short intravenous treatment) or 5 days of intravenous ceftriaxone (long intravenous treatment). Inclusion criteria were age 3 months to 16 years and first acute pyelonephritis episode, defined by fever of >38.5 degrees C, C-reactive protein level of >20 mg/L, and bacteriuria at >10(5)/mL. All patients underwent 99m technetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy 6 to 9 months after inclusion. A total of 548 children were included, 48 of whom were secondarily excluded and 117 of whom were lost to follow-up or had incomplete data; therefore, 383 children were eligible, 205 of them in the short intravenous treatment group and 178 in the long intravenous treatment group.
At inclusion, median age was 15 months, median duration of fever was 43 hours, and median C-reactive protein level was 122 mg/L. A total of 37% (143 of 383) of patients had a vesicoureteral reflux grades 1 to 3. Patient characteristics at inclusion were similar in both groups, except for a significantly higher proportion of girls in the short intravenous treatment group. The frequency of renal scars at scintigraphy was similar in both groups. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that renal scars were significantly associated with increased renal height at initial ultrasound and with the presence of grade 3 vesicoureteric reflux.
The incidence of renal scars was similar in patients who received 3 days compared 8 days of intravenous ceftriaxone. Increased renal height at initial ultrasound examination and grade 3 vesicoureteric reflux were significant risk factors for renal scars.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The precision of the formulae used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreases when the serum creatinine (SCr) assay is biased compared with the assay used during the development of the formulae.
For 100 children referred for 51Cr-EDTA clearance (CLEDTA), SCr was measured with a JAFFE (classic Jaffe colorimetric creatinine assay), a compensated Jaffe (COMP), an enzymatic (ENZ) and an HPLC assay. A population pharmacokinetics approach based on a non-linear mixed effects model (NONMEM) was used to model the relationships between the CLEDTA and physiopathological/analytical variables.
Unlike JAFFE values, COMP and ENZ SCr gave a high bias using the Schwartz formula for the GFR calculation (median +27.0% and +39.1%, respectively). The best equation obtained from the analysis of the curves of [51Cr-EDTA]plasma vs. time was (n=67): CLEDTA (mL/min)=61.9 x [SCr (microM)/Theta]Psi x [age (years)/13.4]0.522 x (weight (kg)/44.2)0.233. The SCr assay-related coefficients and exponents were Theta=97.4, Psi=-0.757 (-0.922; -0.592) for JAFFE; Theta=85.3, Psi=-0.579 (-0.681; -0.477) for COMP; and Theta=82.6, Psi=-0.560 (-0.659; -0.460) for ENZ. When applied to 33 children, this equation estimated CL(EDTA) without any significant bias: +3.1% (-11.8; +11.4) for COMP and +5.3% (-7.2; +16.4) for ENZ.
As long as there is no standardization of SCr measurements, population pharmacokinetics may be a powerful tool to model inter-assay variability.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 02/2008; 46(2):215-8. · 3.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this biomedical trial was to clarify the physiological role of procalcitonin (PCT) in renal parenchyma apoptosis and fibrosis caused by acute childhood pyelonephritis. This prospective study enrolled 183 children. All children were treated with bi-therapy according to the French consensus on acute pyelonephritis treatment dated November 16, 1990: intra-vascular administration of ceftriaxone 50 mg/kg/day and netromicine 7 mg/kg/day during the first 48 hours, followed by specific antibiotherapy suited to antibiogram. On admission, PCT, C-reactive protein, and phospholipase A2 were quantified in serum. Scintigraphy monitoring with (99m)Tc-DMSA was performed on day 4 and 9 months later, in the presence of persistent abnormalities. On day 4, 78% presented renal parenchyma alterations and 30% renal fibrosis 9 months after admission. Paradoxically, PCT level was significantly lower in the presence of renal fibrosis due to cell apoptosis (4.19 vs 7.59 μgL(-1)). A significant increase in PCT indicated favorable progress (recovery 7.55 vs aggravation 3.34) and no difference between recovery and improvement. This result suggests the protective effect of PCT against apoptosis by nitric oxide down-regulation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TCF2, the gene encoding for hepatocyte nuclear factor 1beta, is involved in early renal development. Mutations in TCF2 lead to heterogeneous renal phenotypes. Antenatal ultrasonography may show unilateral/bilateral hyperechogenic or enlarged cystic kidneys. In children or adults, cystic renal hypoplasia/dysplasia is a common feature, occasionally associated with maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 5 and genital tract abnormalities. We report an unusual presentation characterized by massively enlarged polycystic kidneys mimicking autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in monozygotic twins. Bilateral enlarged cystic kidneys were discovered in week 13 of a gemellic pregnancy. Postnatally, kidney size increased in both children, reaching 16 cm at 20 years. Nephromegaly was associated with bilateral cysts and a slowly decreasing glomerular filtration rate (40 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at 20 years). There was neither pancreatic nor genital malformation. Non-type 1 diabetes mellitus was diagnosed incidentally in both twins at 20 years. Knowledge of early-onset diabetes (at age 19 years) in their father prompted us to search for the TCF2 mutation. Genetic analysis showed complete TCF2 heterozygous whole-gene deletion in both twins. Genetic testing could not be performed in the father. Bilateral massively enlarged polycystic kidneys mimicking autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in young adults may be related to TCF2 mutation. Although uncommon, this new phenotype enlarges the clinical spectrum of kidney involvement associated with TCF2 mutation. In this case, maturity-onset diabetes of the young-type diabetes paved the way to accurate diagnosis.