Jenny L Wiley

RTI International, Durham, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (199)546.19 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: While nicotine has been established as the primary addictive drug that promotes tobacco use, recent peer-reviewed studies suggest that tobacco smoke contains additional chemical constituents that may have addictive potential. Additional research is necessary to determine the addictive potential of these tobacco constituents individually, and in combination with tobacco smoke condensate; however, the behaviorally effective constituent doses necessary to conduct such studies are unclear. The primary objective of this study was to conduct behavioral studies in adult rats to determine the relevant behaviorally effective doses of the tobacco constituents, cotinine, myosmine, and anatabine to be used in future studies assessing the addictive potential of these compounds.
    Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The recent discovery of allosteric modulators of the CB1 receptor including PSNCBAM-1 (4) has generated significant interest in CB1 receptor allosteric modulation. Here in the first SAR study on 4, we have designed and synthesized a series of analogs focusing on modifications at two positions. Pharmacological evaluation in calcium mobilization and binding assays revealed the importance of alkyl substitution at the 2-aminopyridine moiety and electron deficient aromatic groups at the 4-chlorophenyl position for activity at the CB1 receptor, resulting in several analogs with comparable potency to 4. These compounds increased the specific binding of [(3)H]CP55,940 in agreement with previous reports. Importantly, 4 and two analogs dose-dependently reduced the Emax of the agonist curve in the CB1 calcium mobilization assays, confirming their negative allosteric modulator characteristics. Given the side effects associated with CB1 receptor orthosteric antagonists, negative allosteric modulators provide an alternate approach to modulate the pharmacologically important CB1 receptor.
    Journal of medicinal chemistry. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Sex differences in cannabinoid effects have been reported in rodents, with adult females typically being more sensitive than adult males. The present study compared the development of antinociceptive tolerance to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in adult, gonadally intact female vs. male rats.
    Drug and alcohol dependence. 08/2014;
  • Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 07/2014; 140:e44.
  • Jenny L Wiley, James J Burston
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    ABSTRACT: Mechanisms that may underlie age and sex differences in the pharmacological effects of cannabinoids are relatively unexplored. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether sex differences in metabolism of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), similar to those observed previously in adult rats, also occurred in adolescent rats and might contribute to age and sex differences in its in vivo pharmacology. Male and female adolescent rats were exposed to THC acutely or repeatedly for 10 days. Subsequently, some of the rats were sacrificed and blood and brain levels of THC and one of its metabolites, 11-hydrox-Δ(9)-THC (11-OH-THC), were measured. Other rats were evaluated in a battery of in vivo tests that are sensitive to cannabinoids. Concentrations of 11-OH-THC in the brains of female adult and adolescent rats exceeded those observed in male conspecifics, particularly after repeated THC administration. In contrast, brain levels of THC did not differ between the sexes. In vivo, acute THC produced dose-related hypothermia, catalepsy and suppression of locomotion in adolescent rats of both sexes, with tolerance developing after repeated administration. With a minor exception, sex differences in THC's effects in the in vivo assays were not apparent. Together with previous findings, the present results suggest that sex differences in pharmacokinetics cannot fully explain the patterns of sex differences (and lack of sex differences) in cannabinoid effects across behaviors. Hormonal and/or pharmacodynamic factors are also likely to play a role.
