Paola Parente

Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, Houston, Texas, United States

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Publications (26)101.65 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:The estimated association between Helicobacter pylori and Barrett's esophagus (BE) has been heterogenous across previous studies. In this study, we aimed to examine the association between H. pylori and BE and to identify factors that may explain or modify this association.METHODS:We conducted a case-control study in which we used screening colonoscopy controls recruited from primary care clinics as our primary control group in order to minimize selection bias. All participants underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy with gastric mapping biopsies. We used logistic regression to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to estimate the association between H. pylori and BE while controlling for confounders.RESULTS:We identified 218 cases and 439 controls. The overall OR for the association between H. pylori and BE after controlling for age and white race was 0.55 (95% CI: 0.35-0.84). We observed an even stronger inverse association (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.50) among participants with corpus atrophy or antisecretory drug use ≥1 time per week (factors thought to lower gastric acidity), and no inverse association in patients without these factors (OR: 1.32; 95% CI: 0.66, 2.63).CONCLUSIONS:The association between H. pylori and a decreased risk for BE appears to occur in patients with factors that would likely lower gastric acidity (corpus atrophy or taking antisecretory drugs at least once a week).Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 14 January 2014; doi:10.1038/ajg.2013.443.
    The American Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2014; ajg. · 7.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are found in high quantity in high-fat foods and meat cooked at high temperature. AGEs have been shown to contribute to chronic inflammation and oxidative stress in humans. To investigate the associations between consumption of meat, fat and AGEs, and the risk of Barrett's oesophagus (BO). We conducted a case-control study using data from the patients who were scheduled for elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and from a random sample of patients who were identified at primary care clinics. Daily consumption of meat, fat and Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML), a major type of AGEs, was derived from the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) for BO. A total of 151 cases with BO and 777 controls without BO completed the FFQ. The multivariate OR (95% CI) for BO was 1.91 (1.07-3.38) for total meat, 1.80 (1.02-3.16) for saturated fat and 1.63 (0.96-2.76) for CML-AGE, when the highest tertile of intake was compared with the lowest. The association for total meat was attenuated to 1.61 (0.82-3.16), and that for saturated fat to 1.54 (0.81-2.94) after adjusting for CML-AGE. Higher consumption of total meat, saturated fat or possibly CML-AGE was associated with an increased risk of Barrett's oesophagus. CML-AGE may partly explain the association between total meat and saturated fat consumption and the risk of Barrett's oesophagus.
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 08/2013; · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:This study examined Barrett's esophagus (BE) risk factors in veterans to determine the association between risk of BE and use of oral bisphosphonates.METHODS:We conducted a case-control study among eligible patients scheduled for an elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and a sample of patients eligible for screening colonoscopy recruited from primary care clinics from a single VA Medical Center. Cases with definitive BE were compared with controls; all underwent study EGD. Use of oral bisphosphonates was ascertained by reviewing filled prescriptions in electronic pharmacy records. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), using multivariate logistic regression modeling while adjusting for sex, age, race, proton-pump inhibitor use, hiatal hernia, waist-to-hip ratio, Helicobacter pylori infection, and gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD) symptoms.RESULTS:There were 285 BE cases, 1,122 endoscopy controls, and 496 primary care controls. Alendronate and risedronate were the only oral bisphosphonates prescribed. The proportion of BE cases with filled prescription of oral bisphosphonates (4.6%) was greater than in endoscopy controls (1.6%) or primary care controls (2.9%). In the adjusted analysis, oral bisphosphonate use was significantly associated with BE risk (OR=2.33; 95% CI: 1.11-4.88) compared with the combined control groups. This association remained significant when BE cases were compared with endoscopy controls only (OR=2.74; 95% CI: 1.28-5.87) but was attenuated when compared with primary care controls only (OR=2.60; 95% CI: 0.99-6.84). The association was observed in patients with GERD symptoms (OR=3.29; 95% CI: 1.36-7.97) but not in those without GERD symptoms.CONCLUSION:Oral bisphosphonate use may increase the risk for BE, especially among patients with GERD.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 16 July 2013; doi:10.1038/ajg.2013.222.
