[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus asymptomatically colonises the anterior nares, but the host and bacterial factors that facilitate colonisation remain incompletely understood. The S. aureus surface protein ClfB has been shown to mediate adherence to squamous epithelial cells in vitro and to promote nasal colonisation in both mice and humans. Here, we demonstrate that the squamous epithelial cell envelope protein loricrin represents the major target ligand for ClfB during S. aureus nasal colonisation. In vitro adherence assays indicated that bacteria expressing ClfB bound loricrin most likely by the "dock, lock and latch" mechanism. Using surface plasmon resonance we showed that ClfB bound cytokeratin 10 (K10), a structural protein of squamous epithelial cells, and loricrin with similar affinities that were in the low µM range. Loricrin is composed of three separate regions comprising GS-rich omega loops. Each loop was expressed separately and found to bind ClfB, However region 2 bound with highest affinity. To investigate if the specific interaction between ClfB and loricrin was sufficient to facilitate S. aureus nasal colonisation, we compared the ability of ClfB(+)S. aureus to colonise the nares of wild-type and loricrin-deficient (Lor(-/-)) mice. In the absence of loricrin, S. aureus nasal colonisation was significantly impaired. Furthermore a ClfB(-) mutant colonised wild-type mice less efficiently than the parental ClfB(+) strain whereas a similar lower level of colonisation was observed with both the parental strain and the ClfB(-) mutant in the Lor(-/-) mice. The ability of ClfB to support nasal colonisation by binding loricrin in vivo was confirmed by the ability of Lactococcus lactis expressing ClfB to be retained in the nares of WT mice but not in the Lor(-/-) mice. By combining in vitro biochemical analysis with animal model studies we have identified the squamous epithelial cell envelope protein loricrin as the target ligand for ClfB during nasal colonisation by S. aureus.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability of Staphylococcus aureus to colonize the human nares is a crucial prerequisite for disease. IsdA is a major S. aureus surface protein that is expressed during human infection and required for nasal colonization and survival on human skin. In this work, we show that IsdA binds to involucrin, loricrin, and cytokeratin K10, proteins that are present in the cornified envelope of human desquamated epithelial cells. To measure the forces and dynamics of the interaction between IsdA and loricrin (the most abundant protein of the cornified envelope), single-molecule force spectroscopy was used, demonstrating high-specificity binding. IsdA acts as a cellular adhesin to the human ligands, promoting whole-cell binding to immobilized proteins, even in the absence of other S. aureus components (as shown by heterologous expression in Lactococcus lactis). Inhibition experiments revealed the binding of the human ligands to the same IsdA region. This region was mapped to the NEAT domain of IsdA. The NEAT domain also was found to be required for S. aureus whole-cell binding to the ligands as well as to human nasal cells. Thus, IsdA is an important adhesin to human ligands, which predominate in its primary ecological niche.
Infection and immunity 04/2009; 77(6):2408-16. · 4.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clumping factor B (ClfB) of Staphylococcus aureus binds to cytokeratin 10 and to fibrinogen. In this study the binding site in human fibrinogen was localized to a short region within the C terminus of the Aalpha-chain. ClfB only bound to the Aalpha-chain of fibrinogen in a ligand-affinity blot and in solid-phase assays with purified recombinant fibrinogen chains. A variant of fibrinogen with wild-type Bbeta- and gamma-chains but with a deletion that lacked the C-terminal residues from 252-610 of the Aalpha-chain did not support adherence of S. aureus Newman expressing ClfB. A series of truncated mutants of the recombinant Aalpha-chain were tested for their ability to support adherence of S. aureus Newman ClfB(+), which allowed the binding site to be localized to a short segment of the unfolded flexible repeated sequence within the C terminus of the Aalpha-chain. This was confirmed by two amino acid substititions within repeat 5 of the recombinant Aalpha-chain which did not support adherence of Newman ClfB(+). Lactococcus lactis expressing ClfB mutants with amino acid substitutions (N256 and Q235) located in the putative ligand-binding trench between domains N2 and N3 of the A-domain were defective in adherence to immobilized fibrinogen and cytokeratin 10, suggesting that both ligands bind to the same or overlapping regions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus permanently colonizes the vestibulum nasi of one-fifth of the human population, which is a risk factor for autoinfection. The precise mechanisms whereby S. aureus colonizes the nose are still unknown. The staphylococcal cell-wall protein clumping factor B (ClfB) promotes adhesion to squamous epithelial cells in vitro and might be a physiologically relevant colonization factor.
We define the role of the staphylococcal cytokeratin-binding protein ClfB in the colonization process by artificial inoculation of human volunteers with a wild-type strain and its single locus ClfB knock-out mutant. The wild-type strain adhered to immobilized recombinant human cytokeratin 10 (CK10) in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the ClfB(-) mutant did not. The wild-type strain, when grown to the stationary phase in a poor growth medium, adhered better to CK10, than when the same strain was grown in a nutrient-rich environment. Nasal cultures show that the mutant strain is eliminated from the nares significantly faster than the wild-type strain, with a median of 3 +/- 1 d versus 7 +/- 4 d (p = 0.006). Furthermore, the wild-type strain was still present in the nares of 3/16 volunteers at the end of follow-up, and the mutant strain was not.
The human colonization model, in combination with in vitro data, shows that the ClfB protein is a major determinant of nasal-persistent S. aureus carriage and is a candidate target molecule for decolonization strategies.