    Neuroscience letters. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanism through which marijuana produces its psychoactive effects is Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-induced activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors. These receptors are normally activated by endogenous lipids, including anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG). A logical "first step" in determination of the role of these endocannabinoids in THC's psychoactive effects is to investigate the degree to which pharmacologically induced increases in anandamide and/or 2-AG concentrations through exogenous administration and/or systemic administration of inhibitors of their metabolism, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), respectively, share THC's discriminative stimulus effects. To this end, adult male mice and rats were trained to discriminate THC (5.6 and 3mg/kg, respectively). In Experiment 1, exogenous administration of anandamide or 2-AG did not substitute for THC in mice nor was substitution enhanced by co-administration of the FAAH or MAGL inhibitors, URB597 and N-arachidonyl maleimide (NAM), respectively. Significant decreases in responding may have prevented assessment of adequate endocannabinoid doses. In mice trained at higher baseline response rates (Experiment 2), the FAAH inhibitor PF3845 (10mg/kg) enhanced anandamide substitution for THC without producing effects of its own. The MAGL inhibitor JZL184 increased brain levels of 2-AG in vitro and in vivo, increased THC-like responding without co-administration of 2-AG. In rats, neither URB597 nor JZL184 engendered significant THC-appropriate responding, but co-administration of these two enzyme inhibitors approached full substitution. The present results highlight the complex interplay between anandamide and 2-AG and suggest that endogenous increases of both endocannabinoids are most effective in elicitation of THC-like discriminative stimulus effects
    European Journal of Pharmacology 05/2014; · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several allosteric modulators (AMs) of the CB1 receptor have been characterized in vitro, including Org27569, which enhances CB1-specific binding of [H]CP55,940, but behaves as an insurmountable CB1-receptor antagonist in several biochemical assays. Although a growing body of research has investigated the molecular actions of this unusual AM, it is unknown whether these actions translate to the whole animal. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether Org27569 would produce effects in well-established mouse behavioral assays sensitive to CB1 orthosteric agonists and antagonists. Similar to the orthosteric CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist rimonabant, Org27569 reduced food intake; however, this anorectic effect occurred independently of the CB1 receptor. Org27569 did not elicit CB1-mediated effects alone and lacked efficacy in altering antinociceptive, cataleptic, and hypothermic actions of the orthosteric agonists anandamide, CP55,940, and Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol. Moreover, it did not alter the discriminative stimulus effects of anandamide in FAAH-deficient mice or Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol in wild-type mice in the drug discrimination paradigm. These findings question the utility of Org27569 as a 'gold standard' CB1 AM and underscore the need for the development of CB1 AMs with pharmacology that translates from the molecular level to the whole animal.
    Behavioural pharmacology 04/2014; 25(2):182-5. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There has been a dramatic rise in the abuse of synthetic cathinones known as "bath salts," including 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), an analog linked to many adverse events. MDPV differs from other synthetic cathinones because it contains a pyrrolidine ring which gives the drug potent actions as an uptake blocker at dopamine and norepinephrine transporters. While MDPV is now illegal, a wave of "second generation" pyrrolidinophenones has appeared on the market, with α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP) being most popular. Here, we sought to compare the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effects of MDPV and its congeners: α-PVP, α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone (α-PBP), and α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (α-PPP). We examined effects of test drugs in transporter uptake and release assays using rat brain synaptosomes, then assessed behavioral stimulant effects in mice. We found that α-PVP is a potent uptake blocker at dopamine and norepinephrine transporters, similar to MDPV. α-PBP and α-PPP are also catecholamine transporter blockers but display reduced potency. All of the test drugs are locomotor stimulants, and the rank order of in vivo potency parallels dopamine transporter activity, with MDPV>α-PVP>α-PBP>α-PPP. Motor activation produced by all drugs is reversed by the dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390. Furthermore, results of a functional observational battery show that all test drugs produce typical stimulant effects at lower doses and some drugs produce bizarre behaviors at higher doses. Taken together, our findings represent the first evidence that second generation analogs of MDPV are catecholamine-selective uptake blockers which may pose risk for addiction and adverse effects in human users.