    The American Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2013; · 7.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Oesophageal eosinophilia (EE) is encountered in clinical practice as oesophageal biopsies are being obtained in patients with GI symptoms other than classical symptoms of eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE). The prevalence, determinants and clinical relevance of EE identified irrespective of symptoms are unclear. AIM: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of EE with or without EoE in a nonselected group of patients undergoing endoscopy and in primary care patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in a single VA centre in which we obtained at least one oesophageal biopsy from patients presenting to elective endoscopy, as well as a sample of patients eligible for screening colonoscopy recruited from primary care clinics. EE was defined by >15 eosinophils in a single HPF; and EoE was defined as definite, probable or none depending on the presence of EE, acid-suppressive therapy and oesophageal symptoms. RESULTS: EE was identified in 33 of 1357 patients (2.4%, 95% CI: 1.7-3.4); of whom 9 had definite EoE (0.66%, 95% CI: 0.23-1.10), 17 had probable EoE (1.25%), and the only 7 patients had EE without EoE. The prevalence of EE was 2.3% among patients undergoing elective endoscopy and 0.1% among patients eligible for screening colonoscopy. Seasonal allergies (adjusted OR: 2.78; 95% CI: 1.26-6.11) and oesophageal strictures (4.50; 0.90-22.40) were associated with EE. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of EE was 2.3% among unselected patients presenting to endoscopy most of whom have EoE. EE was present in 0.1% in primary care patients none of whom had EoE.
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 02/2013; · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Diet is a potentially modifiable risk factor for Barrett's esophagus (BE). We investigated the associations between intakes of fruits and vegetables and risk of BE. METHODS: We identified study subjects from 1,859 participants who underwent the endoscopy in a single VA Medical Center in the US between 2008 and 2011. Dietary intake in the previous year was elicited using a self-administered Block food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and its 95 % confidence interval (CI) for BE. RESULTS: A total of 151 cases with definite BE and 777 controls completed the FFQ. When highest tertile of intake was compared with the lowest, the OR (95 % CI) was 0.46 (0.26-0.81) for dark green vegetables, 0.52 (0.30-0.90) for legumes, 0.50 (0.28-0.90) for total fiber, 0.45 (0.25-0.81) for isoflavones, 0.52 (0.30-0.67) for total folate, and 0.45 (0.26-0.79) for lutein, adjusting for multiple confounding factors including use of aspirin or proton pump inhibitor, gastro-esophageal reflux symptoms, and physical activity. The association for dark green vegetables was attenuated after adjustment for lutein, total fiber, and total folate (OR = 0.82; 95 % CI 0.30-2.22). CONCLUSION: Higher intake of dark green vegetables was associated with a decreased risk of BE in a veteran population. Such an inverse association may be partially mediated by lutein, fiber, and folate. The novel findings on the association between intake of lutein, total folate, or isoflavones and risk of BE need further confirmation.
    Cancer Causes and Control 02/2013; · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Abdominal obesity increases the risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and might also contribute to development of Barrett's esophagus (BE), although results are inconsistent. We examined the effects of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of BE and investigated whether race, GERD symptoms, or hiatus hernia were involved. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study using data from eligible patients who underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD); 237 had BE and the other 1021 served as endoscopy controls. We also analyzed data and tissue samples from enrolled patients who were eligible for screening colonoscopies at a primary care clinic (colonoscopy controls, n=479). All patients underwent EGD, completed a survey, and had anthropometric measurements taken. WHR was categorized as high if was ≥0.9 for men and ≥0.85 for women. Data were analyzed with logistic regression. RESULTS: There was no association between BMI and BE. However, more patients with BE had a high WHR (92.4%) than endoscopy controls (79.5%) or colonoscopy controls (84.6%) (P<.001 and P=.008, respectively). In adjusted analysis, patients with BE were 2-fold more likely to have a high WHR than endoscopy controls (odds ratio [OR], 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-3.5), this association was stronger for patients with long-segment BE (OR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.0-7.9). A high WHR was significantly associated with BE only in Whites (OR=2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.4)-not in Blacks or Hispanics. GERD symptoms, hiatus hernia, or gastroesophageal valve flap grade could not account for the association. CONCLUSIONS: High WHR, but not BMI, is associated with a significant increase in the risk of BE, especially long-segment BE and in Whites. The association is not due to GERD symptoms or hiatus hernia.
    Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 12/2012; · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: To establish the incidence and risk factors for progression to high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-IEN) or Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma (BAc) in a prospective cohort of patients with esophageal intestinal metaplasia [(BE)]. BACKGROUND:: BE is associated with an increased risk of BAc unless cases are detected early by surveillance. No consistent data are available on the prevalence of BE-related cancer, the ideal surveillance schedule, or the risk factors for cancer. METHODS:: In 2003, a regional registry of BE patients was created in north-east Italy, establishing the related diagnostic criteria (endoscopic landmarks, biopsy protocol, histological classification) and timing of follow-up (tailored to histology) and recording patient outcomes. Thirteen centers were involved and audited yearly. The probability of progression to HG-IEN/BAc was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method; the Cox regression model was used to calculate the risk of progression. RESULTS:: HG-IEN (10 cases) and EAc (7 cases) detected at the index endoscopy or in the first year of follow-up were considered to be cases of preexisting disease and excluded; 841 patients with at least 2 endoscopies {median, 3 [interquartile range (IQR): 2-4); median follow-up = 44.6 [IQR: 24.7-60.5] months; total 3083 patient-years} formed the study group [male/female = 646/195; median age, 60 (IQR: 51-68) years]. Twenty-two patients progressed to HG-IEN or BAc (incidence: 0.72 per 100 patient-years) after a median of 40.2 (26.9-50.4) months. At multivariate analysis, endoscopic abnormalities, that is, ulceration or nodularity (P = 0.0002; relative risk [RR] = 7.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.63-21.9), LG-IEN (P = 0.02, RR = 3.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-11.43), and BE length (P = 0.01; RR = 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.30) were associated with BE progression. Among the LG-IEN patients, the incidence of HG-IEN/EAc was 3.17 patient-years, that is, 6 times higher than in BE patients without LG-IEN. CONCLUSIONS:: These results suggest that in the absence of intraepithelial neoplastic changes, BE carries a low risk of progression to HG-IEN/BAc, and strict surveillance (or ablative therapy) is advisable in cases with endoscopic abnormalities, LG-IEN or long BE segments.
    Annals of surgery 11/2012; 256(5):788-795. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the most serious complication of GERD. In BE patients, this observational study compares the effects of antireflux surgery versus antisecretory medical therapy. Overall, 89 BE patients (long BE = 45; short BE = 44) were considered: 45 patients underwent antireflux surgery and 44 underwent medical therapy. At both initial and follow-up endoscopy, symptoms were assessed using a detailed questionnaire; BE phenotypic changes [intestinal metaplasia (IM) presence/type, Cdx2 expression] were assessed by histology (H&E), histochemistry (HID), and immunohistochemistry. Surgical failures were defined as follows: (1) abnormal 24-h pH monitoring results after surgery, (2) endoscopically evident recurrent esophagitis, and (3) recurrent hiatal hernia or slipped fundoplication on endoscopy or barium swallow. Reversion of IM was observed in 12/44 SSBE and 0/45 LSBE patients (p < 0.01). Reversion was more frequently observed after effective antireflux surgery than after medical treatment (p = 0.04). In patients with no further evidence of IM after therapy, Cdx2 expression was also absent (p = 0.02). The extent of IM was reduced, and the IM phenotype improved in SSBE patients after surgery. Patients with short BE (but not those with long BE) may benefit from surgically reducing the esophagus' exposure to GE reflux; among these patients, successful surgery carries a higher IM reversion rate than medical treatment.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 11/2011; 16(1):7-14; discussion 14-5. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common digestive disease in industrialized countries (Europe and North America) and is associated with microscopic changes in the squamous epithelium. However, biopsy is not presently included in the routine diagnostic flow chart of GERD. In contrast, esophageal biopsy is mandatory when diagnosing Barrett's esophagus. High quality histology reports are necessary to provide information on diagnosis and can also be important for research and epidemiological studies. It has been evident for decades that pathology reports vary between institutions and even within a single institution. Standardization of reporting is the best way to ensure that information necessary for patient management is included in pathology reports. This paper details the histological criteria for diagnosing GERD-associated microscopic esophagitis, other forms of esophagitis with specific features and columnar metaplasia in the lower esophagus (Barrett's esophagus). It provides a detailed description of appropriate sampling criteria, individual lesions and how they contribute to the histology report.