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 01/2008; 50(6):1023-7. · 5.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in factor H (CFH), factor I (IF), and membrane cofactor protein (MCP) genes have been described as risk factors for atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). This study analyzed the impact of complement mutations on the outcome of 46 children with aHUS. A total of 52% of patients had mutations in one or two of known susceptibility factors (22, 13, and 15% of patients with CFH, IF, or MCP mutations, respectively; 2% with CFH+IF mutations). Age <3 mo at onset seems to be characteristic of CFH and IF mutation-associated aHUS. The most severe prognosis was in the CFH mutation group, 60% of whom reached ESRD or died within <1 yr. Only 30% of CFH mutations were localized in SCR20. MCP mutation-associated HUS has a relapsing course, but none of the children reached ESRD at 1 yr. Half of patients with IF mutation had a rapid evolution to ESRD, and half recovered. Plasmatherapy seemed to have a beneficial effect in one third of patients from all groups except for the MCP mutation group. Only eight (33%) of 24 kidney transplantations that were performed in 15 patients were successful. Graft failures were due to early graft thrombosis (50%) or HUS recurrence. In conclusion, outcome of HUS in patients with CFH mutation is catastrophic, and posttransplantation outcome is poor in all groups except for the MCP mutation group. New therapies are urgently needed, and further research should elucidate the unexplained HUS group.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 09/2007; 18(8):2392-400. · 8.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum cystatin C (cysC) is a potential marker of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) that has generated conflicting reports in children. A prospective study was conducted to assess the benefit of considering cysC together with serum creatinine (SCr) and demographic and morphologic characteristics to better estimate the 51Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) clearance (CL), i.e., the GFR. Plasma 51Cr-EDTA data from 100 children or young adults (range: 1.4-22.8 years old) were analyzed according to the population pharmacokinetic approach by using the nonlinear mixed effects model (NONMEM) program. The actual CL was compared to the CL predicted according to different covariate equations. The best covariate equation (+/-95% confidence interval) was: GFR (ml/min)=63.2(+/-3.4) . [(SCr (microM)/96)(-0.35 (+/-0.20))] . [(cysC (mg/l)/1.2)(-0.56 (+/-0.19))] . [(body weight (kg)/45)(0.30 (+/-0.17))] . [age (years)/14)(0.40 (+/-0.16))]. This equation was associated with a less biased and more precise estimation than the Schwartz equation. CysC improves the estimation of the GFR in children if considered with other covariates within the mathematical formula.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the ATP6V1B1 and ATP6V0A4 genes, encoding subunits B1 and 4 of apical H(+) ATPase, cause recessive forms of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). ATP6V1B mutations have been associated with early sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), whereas ATP6V0A4 mutations are classically associated with either late-onset SNHL or normal hearing. The phenotype and genotype of 39 new kindreds with recessive dRTA, 18 of whom were consanguineous, were assessed. Novel and known loss-of-function mutations were identified in 31 kindreds. Fourteen new and five recurrent mutations of the ATP6V0A4 gene were identified in 21 families. For the ATP6V1B1 gene, two new and two previously described mutations were identified in 10 families. Surprisingly, seven probands with ATP6V0A4 gene mutations developed severe early SNHL between the ages of 2 mo and 10 yr. No mutation was detected in eight families. These data extend the spectrum of disease-causing mutations and provide evidence for genetic heterogeneity in SNHL. The data also demonstrate that mutations in either of these genes may cause early deafness, and they highlight the importance of genetic screening for recessive forms of dRTA independent of hearing status.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 06/2006; 17(5):1437-43. · 8.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed urinary polypeptides from individuals with neonatal ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction to predict which individuals with this condition will evolve toward obstruction that needs surgical correction. We identified polypeptides that enabled diagnosis of the severity of obstruction and validated these biomarkers in urine collected in a prospective blinded study. Using these noninvasive biomarkers, we were able to predict, several months in advance and with 94% precision, the clinical evolution of neonates with UPJ obstruction.