    Neuropharmacology 03/2014; · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been a false negative in rat intravenous self-administration procedures, evaluation of the abuse potential of candidate cannabinoid medications has proved difficult. One lab group has successfully trained self-administration of the aminoalkylindole WIN55,212-2 in rats; however, their results have not been independently replicated. The purpose of this study was to extend their model by using a within-subjects design, with the goal of establishing a robust method suitable for substitution testing of other cannabinoids. Male Long-Evans rats were trained to self-administer WIN55,212-2 (0.01mg/kg/infusion) on a fixed ratio 3 schedule. Dose-effect curves for WIN55,212-2 were determined, followed by vehicle substitution and a dose-effect curve with THC. WIN55,212-2 self-administration was acquired; however, substitution with THC did not maintain responding above vehicle levels. Dose-dependent attenuation by rimonabant confirmed CB1 receptor mediation of WIN55,212-2's reinforcing effects. Vehicle substitution resulted in a session-dependent decrease in responding (i.e., extinction). While this study provides systematic replication of previous studies, lack of substitution with THC is problematic and suggests that WIN55,212-2 self-administration may be of limited usefulness as a screening tool for detection of the reinforcing effects of potential cannabinoid medications. Clarification of underlying factors responsible for failure of THC to maintain self-administration in cannabinoid-trained rats is needed.
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 01/2014; · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Chronic recreational marijuana users often report withdrawal symptoms when trying to quit, with some reports suggesting withdrawal may be more pronounced in women. In animal models, female rodents show enhanced sensitivity to acute Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration, but chronic administration has been studied little. Methods Sex differences in THC dependence in rats were examined. Adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered 30 mg/kg THC or vehicle twice daily for 6.5 days. On day 7, rats were challenged with vehicle or rimonabant, counterbalanced across dosing groups, and were assessed for withdrawal-related behaviors. Results During chronic THC dosing, disruption of estrous cycling and weight loss (both sexes) were observed. Whereas overt signs of withdrawal were minimal in THC-treated rats challenged with vehicle, rimonabant precipitated a pronounced withdrawal syndrome in THC-dependent rats that was characterized by changes in a number of domains, including somatic (paw tremors, head twitches, and retropulsion), early-stage cognition (lack of locomotor habituation, disrupted prepulse inhibition), and affective (increased startle reactivity). With the exception of increased retropulsion in female rats, sex differences were not noted. In vehicle-treated rats, rimonabant induced puritis. Conclusions This study represents the first examination of THC dependence in adult rats of both sexes, extends previous findings to females, and revealed some sex differences. The results suggest that the changes that occur during precipitated withdrawal from THC extend beyond somatic signs to more nuanced disruptions of cognitive and affective functioning. The breadth of withdrawal signs observed in rodents mirrors those that have been observed in humans.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 01/2014; · 3.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Synthetic indole-derived cannabinoids, originally developed to probe cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, have become widely abused for their marijuana-like intoxicating properties. The present study examined the effects of indole-derived cannabinoids in rats trained to discriminate Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) from vehicle. In addition, the effects of Δ9-THC in rats trained to discriminate JWH-018 from vehicle were assessed. Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 3 mg/kg Δ9-THC or 0.3 mg/kg JWH-018 from vehicle. JWH-018, JWH-073, and JWH-210 fully substituted in Δ9-THC-trained rats and Δ9-THC substituted in JWH-018-trained rats. In contrast, JWH-320, an indole-derived cannabinoid without affinity for CB1 receptors, failed to substitute for Δ9-THC. Pre-treatment with 1 mg/kg rimonabant significantly reduced responding on the JWH-018-associated lever in JWH-018-trained rats. These results support the conclusion that the interoceptive effects of Δ9-THC and synthetic indole-derived cannabinoids show a large degree of overlap, which is predictive of their use for their marijuana-like intoxicating properties. Characterization of the extent of pharmacological differences among structural classes of cannabinoids, and determination of their mechanisms remain important goals.
