[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is characterized by curd-like vaginal discharge and itching, and is associated with considerable health and economic costs. Materials and Methods. We examined the incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for vulvovaginal candidiasis among a cohort of 898 women in south India. Participants completed three study visits over six months, comprised of a structured interview and a pelvic examination. Results. The positive predictive values for diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis using individual signs or symptoms were low (<19%). We did not find strong evidence for associations between sociodemographic characteristics and the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Women clinically diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis had a higher prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (Prevalence 12%, 95% CI 8.2, 15.8) compared to women assessed to be negative for bacterial vaginosis (Prevalence 6.5%, 95% 5.3, 7.6); however, differences in the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis were not observed by the presence or absence of laboratory-confirmed bacterial vaginosis. Conclusions. For correct diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis, laboratory confirmation of infection with Candida is necessary as well as assessment of whether the discharge has been caused by bacterial vaginosis. Studies are needed of women infected with Candida yeast species to determine the risk factors for yeast's overgrowth.
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology 01/2012; 2012:859071.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are sparse data on the prevalence of primary infertility in India and almost none from Southern India. This study describes the correlates and prevalence of primary infertility among young women in Mysore, India.
The baseline data were collected between November 2005 through March 2006, among 897 sexually active women, aged 15-30 yr, for a study investigating the relationship of bacterial vaginosis and acquisition of herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) infection. A secondary data analysis of the baseline data was undertaken. Primary infertility was defined as having been married for longer than two years, not using contraception and without a child. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with primary infertility.
The mean age of the women was 25.9 yr (range: 16-30 yr) and the prevalence of primary infertility was 12.6 per cent [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 10.5-15.0%]. The main factor associated with primary infertility was HSV-2 seropositivity (adjusted odds ratio: 3.41; CI: 1.86, 6.26).
The estimated prevalence of primary infertility among women in the study was within the range reported by the WHO and similar to other estimates from India. Further research is needed to examine the role of HSV-2 in primary infertility.
The Indian journal of medical research 10/2011; 134:440-6. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) have been estimated to affect one-quarter to one-third of sexually active women worldwide, and are often found concurrently. Few studies have examined this relationship longitudinally to better understand the direction and temporality of this association.
Between 2005 and 2006, a cohort of 853 young, sexually active women was followed in Mysore, India; participants were interviewed and tested for BV and TV at baseline, and at 3- and 6-month visit. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate how changes in vaginal flora between consecutive visits-as defined by Nugent diagnostic criteria for BV-were related to the risk of TV infection at the latter visit, adjusted for sociodemographic and behavioral covariates. Treatment was offered to women with TV and/or symptomatic BV.
After adjustment for covariates, participants with abnormal vaginal flora at 2 consecutive visits had 9 times higher risk of TV (95% CI: 4.1, 20.0) at the latter visit, relative to those with persistently normal flora. An increased risk of TV was also observed for participants whose flora status changed from normal to abnormal (adjusted risk ratio: 7.11, 95% CI: 2.8, 18.2) and from abnormal to normal (adjusted risk ratio: 4.50, 95% CI: 1.7, 11.8).
Women experiencing abnormal flora during a 3-month span appear to have significantly increased risk of acquiring TV infection. Women of reproductive age in low-resource settings found to have abnormal vaginal flora should be assessed for TV.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined associations between the socioeconomic characteristics of census tracts and racial/ethnic disparities in the incidence of bacteremic community-acquired pneumonia among US adults.
We analyzed data on 4870 adults aged 18 years or older with community-acquired bacteremic pneumonia identified through active, population-based surveillance in 9 states and geocoded to census tract of residence. We used data from the 2000 US Census to calculate incidence by age, race/ethnicity, and census tract characteristics and Poisson regression to estimate rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
During 2003 to 2004, the average annual incidence of bacteremic pneumonia was 24.2 episodes per 100 000 Black adults versus 10.1 per 100 000 White adults (RR = 2.40; 95% CI = 2.24, 2.57). Incidence among Black residents of census tracts with 20% or more of persons in poverty (most impoverished) was 4.4 times the incidence among White residents of census tracts with less than 5% of persons in poverty (least impoverished). Racial disparities in incidence were reduced but remained significant in models that controlled for age, census tract poverty level, and state.
Adults living in impoverished census tracts are at increased risk of bacteremic pneumonia and should be targeted for prevention efforts.