Nature Medicine 05/2006; 12(4):398-400. · 22.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta encoded by the TCF2 gene plays a role for the specific regulation of gene expression in various tissues such as liver, kidney, intestine, and pancreatic islets and is involved in the embryonic development of these organs. TCF2 mutations are known to be responsible for the maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 5 associated with renal manifestations. Several observations have suggested that TCF2 mutations may be involved in restricted renal phenotypes. Eighty children (median age at diagnosis 0.2 yr) with renal cysts, hyperechogenicity, hypoplasia, or single kidneys were studied. Quantitative multiplex PCR amplification of short fluorescence fragments for the search of large genomic rearrangements and sequencing for the detection of point mutations were performed. TCF2 anomalies were detected in one third of patients (25 of 80). The main alteration was the complete deletion of the TCF2 gene detected in 16 patients. Family screening revealed de novo TCF2 anomalies in nine of 17 probands with a high prevalence of deletions (seven of nine). TCF2 anomalies were associated with bilateral renal anomalies (P < 0.001) and bilateral cortical cysts (P < 0.001). However, abnormal renal function, detected in 40% of patients, was independent of the TCF2 genotype. No difference in renal function or severity of renal morphologic lesions was observed between patients with a TCF2 deletion and those with point mutations. In conclusion, TCF2 molecular anomalies are involved in restricted renal phenotype in childhood without alteration of glucose metabolism. These findings have important implications in the diagnosis of patients with renal dysplasia with cysts and their follow-up.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 03/2006; 17(2):497-503. · 8.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current data on mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) suggest that there is a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship between the mycophenolic acid (MPA) area under the curve (AUC) during treatment and both the risk of acute rejection and the occurrence of side effects. The aim of this study was to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of MPA in kidney transplant patients between the ages of 2 and 21 years and to propose a limited sampling strategy to estimate individual MPA AUCs. Forty-one patients received long-term oral MMF continuous therapy as part of a triple immunosuppressive regimen, which also included cyclosporine or tacrolimus (n=3) and corticosteroids. Therapy was initiated at a dose of 600 mg/m twice daily. The population parameters were calculated from an initial group of 32 patients. The data were analyzed by nonlinear mixed-effect modeling using a 2-compartment structural model with first-order absorption and a lag time. The interindividual variability in the initial volume of distribution was partially explained by the fact that this parameter was weight-dependent. Fifteen concentration-time profiles from 13 patients were used to evaluate the predictive performance of the Bayesian approach and to devise a limited sampling strategy. The protocol, involving two sampling times, 1 and 4 hours after oral administration, allows the precise and accurate determination of MPA AUCs (bias -0.9 microg.h/mL; precision 6.02 microg.h/mL). The results of this study combine the relationships between the pharmacokinetic parameters of MPA and patient covariates, which may be useful for dose adjustment, with a convenient sampling procedure that may aid in optimizing pediatric patient care.
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 07/2005; 27(3):378-88. · 2.23 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the clinical and laboratory manifestations of childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) at presentation.
This retrospective French multicenter study involved 155 patients in whom SLE developed before the age of 16 years. Mean patient age at onset was 11.5 +/- 2.5 years (range, 1.5-16 years). The female to male ratio was 4.5.
The most common initial manifestations were hematologic (72%), cutaneous (70%), musculoskeletal (64%), renal (50%), and fever (58%). Thirty-two percent of children had atypical symptoms, mainly including abdominal involvement in 26 patients, which lead to negative laparotomy results for presumed appendicitis. Severe renal, neurologic, hematologic, abdominal, cardiac, pulmonary, thrombotic, and/or cutaneous manifestations occurred within the first month after the diagnosis in 40% of patients. The mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 72 +/- 29 mm/h, and the mean C-reactive protein value 22 +/- 21 mg/L. Antinuclear antibodies an, anti-double stranded DNA antibodies, and low C3 or C4 level were retrieved in 97%, 93%, and 78 % of patients, respectively.
Initial manifestations of childhood-onset SLE are diverse and often severe. The diagnosis of SLE should be promptly considered in any febrile adolescent with unexplained organ involvement, especially when associated with an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
Journal of Pediatrics 06/2005; 146(5):648-53. · 4.04 Impact Factor