    Digestive and Liver Disease 03/2011; 43 Suppl 4:S319-30. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Different ablation techniques have been utilized in the treatment of Barrett's esophagus (BE) to reduce the risk of degeneration. Treatment complications, risk of recurrence, and buried intestinal metaplasia (IM) are all major concerns. The effect of diode laser treatment on BE, studied in a group of patients over a long-term period, is presented here. All patients with histology of IM or low-grade dysplasia (LGD) treated with diode laser therapy for BE and followed for at least 24 months were included in the study. Treatment sessions were carried out every 3 months and bioptic follow-up examinations were done yearly. Patients without antireflux surgery received proton pump inhibitors. A total of 20 patients with IM, four of them with LGD, were treated with 161 laser sessions (in mean eight per patient) without complications. Complete, sustained endoscopic and histologic remission was obtained in 13 patients (11/12 with BE ≤ 3 cm and 2/8 with BE >3 cm, p < 0.01) and a mean of 83 ± 27% of the metaplasic tissue was removed in all the patients. All four cases of LGD healed to squamous tissue. No buried metaplasia, recurrences, or disease progressions were reported after a mean follow-up of 6 years and 2 months. Diode laser ablation is a safe and effective method in most cases of short BE, while it is less effective in the long form, requiring a large number of sessions. Long-term results show that the risk of recurrence and of buried intestinal metaplasia underneath neosquamous epithelium is negligible.
    Lasers in Medical Science 03/2011; 26(2):223-8. · 2.40 Impact Factor
  • Digestive and Liver Disease - DIG LIVER DIS. 01/2011; 43.
  • Gastroenterology 01/2011; 140(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2011; 140(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • Digestive and Liver Disease - DIG LIVER DIS. 01/2011; 43.
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    ABSTRACT: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is characterized by the native stratified squamous epithelium (N) lining the esophagus being replaced by a columnar epithelium with intestinal differentiation (Barrett's mucosa; BM). BM is considered as the main risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma (Barrett's adenocarcinoma; BAc). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that control gene expression by targeting messenger RNAs and they are reportedly dysregulated in BM. To test the hypothesis that a specific miRNA expression signature characterizes BM development and progression, we performed miRNA microarray analysis comparing native esophageal mucosa with all the phenotypic lesions seen in the Barrett's carcinogenic process. Specimens were collected from 14 BE patients who had undergone esophagectomy, including: 14 with N, 14 with BM, 7 with low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia, 5 with high-grade intra-epithelial neoplasia and 11 with BAc. Microarray findings were further validated by quantitive real-time polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization analyses using a different series of consecutive cases (162 biopsy samples and 5 esophagectomies) of histologically proven, long-segment BE. We identified a miRNA signature of Barrett's carcinogenesis consisting of an increased expression of 6 miRNAs and a reduced expression of 7 miRNAs. To further support these results, we investigated target gene expression using the Oncomine database and/or immunohistochemical analysis. We found that target gene expression correlated significantly with miRNA dysregulation. Specific miRNAs are directly involved in BE progression to cancer. miRNA profiling significantly expands current knowledge on the molecular history of Barrett's carcinogenesis, also identifying molecular markers of cancer progression.