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 01/2014; 124:123–128. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Originally synthesized for research purposes, indole- and pyrrole-derived synthetic cannabinoids are the most common psychoactive compounds contained in abused products marketed as "spice" or "herbal incense." While CB1 and CB2 receptor affinities are available for most of these research chemicals, in vivo pharmacological data are sparse. In mice, cannabinoids produce a characteristic profile of dose-dependent effects: antinociception, hypothermia, catalepsy and suppression of locomotion. In combination with receptor binding data, this tetrad battery has been useful in evaluation of the relationship between the structural features of synthetic cannabinoids and their in vivo cannabimimetic activity. Here, published tetrad studies are reviewed and additional in vivo data on synthetic cannabinoids are presented. Overall, the best predictor of likely cannabimimetic effects in the tetrad tests was good CB1 receptor affinity. Further, retention of good CB1 affinity and in vivo activity was observed across a wide array of structural manipulations of substituents of the prototypic aminoalkylindole molecule WIN55,212-2, including substitution of an alkyl for the morpholino group, replacement of an indole core with a pyrrole or phenylpyrrole, substitution of a phenylacetyl or tetramethylcyclopropyl group for JWH-018's naphthoyl, and halogenation of the naphthoyl group. This flexibility of cannabinoid ligand-receptor interactions has been a particular challenge for forensic scientists who have struggled to identify and regulate each new compound as it has appeared on the drug market. One of the most pressing future research needs is determination of the extent to which the pharmacology of these synthetic cannabinoids may differ from those of classical cannabinoids.
    Life sciences 09/2013; · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antagonists of the CB1 receptor can be useful in the treatment of several important disorders. However, to date, the only clinically approved CB1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant, was withdrawn due to adverse CNS related side effects. Since rimonabant's withdrawal, several groups are pursuing peripherally selective CB1 antagonists. These compounds are expected to be devoid of undesirable CNS related effects but maintain efficacy through antagonism of peripherally expressed CB1 receptors. Reported here are our latest results toward development of a peripherally selective analog of the diphenyl purine CB1 antagonist otenabant 1. Compound 9 (N-{1-[8-(2-Chlorophenyl)-9-(4-chlorophenyl)-9H-purin-6-yl]piperidin-4-yl}pentanamide) is a potent, orally absorbed antagonist of the CB1 receptor that is >50-fold selective for CB1 over CB2, highly selective for the periphery in a rodent model, and without efficacy in a series of in vivo assays designed to evaluate its ability to mitigate the central effects of 9-THC through the CB1 receptor.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2013; · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Synthetic indole-derived cannabinoids have become commonly used recreational drugs and continue to be abused despite their adverse consequences. As compounds that were identified early in the epidemic (e.g., naphthoylindoles) have become legally banned, new compounds have appeared on the drug market. Two tetramethylcyclopropyl ketone indoles, UR-144 [(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone] and XLR-11 [(1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)-(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone], recently have been identified in confiscated products. These compounds are structurally related to a series of CB2-selective compounds explored by Abbott Labs. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which UR-144 and XLR-11 shared cannabinoid effects with Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC). Indices of in vitro and in vivo activity at cannabinoid receptors were assessed. Similar to other psychoactive cannabinoid agonists, XLR-11 and UR-144 showed low nanomolar (<30) affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors, activated these receptors as full agonists, and produced dose-dependent effects that were blocked by rimonabant in mice, including antinociception, hypothermia, catalepsy and suppression of locomotor activity. The potency of both compounds was several-fold greater than Δ(9)-THC. XLR-11 and UR-144 also substituted for Δ(9)-THC in a Δ(9)-THC discrimination procedure in mice, effects that were attenuated by rimonabant. Analysis of urine from mice treated with the compounds revealed that both were extensively metabolized, with predominant urinary excretion as glucuronide conjugates. Together, these results demonstrate that UR-144 and XLR-11 share a pharmacological profile of in vitro and in vivo effects with Δ(9)-THC and other abused indole-derived cannabinoids and would be predicted to produce Δ(9)-THC-like subjective effects in humans.