American Journal of Public Health 10/2010; 100(10):1904-11. · 3.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS increase the risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We evaluated IPD among HIV-infected adults over a 10-year period in the US to identify opportunities for prevention of IPD among HIV-infected adults.
IPD and HIV surveillance in seven population-based and laboratory-based Active Bacterial Core surveillance areas.
IPD cases were adults 18-64 years old with pneumococcus isolated from a normally sterile site during 1998-2007. Isolates were serotyped using the Quellung reaction. HIV/AIDS status was determined by medical record review. We calculated incidence of IPD among adults with AIDS using national case-based surveillance data.
Of 13 812 IPD cases among 18-64-year-olds, 3236 (23%) occurred among HIV-infected adults (with or without AIDS) and 1313 (10%) occurred among the subset of HIV-infected adults with AIDS. Compared with the period (1998-1999) before childhood 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction in the US, the overall incidence of IPD among adults with AIDS decreased 25% from 399 to 298 cases per 100 000 by 2007 (P = 0.008). In 2006-2007, 8, 39 and 55% of IPD cases among adults with AIDS were caused by serotypes included in the 7-valent PCV, 13-valent PCV and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines, respectively.
Sustained declines in IPD have occurred among adults with AIDS in the US, but incidence remained high 7 years after PCV7 introduction. More aggressive efforts, including HIV-prevention measures and the use of new PCVs in children and possibly HIV-infected adults, are necessary to further reduce IPD among HIV-infected adults.
AIDS (London, England) 09/2010; 24(14):2253-62. · 4.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This qualitative study investigated physician intention-to-recommend the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to parents of adolescent girls in India. There are currently no data on attitudes to HPV vaccination among healthcare providers in India.
Between June and August 2008, 20 semistructured qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted among physicians from a range of specialties and practice settings in Mysore District, India. Physicians were interviewed about their specialty and the types of patients they saw in their practice, attitudes toward recommending HPV vaccination to parents of adolescent girls, perceived subjective norms surrounding the promotion of vaccines in their work settings, and their perceptions regarding self-efficacy in recommending the HPV vaccine.
The study found that knowledge about HPV infection and its relationship to cervical cancer was low among physicians across specialties. While most physicians expressed positive attitudes toward vaccination in general, and HPV vaccination in particular, the overwhelming majority believed that few of their patients would react positively to a vaccine recommendation. Physicians were concerned about talking to parents about their adolescent daughters' reproductive lives. Certain specialties, particularly obstetrician/gynecologists, suggested that recommending immunization was not appropriate in their work setting.
With the HPV vaccine recently being approved in India, there is a strong need to provide more education for physicians about the relationship of HPV infection and cervical cancer and the benefits of vaccinating adolescent girls to prevent cervical cancer in the future.
Journal of Adolescent Health 04/2010; 46(4):379-84. · 2.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trichomonas vaginalis infection is the most common curable sexually transmissible infection (STI) worldwide. The present study describes the burden and correlates of T. vaginalis infection among young reproductive age women in Mysore, India.
Between November 2005 and March 2006, sexually active women aged 15-30 years were recruited from low-income peri-urban and rural neighbourhoods of Mysore, India. Participants were interviewed and offered a physical examination and testing for T. vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, Neisseria gonorrheoea and herpes simplex virus type-2 antibodies.
Of the 898 participating women, 76 had a T. vaginalis infection (8.5%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 6.7-10.5%). Nearly all (98%) participants were married and most reported their spouse as their main sex partner. The mean age at marriage was 16.9 years (s.d. 2.9 years) and two-thirds of the sample reported having first sexual intercourse before the age of 19 years. Risk factors independently associated with T. vaginalis infection included early age at first intercourse (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.09; 95% CI: 1.09-4.00), concurrent bacterial vaginosis (OR 8.21; 95% CI: 4.30-15.66), vaginal candidiasis (OR 2.40; 95% CI: 1.48-3.89) and herpes simplex virus type-2 infection (OR 3.44; 95% CI: 1.97-6.02).
The burden of T. vaginalis infection at 8.5% is relatively high among a community sample of young reproductive aged women. Because this infection increases the risk of HIV transmission and is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, there is a need for increased screening and treatment of this easily curable sexually transmissible infection in India.