    International Journal of Cancer 12/2010; 129(7):1661-70. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Barrett's mucosa, both aneuploidy and TP53 mutations are consistently recognized as markers of an increased risk of Barrett's adenocarcinoma. Overexpression of the mitotic kinase encoding gene (AURKA) results in chromosome instability (assessed from the micronuclei count) and ultimately in aneuploidy. Eighty-seven esophageal biopsy samples representative of all the phenotypic lesions occurring in the multistep process of Barrett's carcinogenesis (gastric metaplasia in 25, intestinal metaplasia in 25, low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia in 16, high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia in 11, and Barrett's adenocarcinoma in 10) were obtained from long segments of Barrett's mucosa. Twenty-five additional biopsy samples of native esophageal mucosa were used for control purposes. In all tissue samples, the immunohistochemical expression of both AURKA and TP53 gene products was scored; and the micronuclei index was calculated. AURKA immunostaining increased progressively and significantly along with dedifferentiation of the histologic phenotype (P < .001). Nine of 10 Barrett's adenocarcinomas showed AURKA immunostaining. AURKA expression correlated significantly with p53 expression and the micronuclei index (both Ps < .001). AURKA overexpression is significantly associated with Barrett's mucosa progressing to Barrett's adenocarcinoma and contributes to esophageal carcinogenesis via chromosome instability. The identification of AURKA as a novel molecular target of cancer progression in Barrett's mucosa provides a lead for the development of new therapeutic approaches in Barrett's mucosa patients.
    Human pathology 10/2010; 41(10):1380-6. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To test the contribution of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) tumour suppressor gene in Barrett's carcinogenesis. PDCD4 immunohistochemical expression was assessed in 88 biopsy samples obtained from histologically proven long-segment Barrett's mucosa (BM; 25 non-intestinal columnar metaplasia, 25 intestinal metaplasia (IM), 16 low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LG-IEN), 12 high-grade IEN (HG-IEN) and 10 Barrett's adenocarcinoma (BAc)). As controls, 25 additional samples of native oesophageal mucosa (N) were obtained from patients with dyspepsia. To further support the data, the expression levels of miR-21, an important PDCD4 expression regulator, in 14 N, 5 HG-IEN and 11 BAc samples were determined by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Results PDCD4 immunostaining decreased progressively and significantly with the progression of the phenotypic changes occurring during Barrett's carcinogenesis (p<0.001). Normal basal squamous epithelial layers featured strong PDCD4 nuclear immunoreaction (mostly coexisting with weak-moderate cytoplasmic staining). Non-intestinal columnar metaplasia and intestinal metaplasia preserved a strong nuclear immunostaining; conversely, a significant decrease in PDCD4 nuclear expression was seen in dysplastic (LG-IEN and HG-IEN) and neoplastic lesions. Weak-moderate cytoplasmic immunostaining was evident in cases of LG-IEN, while HG-IEN and BAc samples showed weak cytoplasmic or no protein expression. As expected, miR-21 expression was significantly upregulated in HG-IEN and BAc samples, consistently with PDCD4 dysregulation. These data support a significant role for PDCD4 downregulation in the progression of BM to BAc, and confirm miR-21 as a negative regulator of PDCD4 in vivo. Further efforts are needed to validate PDCD4 as a potential prognostic marker in patients with Barrett's oesophagus.
    Journal of clinical pathology 08/2010; 63(8):692-6. · 2.43 Impact Factor
  • Digestive and Liver Disease - DIG LIVER DIS. 01/2010; 42.
  • Digestive and Liver Disease - DIG LIVER DIS. 01/2010; 42.
  • Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - GASTROINTEST ENDOSCOP. 01/2010; 71(5).

Publication Stats

111 Citations
101.65 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2012–2013
    • IRCCS Ospedale Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza
      Giovanni Rotondo, Apulia, Italy
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2010–2011
    • Istituto Oncologico Veneto
      Padua, Veneto, Italy