    Neuropharmacology 08/2013; · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) has been firmly established as the predominant catabolic enzyme of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), a great need has emerged for the development of highly selective MAGL inhibitors. Here, we tested the in vivo effects of one such compound, KML29. In the present study, we tested KML29 in murine inflammatory (i.e. carrageenan) and sciatic nerve injury pain models, as well as the diclofenac-induced gastric hemorrhage model. KML29 was also evaluated for cannabimimetic effects, including measurements of locomotor activity, body temperature, catalepsy, and cannabinoid interoceptive effects in the drug discrimination paradigm. KML29 attenuated carrageenan-induced paw edema and completely reversed carrageenan-induced mechanical allodynia. These effects underwent tolerance after repeated administration of high-dose KML29, which were accompanied by CB1 receptor desensitization. Acute or repeated KML29 administration increased 2-AG levels and concomitantly reduced arachidonic acid levels, but without elevating anandamide (AEA) levels in the whole brain. Furthermore, KML29 partially reversed allodynia in the sciatic nerve injury model and completely prevented diclofenac-induced gastric hemorrhages. CB1 and CB2 receptors played differential roles in these pharmacological effects of KML29. In contrast, KML29 did not elicit cannabimimetic effects, including catalepsy, hypothermia, and hypomotility. Although KML29 did not substitute for THC in C57BL/6J mice, it fully and dose-dependantly substituted for AEA in FAAH(‱/‱) mice, consistent with previous work showing that dual FAAH and MAGL inhibition produces THC-like subjective effects. These results indicate that KML29, a highly selective MAGL inhibitor, reduces inflammatory and neuropathic nociceptive behavior without occurrence of cannabimimetic side effects.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 07/2013; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2011, the prevalence of prescription drug abuse exceeded that of any other illicit drug except marijuana. Consequently, efforts to curtail abuse of new medications should begin during the drug development process, where abuse liability can be identified and addressed before a candidate medication has widespread use. The first step in this process is scheduling with the Drug Enforcement Agency so that legal access is appropriately restricted, dependent upon levels of abuse risk and medical benefit. To facilitate scheduling, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has published guidance for industry that describes assessment of abuse liability. The purpose of this paper is to review methods that may be used to satisfy the FDA's regulatory requirements for animal behavioral and dependence pharmacology. Methods include psychomotor activity, self-administration (an animal model of the rewarding effects of a drug), drug discrimination (an animal model of the subjective effects of a drug), and evaluation of tolerance and dependence. Data from tests conducted at RTI with known drugs of abuse illustrate typical results, and demonstrate that RTI is capable of performing these tests. While using preclinical data to predict abuse liability is an imperfect process, it has substantial predictive validity. The ultimate goal is to increase consumer safety through appropriate scheduling of new medications.
    Methods report (RTI Press). 07/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous structure activity relationship studies with analogs of the CB(1) receptor antagonist rimonabant have demonstrated that a subset of these analogs with 3-substituent replacements of rimonabant's pyrazole core displayed cannabimimetic profiles seemingly independent of CB(1) receptors. We sought to further evaluate these analogs in several behavioral models sensitive to detecting THC-like abuse liability. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Selected analogs were tested in a battery of tests in mice to replicate previous findings. Cross-generalization tests were conducted in mice trained to discriminate either THC or O-6629 from vehicle. Rimonabant and its analogs were also evaluated in substitution and challenge tests. Finally, development of cross-tolerance between THC and O-6211 in the mouse test battery was assessed. KEY RESULTS: O-6629 and O-6658 produced dose-dependent acute cannabimimetic activity in mice, but neither substituted for nor antagonized THC's discriminative stimulus. Cross-substitution was observed with O-6658 in mice discriminating O-6629, whereas rimonabant neither substituted for nor attenuated the O-6629 discriminative stimulus. THC and morphine did not generate O-6629-like responding. Cross-tolerance did not develop in mice repeatedly treated with THC when tested with O-6211 in the mouse test battery. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: While some overlap exists between the pharmacological profiles of THC and these 3-substituent rimonabant analogs, the effects are mediated by distinct neural targets. Notably, these analogs are unlikely to possess marijuana-like abuse liability in humans, but general abuse liability has not yet been determined. Efforts to determine the mechanism/s of action of this seemingly unique class of compounds are underway.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 01/2013; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity contributes to a multitude of serious health problems. Given the demonstrated role of the endogenous cannabinoid system in appetite regulation, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate structural analogs of two cannabinoids, rimonabant (cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist) and O-2050 (sulfonamide analog of Δ(8)-tetrahydrocannabinol), that showed appetite suppressant effects in previous studies. Structure-activity relationships of these two lead compounds were examined in several assays, including cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptor binding, food intake, and an in vivo test battery (locomotor activity, antinociception, ring immobility, and body temperature) in mice. Rimonabant and O-2050 reliably decreased feeding in mice; however, their analogs decreased feeding only at higher doses, even though some compounds had quite good cannabinoid CB(1) binding affinity. Results of the in vivo test battery were inconsistent, with some of the compounds producing effects characteristic of cannabinoid agonists while other compounds were inactive or were antagonists against an active dose of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. These results demonstrate that reduction of food intake is not a characteristic effect of pyrazole and sulfonamide cannabinoid analogs with favorable cannabinoid CB(1) binding affinity, suggesting that development of these classes of cannabinoids for the treatment of obesity will require evaluation of their effects in a broad spectrum of pharmacological assays.