Sexual Health 12/2009; 6(4):339-44. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigates attitudes toward human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among parents of adolescent girls in Mysore, India. Seven focus group discussions were held among parents of adolescent girls stratified by sex, religion and region to explore attitudes about cervical cancer and HPV vaccination. The study found that while parents have limited knowledge about HPV or cervical cancer, most are still highly accepting an HPV vaccine. In addition, high acceptability levels appear to reflect positive attitudes toward the government universal immunization program in general, rather than to the HPV vaccine in particular. The results highlight the need for additional education and health promotion regarding HPV and cervical cancer prevention in India.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and Trichomonas vaginalis infection (TV) have been associated with adverse birth outcomes and increased risk for HIV. We compare the performance of simple inexpensive point-of-care (POC) tests to laboratory diagnosis and syndromic management of BV and TV in poor settings.
Between November 2005 and March 2006, 898 sexually active women attending two reproductive health clinics in Mysore, India were recruited into a cohort study investigating the relationship between vaginal flora and HSV-2 infection. Participants were interviewed and screened for reproductive tract infections. Laboratory tests included serology for HSV-2; cultures for TV, Candida sp., and Neisseria gonorrhoeae; Gram stains; and two POC tests: vaginal pH; and Whiff test.
Of the 898 participants, 411 [45.7%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 42.4-49.0%] had any laboratory diagnosed vaginal infection. BV was detected in 165 women (19.1%, 95%CI: 16.5-21.9%) using Nugent score. TV was detected in 76 women (8.5%, 95%CI: 6.7-10.4%) using culture. Among the entire study population, POC correctly detected 82% of laboratory diagnosed BV cases, and 83% of laboratory diagnosed TV infections. Among women with complaints of vulval itching, burning, abnormal vaginal discharge, and/or sores (445/898), POC correctly detected 83% (60 of 72 cases) of laboratory diagnosed BV cases vs. 40% (29 of 72 cases) correctly managed using the syndromic approach (P < 0.001). Similarly, POC would have detected 82% (37 of 45 cases) of TV cases vs. 51% (23 of 45 cases) correctly managed using the syndromic approach (P = 0.001).
In the absence of laboratory diagnostics, POC is not only inexpensive and practical, but also significantly more sensitive than the syndromic management approach, resulting in less overtreatment. .
Tropical Medicine & International Health 05/2009; 14(6):703-8. · 2.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We explored the association between antituberculosis drug pharmacokinetics and treatment outcomes among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Botswana.
Consenting outpatients with tuberculosis had blood samples collected 1, 2, and 6 h after simultaneous isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide ingestion. Maximum serum concentrations (C(max)) and areas under the serum concentration time curve were determined. Clinical status was monitored throughout treatment.
Of the 225 participants, 36 (16%) experienced poor treatment outcome (treatment failure or death); 155 (69%) were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Compared with published standards, low isoniazid C(max) occurred in 84 patients (37%), low rifampin C(max) in 188 (84%), low ethambutol C(max) in 87 (39%), and low pyrazinamide C(max) in 11 (5%). Median rifampin and pyrazinamide levels differed significantly by HIV status and CD4 cell count category. Only pyrazinamide pharmacokinetics were significantly associated with treatment outcome; low pyrazinamide C(max) was associated with a higher risk of documented poor treatment outcome, compared with normal C(max) (50% vs. 16%; P < .01). HIV-infected patients with a CD4 cell count <200 cells/microL had a higher risk of poor treatment outcome (27%) than did HIV-uninfected patients (11%) or HIV-infected patients with a CD4 cell count 200 cells/microL (12%; P = .01). After adjustment for HIV infection and CD4 cell count, patients with low pyrazinamide C(max) were 3 times more likely than patients with normal pyrazinamide C(max) to have poor outcomes (adjusted risk ratio, 3.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.84-6.22).
Lower than expected antituberculosis drug C(max) occurred frequently, and low pyrazinamide C(max) was associated with poor treatment outcome. Exploring the global prevalence and significance of these findings may suggest modifications in treatment regimens that could improve tuberculosis cure rates.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Jails are an important venue of HIV care and a place for identification, treatment and referral for care. HIV infected inmates in the San Francisco County jail are offered antiretroviral treatment (ART), which many take only while in jail. We evaluated the effect of ART administration in a cohort of jail inmates going in and out of jail over a nine year period.