PLoS Medicine 02/2008; 5(1):e17. · 15.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a wide range of infections, including soft tissue infections and potentially fatal bacteremias. The primary niche for S. aureus in humans is the nares, and nasal carriage is a documented risk factor for staphylococcal infection. Previous studies with rodent models of nasal colonization have implicated capsule and teichoic acid as staphylococcal surface factors that promote colonization. In this study, a mouse model of nasal colonization was utilized to demonstrate that S. aureus mutants that lack clumping factor A, collagen binding protein, fibronectin binding proteins A and B, polysaccharide intercellular adhesin, or the accessory gene regulator colonized as well as wild-type strains colonized. In contrast, mutants deficient in sortase A or clumping factor B (ClfB) showed reduced nasal colonization. Mice immunized intranasally with killed S. aureus cells showed reduced nasal colonization compared with control animals. Likewise, mice that were immunized systemically or intranasally with a recombinant vaccine composed of domain A of ClfB exhibited lower levels of colonization than control animals exhibited. A ClfB monoclonal antibody (MAb) inhibited S. aureus binding to mouse cytokeratin 10. Passive immunization of mice with this MAb resulted in reduced nasal colonization compared with the colonization observed after immunization with an isotype-matched control antibody. The mouse immunization studies demonstrate that ClfB is an attractive component for inclusion in a vaccine to reduce S. aureus nasal colonization in humans, which in turn may diminish the risk of staphylococcal infection. As targets for vaccine development and antimicrobial intervention are assessed, rodent nasal colonization models may be invaluable.
Infection and Immunity 05/2006; 74(4):2145-53. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary habitat of Staphylococcus aureus in humans is the moist squamous epithelium of the anterior nares. We showed previously that S. aureus adheres to desquamated epithelial cells and that clumping factor B (ClfB), a surface-located MSCRAMM (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules) known for its ability to bind to the alpha-chain of fibrinogen, is partly responsible (O'Brien, L. M., Walsh, E. J., Massey, R. C., Peacock, S. J., and Foster, T. J. (2002) Cell. Microbiol. 4, 759-770). We identified cytokeratin 10 (K10) as the ligand recognized by ClfB. Here we have shown that purified recombinant human and murine K10 immobilized on a plastic surface supports adherence of S. aureus in a ClfB-dependent manner. Furthermore, the recombinant A domain of ClfB (rClfB 45-542) bound to immobilized K10 dose-dependently and saturably. Subdomains of human and murine K10 were expressed and purified. The N-terminal head domain (residues 1-145) did not support the binding of rClfB or adherence of S. aureus ClfB+. In contrast, the C-terminal tail domains (human rHK10 452-593, mouse rMK10 454-570) promoted avid binding and adherence. Isothermal titration microcalorimetry and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence experiments gave dissociation constants for rClfB 45-542 binding to rMK10 454-570 of 1.4 and 1.7 microM, respectively. The tail region of K10 is composed largely of quasi-repeats of Tyr-(Gly/Ser)n. A synthetic peptide corresponding to a typical glycine loop (YGGGSSGGGSSGGY; Y-Y loop peptide) inhibited the adherence of S. aureus ClfB+ to immobilized MK10 to a level of 80%, whereas control peptides had no effect. The KD of rClfB 45-542 for the Y-Y loop peptide was 5.3 microm by intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Thus ClfB binds to the glycine loop region of the tail domain of keratin 10 where there are probably multiple binding sites. Binding is discussed in the context of the dock-lock-latch model for MSCRAMM-ligand interactions. We provide an explanation for the molecular basis for S. aureus adherence to the squamous epithelium and suggest that nasal colonization might be prevented by reagents that inhibit this interaction.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2005; 279(49):50691-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of sepsis in both community and hospital settings, a major risk factor for which is nasal carriage of the bacterium. Eradication of carriage by topical antibiotics reduces sepsis rates in high-risk individuals, an important strategy for the reduction of nosocomial infection in targeted patient populations. Understanding the mechanisms by which S. aureus adheres to nasal epithelial cells in vivo may lead to alternative methods of decolonization that do not rely on sustained antimicrobial susceptibility. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the S. aureus surface-expressed protein, clumping factor B (ClfB), promotes adherence to immobilized epidermal cytokeratins in vitro. By expressing a range of S. aureus adhesins on the surface of the heterologous host Lactococcus lactis, we demonstrated that adherence to epidermal cytokeratins was conferred by ClfB. Adherence of wild-type S. aureus was inhibited by recombinant ClfB protein or anti-ClfB antibodies, and S. aureus mutants defective in ClfB adhered poorly to epidermal cytokeratins. Expression of ClfB promoted adherence of L. lactis to human desquamated nasal epithelial cells, and a mutant of S. aureus defective in ClfB had reduced adherence compared with wild type. ClfB also promoted adherence of L. lactis cells to a human keratinocyte cell line. Cytokeratin 10 molecules were shown by flow cytometry to be exposed on the surface of both desquamated nasal epithelial cells and keratinocytes. Cytokeratin 10 was also detected on the surface of desquamated human nasal cells using immunofluorescence, and recombinant ClfB protein was shown to bind to cytokeratin K10 extracted from these cells. We also showed that ClfB is transcribed by S. aureus in the human nares. We propose that ClfB is a major determinant in S. aureus nasal colonization.