    European journal of pharmacology 09/2012; 695(1-3):62-70. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Synthetic stimulants commonly sold as "bath salts" are an emerging abuse problem in the U.S. Users have shown paranoia, delusions, and self-injury. Previously published in vivo research has been limited to only two components of bath salts (mephedrone and methylone). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate in vivo effects of several synthetic cathinones found in bath salts and to compare them to those of cocaine (COC) and methamphetamine (METH). Acute effects of methylenedioxyphyrovalerone (MDPV), mephedrone, methylone, methedrone, 3-fluoromethcathinone (3-FMC), 4-fluoromethcathinone (4-FMC), COC, and METH were examined in male ICR mice on locomotor activity, rotorod, and a functional observational battery (FOB). All drugs increased locomotor activity, with different compounds showing different potencies and time courses in locomotor activity. 3-FMC and methylone decreased performance on the rotorod. The FOB showed that in addition to typical stimulant induced effects, some synthetic cathinones produced ataxia, convulsions, and increased exploration. These results suggest that individual synthetic cathinones differ in their profile of effects, and differ from known stimulants of abuse. Effects of 3-FMC, 4-FMC, and methedrone indicate these synthetic cathinones share major pharmacological properties with the ones that have been banned (mephedrone, MDPV, methylone), suggesting that they may be just as harmful.
    NeuroToxicology 08/2012; 33(5):1305-13. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug in the U.S., and marijuana use by women is on the rise. Women have been found to be more susceptible to the development of cannabinoid abuse and dependence, have more severe withdrawal symptoms, and are more likely to relapse than men. The majority of research in humans suggests that women are more likely to be affected by cannabinoids than men, with reports of enhanced and decreased performance on various tasks. In rodents, females are more sensitive than males to effects of cannabinoids on tests of antinociception, motor activity, and reinforcing efficacy. Studies on effects of cannabinoid exposure during adolescence in both humans and rodents suggest that female adolescents are more likely than male adolescents to be deleteriously affected by cannabinoids. Sex differences in response to cannabinoids appear to be due to activational and perhaps organizational effects of gonadal hormones, with estradiol identified as the hormone that contributes most to the sexually dimorphic effects of cannabinoids in adults. Many, but not all sexually dimorphic effects of exogenous cannabinoids can be attributed to a sexually dimorphic endocannabinoid system in rodents, although the same has not yet been established firmly for humans. A greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying sexually dimorphic effects of cannabinoids will facilitate development of sex-specific approaches to treat marijuana dependence and to use cannabinoid-based medications therapeutically.
    Life sciences 06/2012; · 2.56 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
546.19 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2014
    • RTI International
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 1989–2014
    • Virginia Commonwealth University
      • • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology
      • • Department of Psychology
      Richmond, Virginia, United States
  • 2010–2013
    • Research Triangle Park Laboratories, Inc.
      Raleigh, North Carolina, United States
  • 2012
    • Washington State University
      • Department of Psychology
      Pullman, WA, United States
  • 2007–2010
    • Organix Inc.
      Woburn, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1998–2010
    • Clemson University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Anderson, Indiana, United States