In this retrospective study, we examined inmates with HIV going in and out of jail. Inmates were categorized by patterns of ART use: continuous ART - ART both in and out of jail, intermittent ART - ART only in jail; never on ART - eligible by national guidelines, but refused ART. CD4 and HIV viral load (VL) were compared over time in these groups. Over a 9 year period, 512 inmates were studied: 388 (76%) on intermittent ART, 79 (15%) on continuous ART and 45(9%) never-on ART. In a linear mixed model analysis, inmates on intermittent ART were 1.43; 95%CI (1.03, 1.99) times and those never on ART were 2.89; 95%CI (1.71, 4.87) times more likely to have higher VL than inmates on continuous ART. Furthermore, Inmates on intermittent ART and never-on ART lost 1.60; 95%CI (1.06, 2.13) and 1.97; 95%CI (0.96, 3.00) more CD4 cells per month, respectively, compared to continuously treated inmates. The continuous ART inmates gained 0.67CD4 cells/month.
Continuous ART therapy in jail inmate's benefits CD4 cell counts and control of VL especially compared to those who never took ART. Although jail inmates on intermittent ART were more likely to lose CD4 cells and experience higher VL over time than those on continuous ART, CD4 cell loss was slower in these inmates as compared to inmates never on ART. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether or not intermittent ART provides some benefit in outcome if continuous ART is not possible or likely.
PLoS ONE 01/2009; 4(9):e7115. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is currently little information on the acceptability of male circumcision in India. This study investigated the acceptability of male circumcision among Indian mothers with male children.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a convenience sample of 795 women attending a reproductive health clinic in Mysore, India, between January and April 2007.
Of the 1012 invited eligible participants, 795 women agreed to participate (response rate = 78.5%). The majority of women were Hindus (78%), 18% were Muslims, and 4% were Christians. About 26% of respondents had no schooling, 29% had 7 years of schooling, 42% had 8-12 years, and 3% had more than 12 years. After women were informed about the risks and benefits of male circumcision, a majority of women with uncircumcised children (n = 564, 81%) said they would definitely circumcise their children if the procedure were offered in a safe hospital setting, free of charge, and a smaller number (n = 50, 7%) said they would probably consider the procedure. Only seven women (1%) said that they would definitely/probably not consider male circumcision, and 63 (9%) were unsure.
Since male circumcision has been found to decrease risk of HIV infection among men, it is important to determine its acceptability as a potential HIV prevention strategy in India. This study found male circumcision to be highly acceptable among a broad range of mothers with male children in Mysore, India. Further studies of acceptability among fathers and other populations are warranted.
AIDS (London, England) 06/2008; 22(8):983-8. · 4.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonmalarial acute undifferentiated fever (NMAUF) refers to a febrile illness with no indication of an organ-specific disease after diagnosis of malaria has been excluded. In developing countries, the empirical treatment of NMAUFs with antimalarial drugs continues even in the era of highly specific rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria. We carried out a retrospective review of patients with fever admitted to a rural teaching hospital in central India. We categorized patients with NMAUF into different clinical syndromes and determined their demographic profile, inhospital course, and the pattern of antimalarial use. The study sample included 1,197 adult patients who were investigated for malaria; 1,053 (88%) of them had NMAUF, and use of further diagnostics in this group was limited. Despite one or more negative tests for malaria, many patients (39.9%, 95% CI 37.0-43.3) received antimalarial drugs. These results suggest a need for guidelines and training to improve empirical treatment of NMAUF.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 04/2008; 78(3):393-9. · 2.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapid, point-of-care human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing has the potential to enhance strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV infection. Rapid tests need minimal laboratory infrastructure and can be performed by health workers with minimal training. In our systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to summarize the overall diagnostic accuracy of rapid HIV tests in pregnancy, and outcomes such as acceptability, patient preference, feasibility and impact of rapid testing. We searched four major databases, identified and screened 1377 citations, and included 17 studies that met our eligibility criteria. Analyses of these studies suggested that the overall sensitivity and specificity of blood-based rapid tests was high compared with oral rapid tests. A two-step testing strategy, particularly parallel testing, was found to be superior to single-test strategy in labour and delivery settings. Acceptability of rapid tests and patient preference was variable across studies. Overall, rapid HIV testing was highly accurate compared with conventional tests and offer a clear advantage of enabling the implementation of timely interventions to reduce MTCT of HIV. To improve diagnostic accuracy and to reduce false-positive results, it may be necessary to use two rapid tests during labour and delivery.
Tropical Medicine & International Health 03/2007; 12(2):162-73. · 2.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vitro interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) assays have emerged as novel alternatives to the tuberculin skin test (TST) for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection. These assays have been evaluated in low incidence countries, mainly in adults, and have been shown to be more specific than TST. Because few studies have been done in high incidence countries, and because paediatric data are limited, we compared a whole-blood IFN-gamma assay with TST among hospitalized Indian children.
Between July 2004 and June 2005, a total of 105 consecutively admitted children (median age 6 years; 82% had BCG scars) in whom TB was suspected or had history of contact with an index case were recruited at a rural hospital in India. All children underwent TST, and the QuantiFERON-TB-Gold In Tube (QFT) assay.
The overall prevalence of TB infection was similar with both tests. With a TST cut-off point of > or =10mm, 10 of 105 (9.5%; 95% CI 3.8, 15.2) children were TST positive. With a cut-off point of IFN-gamma> or =0.35IU/ml, 11 of 105 (10.5%; 95% CI 4.5, 16.4) were QFT positive. The concordance between TST and QFT was substantial (agreement 95.2%; kappa [kappa] 0.73; 95% CI for kappa 0.53, 0.92). Agreement between TST and QFT results was 100% (kappa 1.0) in BCG scar-negative children as compared to 94% (kappa 0.63) in scar-positive children. BCG was not associated with the results of either TST or QFT (P>0.05 for both tests). The number of children with bacteriologically confirmed active TB was too small to permit the estimation of sensitivity of the tests.
In a rural, predominantly BCG-vaccinated paediatric population in India, the TST and QFT assay produced comparable results. BCG vaccination did not significantly affect either TST or QFT results. Larger studies are needed to compare the sensitivity of the IFN-gamma assay with that of the TST in children with bacteriologically and/or clinically confirmed TB.
The Journal of infection 03/2007; 54(3):267-76. · 4.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for use in HIV-infected adults in Brazil but there is uncertainty about its effectiveness in this patient population. The main objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine against invasive pneumococcal infection among HIV-infected adult patients in São Paulo, Brazil.
A case-control study of 79 cases and 242 controls matched on CD4+ cell count and health care setting was conducted. Among HIV-infected adults in São Paulo, Brazil, with and without S. pneumoniae recovered from a normally sterile site; prior receipt of 23 valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine was determined by review of medical records and patient interview.
After adjustment for confounding factors, the point estimate for the effectiveness of 23 valent polysaccharide vaccine among HIV-infected adults against all invasive pneumococcal infection was 18% (95% CI: <0 to 62%).
We were unable to demonstrate a statistically significant protective effect of 23 valent polysaccharide against invasive pneumococcal infection vaccine among HIV-infected adults in Brazil.While the vaccine is relatively inexpensive and safe, its effectiveness among HIV-infected adults in Brazil is uncertain.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oral fluid-based rapid tests are promising for improving HIV diagnosis and screening. However, recent reports from the United States of false-positive results with the oral OraQuick ADVANCE HIV1/2 test have raised concerns about their performance in routine practice. We report a field evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy, client preference, and feasibility for the oral fluid-based OraQuick Rapid HIV1/2 test in a rural hospital in India.
A cross-sectional, hospital-based study was conducted in 450 consenting participants with suspected HIV infection in rural India. The objectives were to evaluate performance, client preference and feasibility of the OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 tests. Two Oraquick Rapid HIV1/2 tests (oral fluid and finger stick) were administered in parallel with confirmatory ELISA/Western Blot (reference standard). Pre- and post-test counseling and face to face interviews were conducted to determine client preference. Of the 450 participants, 146 were deemed to be HIV sero-positive using the reference standard (seropositivity rate of 32% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28%, 37%)). The OraQuick test on oral fluid specimens had better performance with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI 98, 100) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI 99, 100), as compared to the OraQuick test on finger stick specimens with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI 98, 100), and a specificity of 99.7% (95% CI 98.4, 99.9). The OraQuick oral fluid-based test was preferred by 87% of the participants for first time testing and 60% of the participants for repeat testing.
In a rural Indian hospital setting, the OraQuick Rapid- HIV1/2 test was found to be highly accurate. The oral fluid-based test performed marginally better than the finger stick test. The oral OraQuick test was highly preferred by participants. In the context of global efforts to scale-up HIV testing, our data suggest that oral fluid-based rapid HIV testing may work well in rural, resource-limited settings.